CHAPTER XV

 

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

 

(a)   Historical Background

 

In the ancient days, the state of education in Punjab was same as in this part of the country, so far as the indigenous system of education was concerned. Private or indigenous schools were found in every part of the area. This traditional system of education was mainly religious, personal and based on the family system, which remained continued during the Sikh regime in the State of Punjab. The maktabs or Persian schools, run by Muhammadan Maulvis, open to all communities irrespective of caste, colour or creed were the most popular institutions which taught Persian. Quran schools, attached to the mosques taught Arabic. Besides, there were madrasas which imparted advanced education in Arabic and the Muslim sciences and philosophy. Then, there were schools, popularly known as chatshalas, conducted by Padhas. These schools  imparted education, to the mercantile and trading communities in the various graphic forms of lande  (for shopkeepers), mahajani (for merchants) and sarafi (for bankers). In addition, there were pathshalas for learning Sanskrit. Gurmukhi schools were run either by the village gurdwaras or dharmshalas. In these schools, the study of the Balupadesa, the Japji Sahib, the Panj  Granthi, the Janam Sakhis, the Hanuman Natak and Bhai Gurdas Dian Varan, etc., formed the syllabi and courses of reading. Besides, these schools imparted education in Vedanta, Tulsi, Ramayana, Vishnu Puran, Adhyatam Ramayana, Vichar Sagar, etc.

In the villages, there were no school house, the students were assembled under trees and were engaged in learning. This was the usual evil in the agricultural communities where children were generally set to work at the earliest possible age. The education system in the areas of present area of Nawashahr District as in case of the Doaba area of the Punjab State, was inextricably bound up with the rise and fall of various kingdoms in Punjab during its ancient, medieval  and modern periods.

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The traditional system of education continued till the annexation of the Jalandhar Doab by the British in 1846. The British introduced secular schools which imparted education in Urdu, elementary arithmetic, history and geography. Under the British regime, Urdu unknown in indigenous schools prior to the annexation, was introduced and made the official language for use at the lower rung of administration. With the colonization of India by the British, the educational process underwent several changes. To govern India, the British needed a subordinate workforce. To meet this need, schools and colleges patterned after the British System of education, were introduced. The objective of obtaining functionally literate persons to serve the administration was largely achieved in colonial India. For this purpose Lord Macaulay in 1835 formulated the British Policy of Education which ruled educational world of this country for more than a century and even now its impact is greatly felt on the educational system of India. Lord Macaulay rejected the claim of Oriental learning, Indian History, Culture and Indian languages. He directed to impart knowledge of English literature and science through the medium of English language.

The year 1851 marks the beginning of the modern system of education in the area now falling in Nawanshahr District, when a primary school was opened at Rahon which was raised to middle standard in 1957* . It had then 3 hostels. It was raised to a high school in 1914.  Though there were primary schools in the area falling in the present district of Nawashahr, but for high schooling Rahon was the only place. After schooling, the people went to Lahore for further education. Among other old schools, Government High School, Sahiba came into being in 1895. Apart from this local organisations also played a vital role in the field of education. In 1911 Khalsa High School, Chakdana was established. Arya Samaj also contributed immensely in the field of education. Doaba Arya Senior Secondary School, Nawashahr (1911) and R.K. Arya College, Nawashahr (1953) and B.L.M. Girls College, Nawashahr (1959) were established. Among other old schools are D.A.V School, Kathgarh (1928), Government Primary School, Saroya (1892), Government High School, Saroya (1944) Government High School, Ratewal (1958). Sikh National College, Banga was established in 1953.

On Independence, India inherited the educational system prevalent during British Period. It was accepted with certain modifications here and there. In 1968 for the first time Indian Parliament adopted a resolution on National Policy of Education. This policy included free and compulsory primary education, reasonable emoluments to teachers, teacher education, three language formula, work     experience,    national  service,  science  education,  agriculture education, basic text books common of the whole country,  making evaluation  a continuous process, facilities  for  technical  and vocational education, improvement of standards of teaching and research in higher education, correspondence courses, adult education, protecting  rights of  minorities  and  10+2+3  structure  of  education.

 

*An entry in the log book of school at Rahon by an Inspector in 1857   clearly   establishes the fact that this school came into being before the   mutiny of 1857

 

Before 1976, education was exclusively the responsibility of States, the Central Government was only concerned with certain areas like coordination and determination of standards in technical and higher education, etc. In 1976, through a constitutional amendment, education became a joint responsibility of the States and Centre. Decisions regarding the organisation and structure of education were largely the concern of the States. However, the Union Government had a clear responsibility regarding the quality and character of education. In 1979, the Government formulated a policy which aimed at cherishing ideals of freedom, equality and social justice. Elementary education was to be made free and compulsory. Regional language was to be made the medium of instruction. This Educational Policy laid stress on adult education. The magnitude of the problem of illiteracy was realized alongwith literacy numeracy, functional development, social awareness were also included in adult education programme which was known as Revised Minimum Needs Programme(RMNP). Rural areas were especially attended to. Diversification of curriculum and lightening of academic load were the main points of emphasis in secondary education. The salient feature of the implementation of this policy was adult education programme.

In other fields the policy could not be implemented due to the earlier fall of the Government. From 1980 to 1984 the first National Policy of Education again reappeared because of the fall of  Government and returning of previous party in power. But the emphasis on adult education continued. In 1985 need for a change in educational policy was felt and the Challenges of Education, was published and circulated in the public. The Government of India finally in 1986 came out with two documents, one on National Policy of Education and the other on Programme of Action.

National Policy of Education 1986 is regarded as a new policy of education. For the first time in history of Indian education the government chalked out a programme of action. This policy talked of pacesetting schools, consequently Navodaya Vidyalayas have been established. The need for teacher education at the higher stage was also realized. For the first time 10+2+3 pattern of education was made compulsory in the whole country although even previous commissions and committees had talked of this pattern. The stress has been laid on construction of national curriculum and NCERT has come out with a model of the same. The policy also calls for orienting and refreshing knowledge of elementary school teachers through a system and consequently District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) have been established. And for the first time only this educational policy has laid stress on computer awareness and computer oriented education. This policy is still in vogue with minor changes from time to time.

 

              (b) Literacy and Educational Standards

 

Literacy is an important tool for communication, learning and information. It is a virtual precondition for individual and national development. Any person who is able to read and write with understanding in any language is recorded as literate. The literacy figures for the district are only available for 2001 Census as the district was formed in 1995. Amongst the districts of the Punjab, Nawashahr falls in the category of most literate districts of the State, having at least three-fourth of its population as literate. According to 2001 Census the literacy rate of the district was 76.86 per cent as against the corresponding State literacy rate of 69.95 per cent.  The literacy rate was 83.67 per cent for males and 69.52 per cent for females in the district as compared to the State literacy rate of 75.63 per cent for males and 63.55 per cent for females. As per Census 2001, the Nawashahr District is at the fourth place for literacy rate among all the districts of the State, having Hoshiarpur at the top with the literacy rate of 81.40 per cent (86.97 for males and 75.56 for females).

The literacy rate in the area falling under the jurisdiction of present district of  Nawashahr in particular and in the Doaba region along with the rest of State in general has been going up since 1947 with the opening of primary, middle, high, senior secondary schools and colleges. A number of educational institutions in the district are also run in private sector. Though education falls in the concurrent list, yet various educational societies are also rendering valuable service in the field of education in the district.

The number of recognized educational institutions functioning in the Nawashahr District during 1996 to 2001 is given below:

                                                                               (As on 30   September)

 

 

Year

Type of Institutions

Senior  Secondary

Schools (10+pattern)

High Schools/

Post Basic Schools

Middle Schools/Senior

Basic Schools

Primary  Schools/

Junior Basic Schools

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

1996

28

6

67

7

88

3

419

6

1997

28

6

67

7

88

3

419

6

1998

28

7

67

7

88

3

419

6

1999

28

6

67

7

88

3

419

6

2000

31

6

64

7

88

3

419

6

2001

45

8

63

5

89

3

419

6

                                (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1997 to 2002)

Educational Societies Rendering Service in the Field of Education

 

            Though the main responsibility for providing educational facilities rests on the State yet various educational societies, missions and philanthropic endowments are also rendering useful service to the people in the field of education in the district. A brief account of these is given below :

 

            Hindu Education Sabha.- It is a religious body and rendering useful service in the field of school education. It was formed on 11 March 1951. The Hindu Educational Sabha is presently running Hindu Senior Secondary School and Hindu Primary School, both at Banga.

 

            Jain Education Trust.- Jain Education Trust came into being in 1958 and is presently running Swami Roop Chand Jain Model School, Banga in the district.

 

            Arya Pratinidhi Sabha.- Arya Pratinidhi Sabha was established is in December 1895 since then it is doing a pioneering work in the field of education, especially for women education in the present area of Nawashahr District. The Sabha is running three schools and three colleges in the Nawashahr District viz. W.L. Arya Senior Secondary School, Nawashahr, Doaba Arya Senior Secondary School, Nawashahr, Dr. Asa Nand Senior Secondary School, Nawashahr, R.K. Arya College, Nawashahr, B.L.M. Girls College, Nawashahr and Dayanand Amarnath College of Education for Women, Nawashahr.

 

            Amardeep Singh Shergill Memorial Trust.- Amardeep Singh Shergill Memorial Trust was founded on 24 December 1993 to perpetuate the loving memory of Sh. Amardeep Singh. The trust has opened a college namely Amardeep Singh Shergill Memorial College at Mukandpur in the district.

 

            Sanatan Dharam Education Board.- Sanatan Dharam Education Board was established on 1 April 1954. It is running two educational institutions in the Nawashahr District viz. S.D. Senior Secondary School, Nawashahr and K.S.D.High School, Mehatpur.

 

            Singh Sabhas and Other Sikh Educational Societies.- A number of Sikh Educational Societies are playing vital role in the field of education in the Nawashahr District. The oldest among these is the Khalsa Educational Society which was formed in 1920. Presently it is running Khalsa Senior Secondary School at Surhal Qazian. Established in June 1946 the Khalsa Education Council is running S G H G Khalsa High School at Banga. An another society viz Sikh Educational Society, established in 1956 is running Sikh National College, Banga. The Guru Nanak Educational Society was founded in 1969 on the 500th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Devji, to spread the light of education in this area. It is now running two institutions at Banga viz. Guru Nanak College and Charan Kanwal Convent High School.

 

Women’s Education

 

The subject of female education as in the case of other districts of the State, did not receive much attention in this area (forming present Nawashahr District) also during the earlier periods and even after the annexation of Punjab by the Britishers in 1946. During the British rule the education of women was not the area of concern. Social customs like purdah and child marriage also retarded the development of women’s education. At that times girls were not exposed to the outside world for education. Nor did the British Government, made any attempt to reverse this system. After Independence, the founding fathers, recognised that the vast majority of Indians were left out  of the educational process. The major part of this vast majority were women. The most important development in the field of education among women was the constitution of the National Committee on Women’s Education in 1958 headed by Durgabai Deshmukh.The committee among others recommended for the provision of free education, co-education at primary and middle stages, institution of merit scholarships and provision of adequate residential facilities for women teachers who are working in rural areas. Most of these recommendations were accepted and the education  of the girl child has become priority. The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 1992 envisage that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality should be provided to all children up to the age of 14 years. The National Policy on Education (NPE) also emphasized that education must play a positive and interventionist role in correcting social and regional imbalances in empowering women.  

            The openings up of educational institutions exclusively meant for girls/women have also contributed to a large extent in the promotion of women’s education. Many religions and voluntary organizations are also working to create awareness among masses for need of women’s education. As on 30 September 2001, in Nawashahr District 1 college of education, 2 colleges, 8 senior secondary schools 5 high schools and 3 middle schools were functioning exclusively for women.

            According to 2001 Census, the literacy rate among females in the Nawashahr District was 69.52 per cent as compared to 63.55 per cent of the State as a whole.

            As on 30 September 2001, there were 33,410 girl students studying in primary/ junior basic schools, middle/ senior basic schools, high/ post basic schools and senior secondary schools in the district.

 

Education of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes

 

 Like women education, the education of Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and other deprived sections of the society, was remained neglected till Independence. It is only after Independence that there has been massive expansion of elementary education. Special focus has been laid on the access to education for those, who cannot participate in the school system on account of socio-economic compulsions. These segments largely constitute Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes of the society. Along with education for women’s equality the education of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are some of the major strategies of national goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE). Equalisation of educational opportunities for Scheduled Castes has been reiterated in the National Agenda for Governance. Some of the programmes aimed at equalisation are:

            Abolition of tuition fee and to provide incentives in the form of textbooks; Initiation of programmes like Universalisation of Elementary Education; Operation Blackboard, etc; Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in higher education institutions; To improve academic skills and linguistic proficiency of students in various subjects and raising the level of comprehensions, remedial coaching scheme is provided to these students and to provide scholarships.

            The financial assistance given to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes studying in the middle, high and Senior Secondary Schools of the district during 1996-97 to 2000-2001 is given below:-

Year

Number of Scheduled Castes Students

Number of Backward Classes Students

Total amount disbursed (Rs.)

1996-97

12,514

3,400

81,79,042

 

1997-98

10,690

4,632

74,84,310

 

1998-99

2,812

763

13,70,631

 

1999-2000

5,929

2,300

38,48,919

 

2000-2001

14,857

5,913

99,11,110

 

(Source: District Education Officer, Nawashahr)

            The financial assistance provided to girl students studying in primary schools of the district during 1996-97 to  2000-2001 is given below:

 

Year

Number of girl students

Amount disbursed (Rs)

1996-97

12,027

59,20,647

 

1997-98

13,246

55,38,367

 

1998-99

12,389

25,83,156

 

1999-2000

13,132

41,39,880

 

2000-2001

12,891

47,19,756

 

                                (Source: District Education Officer, Nawashahr)

 

            The number of students belonging to Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes studying in different schools in Nawashahr District during 2000-2001 is given below:

 

Type of Institution

No. of Schools

Number of S.C. Students

Number of B.C. Students

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Primary Schools

441

10,580

10,027

20,607

2,890

2,968

5,858

Middle

Schools

91

1,980

2,152

4,132

452

544

996

High Schools

62

3,620

3,671

7,291

1,358

1,305

2,663

Senior Secondary

Schools

27

4,553

5,109

9,662

1,580

1,669

3,249

                                (Source: District Education Officer, Nawashahr)

 

Medium of  Instruction

 

            Language is the most important medium of communication and education. Language development occupies an important place in the National Policy on Education and Programme of Action. Promotion of Hindi and  17 other languages listed in Schedule VIII of the constitution including Sanskrit and Urdu, on the one hand, and English as the foreign language, on the other hand have received due attention.

            In 1949, the Sachar Formula was introduced in the State of Punjab, under which the teaching of Punjabi as the first language and as a medium of instruction began from the first class and Hindi as the second language was introduced from the third class. This system was replaced on 2 July 1969, by a Three Language Formula under which Punjabi was the first compulsory Language as medium of instruction in Government Schools at all levels. Besides, Hindi was made compulsory from the third class and English from the sixth class onwards. From April 1998, the English has been introduced as a compulsory Language from first class in the State. The privately managed schools have been given the option to retain Punjabi or Hindi as medium of instruction, but such schools, which opt Hindi as the medium of instruction are required to teach Punjabi as a compulsory language. This solution evolved by the Government has gone a long way in solving the language problems in the State. It has ensured compulsory instructions in Punjabi in all the schools and has enabled the Hindi medium schools to continue teaching through that medium and, as such, the entire school going population in the state has become conversant with both the languages as also with English.

 

Educational Set-up.- The set-up of the education department was changed in May 1963, when District Education Officer was made the over all in charge of education activities upto high and higher secondary schools level. Again on 1 April 1978 the primary wing was separated and the District Education Officer (Primary) was made in charge of the primary education. But in the Nawashahr District, there is one District Education Officer for both primary and secondary wings. He functions under the control of Director of Public Instructions (Secondary and Primary), Punjab through Circle Education Officer, Jalandhar. He is assisted by 3 Deputy District Education Officers, 8 Block Education Officers, 1 Science Supervisor, 1 Auditor, 2 Superintendents besides miscellaneous class III and class IV staff.

                       

(c) General Education

 

General education extends from pre-primary or nursery stage to the university level and presently divided into six stages, viz. pre-primary, primary, middle, high, senior secondary and upto graduation and post graduation level (college/ university level). A brief description of these is as under:

 

            Pre-Primary Schools.- Pre-Primary schools or Preparatory schools are the latest inclusion in the present education set up. It is a stage preparatory to primary education, meant for children of age group of 3-6 years. These schools plays a major role towards enhancing creativity and inculcating values amongst the little children from the very tender age. It promotes physical, intellectual, mental and emotional growth of the children of this age.

            Education is imparted through playway activities of kindergarten and montessori. The aim of this education is to create a healthy social environment in which the child may develop his physique and intellect and also to bring forth the inner potential of a child giving him or her an opportunity at the very tender age to express ideas through various medias. The main object of such education at this stage is to provide healthy conditions for the young children and to give them social experience. Some voluntary organizations and individuals have started private schools to meet the requirements of small children and some as feeder schools to the main public schools. As on 31 March 2001, 539 Anganwari Centers were also run by Director, Social Security and Women and Child Development, Punjab with the cooperation of Mahila Mandals and panchayats.

 

Primary and Basic Schools.- An important element of post independence educational policy has been to provide free and compulsory education to all children atleast upto the elementary stage. Regarding free and compulsory education, the Constitution makes the provisions under article 45 in the following manner, “The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” The course of free and compulsory education was started in the State during the Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) for the age group of 6-7 years in 1961-62, extended to the age group of 7-8 years in 1962-63 and 8-9 years in 1963-64, to that of 9-10 years in 1964-65 and to that of 10-11 years in 1965-66. The Directive Principles of State Policy as enunciated in our Constitution envisage that the State shall endeavour to provide free and compulsory education for upto 14 years of age within a period of 10 years.  The Constitutional Directive has been spelt out unequivocally and emphatically in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 and its Programme of Action, 1992.

            To give a boost to the universalisation of primary education by increasing enrolment, retention and attendance and to improve the nutritional status of children in the primary classes (I-V), the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education, popularly known as the Mid-day Meals Scheme, was launched on 15 August 1995, nationwide.

            From 1997-98 onwards, the programme has covered all the children studying in primary classes in the government, local body and government-aided schools. This is one of the largest school nutrition programmes in the world today.

            The total number of primary/junior basic schools both government and private in the Nawashahr District as on 30 September 2000 was 425 (419 boys and 6 girls) with 43,596 (22,346 boys and 21,250 girls) students. The number of teachers in primary schools in the district, as on 30 September 2000 was 976 (518 males and 458 females).

            For providing elementary education to children, a centrally sponsored scheme, namely, Sarv Shiksha Abhiyaan was launched in 2001, in all the districts of Punjab.

 

Secondary Schools.-  Secondary education serves as a bridge between primary and higher education and a step towards preparation for higher and professional education. Socio economic imperatives and initiatives taken for, to provide learning facilities to school-going children up to the elementary stage, has encouraged the enrolment in middle, high and senior secondary schools. In present time, the prespective for secondary education is vocationalisation and computer literacy. In the National Policy on Education, vocationalisation of secondary education is a centrally sponsored scheme, which was introduced in February 1988. The main objectives of the scheme are to enhance individual employability, reduce the mis-match between demand and supply of skilled manpower and provide an alternative for those pursuing higher education without particular interest or purpose. The number of senior secondary school in Nawashahr District was 34 during 1996, on the formation of the district, which increased to 53 in 2001.

            In the Nawashahr District as on 30 September 2001, there were 92 middle schools (89 boys and 3 girls), 68 high schools (63 boys and 5 girls) and 53 senior secondary schools (45 boys and 8 girls). The total number of students studying in middle, high and senior secondary schools were 6,635 (3209 boys and 3426 girls), 19,392 (9,941 boys and 9,451 girls) and 26,965 (13,480 boys and 13,485 girls) respectively. The total number of teachers in the middle, high and senior secondary schools in the district were 313 (189 females and 124 males), 762 (522 females and 240 males) and 1,093 (650 males and 443 females) respectively.

            Besides, the above schools, there are certain schools in large villages and towns of the district which are known as public schools or English schools. These schools are affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi and follow its syllabus. The medium of instruction in these schools is English from the Ist standard. The Education Department of State does not exercise any academic or administrative control over these schools.

            Introduction of Plus 2 System of Education in Schools.- In order to implement the National Policy of Education, 10+2+3 (10 year high school + 2 year senior secondary course + 3 year degree studies) was introduced in the State in 1986. Senior Secondary Course (Plus Two System) has been introduced in the Punjab State in 1986 by merging the 11th standard of higher secondary schools and the pre-university course of colleges making its duration for two years. Hitherto the 11 years study of higher secondary schools was reduced to 10 years upto high school level and the pre-university courses in the colleges were abolished. The two year senior secondary education forms a sandwich course between secondary education (school education) and degree courses (college education). The first year is called XI standard or +1 and second year is called XII standard or +2. To implement this policy, all the higher secondary schools in the district were converted into senior secondary schools and to extend this facility to rural areas, the selected high schools have been upgraded by the Government.  Now all the colleges and senior secondary schools have introduced 10+2 classes in the district. These are affiliated with the Punjab School Education Board, S A S Nagar (Mohali). The number of schools brought under this scheme in the district upto 30 September 2001 were 53.

 

        Higher Education.- Prior to 1952, there was no arrangement for college education in the area now forming the present Nawashahr District. The history of the college education in the present area of Nawashahr District begin with the establishment of Radha Krishna Arya College at Nawashahr in 1952. The Sikh National College, Banga was established in 1953. By 1993 the number of colleges rose to 6 in the district which are affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, except M.B.G. Government College, Pojewal, which is affiliated to Punjab University, Chandigarh. The colleges functioning in the district, as on 31 March 2001 are briefly described as under :

 

Radha Krishan Arya College, Nawashahr.- The college was established in May 1952. Foundation stone of the college was laid by  the then  Prime Minister of India. The college offers instructions in Arts, Science, and Commerce upto degree level. Apart from these, the college has started B.Sc (I.T.), PGDCA and DCA from the 2001-2002 session. The college has a well-stocked library with 28,000 books on its shelves. Training in N.C.C. is also given. In the field of sports the college the excels and remained University champion in Hand-ball, continuously for eleven years. The college publishes its magazine  The Neeraj’ annually.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college during  2000-2001 was 1,001 (770 boys and 231 girls.)

 

Sikh National College, Charan Kanwal, Banga.- The college came into existence in 1953. It is being run under the management of Sikh Educational Society and is situated on Phagwara-Nawashahar road. The college provides instructions in 10+2 in Arts, Commerce and Science (medical and non-medical) and also upto degree level in Arts, Commerce and Science (medical and non-medical). From the 2001-2002 session the college has started PGDCA, PGD in Electronics and  Communication & Internet and DCA. The college has a well-stocked library. N.C.C. and N.S.S. units are also functioning in the college. It brings out annually its magazine ‘Charan Kanwal’.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college as on 31 March 2001 was 1,219 (844 boys land 365 girls).

 

Bhagwanti Laroiya Memorial Girls College, Nawashahr.- The college was established in May 1959 with a view to spread the education amongst girls of this area. It provides instructions in Humanities up to degree level. Apart from this, computer education is also provided in the college. Training in N.C.C. and N.S.S. is also given to the girls. The college provides facilities for sports and games. A youth club is also functioning in the college. The college brings out its magazine ‘Swasti’ annually.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college as on 31 March 2001 was 631.

 

Guru Nanak College for Women, Charan Kanwal, Banga.-The college was established in 1969 to commemorate  the quincentenary of Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The motive of this college is to provide higher education to girls, especially to those belonging to rural areas. The college provides instructions in  Humanities upto degree level with Home Science as a subject and M.A. in History. In addition to this the provides instruction in PGDCA and PGDIT.

            N.C.C. and N.S.S. units are also functioning in the college The college organises academic tours and send the students on youth leadership, hiking and trekking camps. It  has also earned a good name in the field of sports and cultural activities. A unique feature of this college, is setting up of a ‘Punjab Ghar’ in the college, in which the old goods are kept, which were the part of our cultural heritage such as Phulkari, Chakki, Chartuha, Sandookh, Chhikku, Bohiae, etc. Besides, Guru Gobind Singh Study Circle is also functioning in the college which inculcates moral values in the students. The college also has a library with two reading halls. The library has 16,751 books on all subjects. As on 31 March the college publishes its magazine ‘Supnehar’ annually.

The number of students on the rolls of the college during 2000-2001 was 801.

 

Maharaj Bhuriwala Garibdasi Government College, Pojewal.- The college was established as a private college and its foundation stone  was laid on 15 September 1984 by the then Speaker of Lok Sabha. The college is situated at a distance of 12 km from Garhshankar on Nurpur Bedi road. It was taken over by Punjab Government in 1986 and renamed as M.B.G. Government, College, Pojewal. It was formerly inaugurated by the then Chief Minister of Punjab on 2 August 1986.The college imparts instructions upto 10+2 level in Arts, Commerce and Science (medical and non-medical) and  upto degree level only in Humanities. The college brings out its magazine ‘Vasu’ for the first time in 2000-2001 session.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college during 2000-2001 was 350 (297 boys and 53 girls).

 

Amardeep Singh Shergill Memorial College, Mukandpur.-The college was established in December 1993 by Sh. Gurcharan Singh Shergill in memory of his son, Amardeep Singh Shergill to provide quality education and purposeful and relevant training to the rural youth. The college offers instructions upto 10+2 level in Arts, Science and Commerce upto degree level in Humanities, Science (Non Medical) and Commerce. It also provides post graduate instructions in M.Com and M.A. in Economics. Apart from these, instructions for P.G.D.B.S.C.A are also provided. The college has well furnished and packed library, a modern computer centre, five workshops equipped with latest machines, a novel gymnasium and well equipped laboratories. Apart from academic courses, the college provides  job-oriented vocational courses. N.C.C. and N.S.S. units are also functioning in the college. The college also brings out annually a magazine viz. ‘Amardeep’.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college during 2000-2001 was 1,130 (597 boys and 531 girls).

 

(d) Professional  and Technical Education

 

The branches of professional education in which the district provides facilities are teachers training and technical institutions like engineering colleges, polytechnic and industrial training institution.

Teacher’s Training

 

            The changing trends in education make it necessary for teachers to refresh their knowledge and keep abreast of the latest teaching concepts and practices. In fact, institutions for teacher’s training are a prerequisite for the expansion and spread of education. For this purpose, two college of education is functioning in the district at Nawashahr. A brief description of this college are given below:

 

Dayanand Amarnath College of Education For Women, Nawashahr.- Dayanand Amarnath College of Education for Women was established as a part of R.K. Arya College, Nawashahr, and was separated as an independent institution in 1959. The college offers B.Ed. course only. The college achieved excellent achievement in academics and offers latest infrastructure, well equipped automated laboratories and well stcoked library. The college publishes its magazine ‘Gayatri’ annually.

 

            The number of students on the rolls of the college as on 31 March 2001 was 100.

 

            District Institute of Education and Training, Naura, Nawashahr.- This institute was established on 23 July 1999, at Naura in Nawashahr by Punjab Government to provide Elementary Teachers Training of two years duration. The students are imparted training in Pre-Service Teacher’s Education (PSTE), Planning and Management (PM), Educational Technology (ET), Curriculum Material Development and Evaluation (CMDE), Work Experience (WE) and District Resource Unit (DRU). Through these courses teachers are trained to teach with latest techniques and new methods of teaching.

            The number of students on the rolls of the institution as on 31 March 2001 was 203.

           

Technical Education

 

            Technical education plays an important role in supplying skilled manpower to the industry and has great potential for adding value to products and services for contributing to the national economy and for improving the quality of life of the people. Technical education is being improved by modernisation and removal of obsolescence, promoting institution-industry interaction. It is also providing continuing education for upgrading the skill and knowledge at technical personnel working in industry and service sectors, transfer of technology to the rural sector.

            In order to impart technical education, the Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar and Directorate of Technical Education and Industrial Training, Punjab, Chandigarh runs a number of Degree Colleges, Polytechnics and Industrial Training Institutes/Centres. In the Nawashahr District, there is one* engineering college, one polytechnic and 2 Industrial Training Institutions. These institutions provide training to men and women in order to ensure a steady flow of technical personnel and skilled workers in different trades.

            During 2000-2001, there were 2 Industrial Training Institutions  functioning at Nawashahr and Sundh in the Nawashahr District. These institutions prepare students for certificate courses in various trades such as fitter, turner, motor mechanic, electrician, wireman, welder, stenography (Punjabi), carpenter, embroidery, refrigeration and A.C. repair, cutting and tailoring, etc.

            Detailed particulars of these Industrial Training Institutes/Centres in Nawashahr District have already been given in Chapter V.

            A brief description of the engineering college and one polytechnic   functioning during 2000-2001 in Nawashahr District is  given below:

 

            I I T T College of  Engineering, Pojewal.- The International Institute Telecom Technology (IITT) College of Engineering  was established in May 1998 and is affiliated to Punjab Technical University Jalandhar. The campus is situated on Nawashahr-Anandpur Sahib, road (known as Guru Teg Bahadur State Highway),  at village Pojewal and about 24 kms. from Nawashahr.

            The college offers four-year B-Tech Degree level courses in  Computer Science and Engineering,  Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics Instrumentation and Engineering and Chemical Engineering with intake capacity of 60 students in each course except in Chemical Engineering which has  40 students each year. The intake capacity of Chemical Engineering has been increase to 60 seats each year from 2002-2003 season. A new course in Information Technology has also been started from this season with annually intake capacity of 30 students.

 

* One more engineering college viz. Rayat Institute of Engineering and Information     Technology, Rail Majra has been established in 2001 in the district. It offers four     year degree course in Electronics and Communication, Computer Science and     Information Technology with intake capacity of 60 students in each course.

           

The number of students on the rolls of the college during 2000-2001 was 159 (119 boys and 40 girls).

 

            Doaba Polytechnic, Raipur.- This institution was established in October 1998. It prepares students for 3 year diploma courses in Computer, Mechanical, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. During 2000-2001 the number of students in the polytechnic was 428 (396 boys and 32 girls). The polytechnic publishes its magazine namely Mehak annually.

 

Medical Education

 

            There is no medical institution in the Nawashahr District.

 

(e) Physical Education

 

Physical education is given in almost all the educational institutions of the district and a part of general education. To attain physical fitness right from the early years of schooling, games and physical education have been made compulsory subjects in the middle, high and senior secondary schools since 1974. It aims at all-round physical development of the students. It is imparted through physical activity which keeps the body fit. This scheme is functioning well in schools under the supervision of the headmasters with the help of the Physical Training Instructors. In the colleges physical education is directed and guided by the Director of Physical Education. The development of sports in the state is the responsibility of the Department of Sports, the Punjab State Sports Council and Sports Wing of the Education Department.

            Besides the above, the following schemes under separate departments also promote the cause of physical education in the district:-

1    Promotion of Sports and Games.

2    National Fitness Corps.

3    National Cadet Corps.

4    Bharat Scouts and Guides.

 

(1) Promotion of Sports and Games.- Games and Sports are considered a necessary part of students education and training for life. Keeping in view the importance of sports, the Punjab Government created the Sports Department in 1961 and appointed players of national and international fame as Sports  Officers. At the district level in Nawashahr this department is under the charge of  District Sports Officer, Rupnagar, who is assisted by three coaches viz Athletics Coach at sub centre Banga and Handball and Football Coaches at Nawashahr.

The main functions of the department are to provide facilities in sports to the sports persons of colleges, schools, private institutions, etc. according to their requisitions. In general the training is given in the evening, once a day in the coaching centre, twice a day in schools and colleges. The department is making strenuous efforts to promote sports talent in all parts of the state. The department organizes tournaments and training camps. The department awards scholarships to the distinguished players, pension to old age players, besides giving grants for the development of playgrounds. In the Nawashahr District, there is only one swimming pool at Kirpal Sagar Academy at Rahon.

The following District Sports Associations were functioning in the district during 2000-2001:-    

 

District Sports Associations

1   District Football Association

2   District Badminton Association

3   District Volleyball Association

4   District Handball Association

5   District Wrestling Association

6   District Kho-Kho Association

7   District Cricket Association

8   District Basketball Association

 

            (2) National Fitness Corps.- The scheme was put into operation in the beginning of 1963 as recommended by Kunzru Committee by merging the National Discipline Scheme, Auxiliary Cadet Corps and Physical Education. Under this scheme circle in charge of sports is appointed, who functions under the supervision of District Education Officer (Primary). At the block level, one block in charge, sports is appointed, who functions under the supervision of District Education Officer (P) and circle in charge, Nation Fitness Corps at the district level. The main aim of the scheme is to develop all round personality for the students. It aims at imparting discipline among boys and girls. It also provides health education and cultural activities. It inculcates in the students an interest in games. It aims at imparting to the students both boys and girls training in drill, physical exercise, lezium, tippri, track and field events, gymnastics, national integration songs, National Anthem, yoga and cultural activities. These activities inculcate discipline, obedience, firmness, steadiness, national integration and self-confidence among the students.

            This scheme is not functioning in the Nawashahr District.

           

(3) National Cadet Corps.- In order to develop the qualities of leadership and discipline among the youth, National Cadet Corps was introduced in the educational programme in 1948. After the Chinese Aggression, it was made compulsory for all the able bodied undergraduate boy students at college level in July 1963. N.C.C. training is imparted regularly during academic sessions and through outdoor camps. Later on, a programme namely N.S.S. (National Service Scheme) has been introduced as alternative to N.C.C. which is no longer compulsory. The aims of the National Cadet Corps are to develop character, comradeship, ideal of service and capacity for leadership in youth, men and women to give service training to young men and women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country and to build up a reserve of manpower to enable the Amend Forces to expand rapidly in national emergency. National Cadet Corps in the Nawashahr District is functioning under the jurisdiction of 8 Punjab Battalion N.C.C. Phagwara.

            The motto of National Cadet Corps is ‘ Unity and Discipline’. The cadets are imparted training in the military subjects, viz rifle-firing, field craft, foot-drill, civil defence, map reading, etc. Girls are given training in first aid, operating telephones, telegraphs and wireless. Senior and Junior Divisions cadets organized into units each commanded by a regular Army Major or an equivalent rank in the Air Force. The cadets also attend outdoor training camps.

            The number of students on the rolls in the National Cadet Corps in the Nawashahr District as on 31 March 2001 is given below:

 

Division

Name of School/ College

Number of Cadets Enrolled

Senior Division

R.K. Arya College, Nawashahr

55

 

Sikh National College ,Banga

55

 

Amardeep Singh Shergill College,

Mukandpur

55

Junior Division

Government Senior Secondary School,

 Nawashahr

100

 

Doaba Arya Senior Secondary School,

Nawashahr

100

 

J.S.F.H. Higher Secondary School, Nawashahr

100

 

Government Senior Secondary School, Rahon

100

 

Kirpal Sagar Academy, Rahon

100

 

Government Senior Secondary School, Banga

100

            (Source: Commanding Officer and  Punjab Battalion N.C.C. Phagwara)

            (4) Bharat Scouts and Guides.- The Bharat Scouts and Guides Punjab has its State Headquarter at Chandigarh and a Training Centre at Tara Devi (Shimla Hills). In the Nawashahr District, the scheme is being run by the District Education Officer Nawashahr. It organizes scouts and guides rallies, social-service camps at the time of melas, and gives training to young men and young women in cooking and handicrafts, tent-pitching, etc. The training imparted inculcates in the trainees the qualities of self-help, discipline and sprit for good service to all at all times. The boys and girls trained in this movement turn out to be good and useful citizens with broader out look. They are also taught first aid. They render service at festivals, exhibitions, etc., in maintaining law and order and also render aid to helpless, to the sick and wounded. The total strength of Cubs and Bulbul in the district, as on 31 December 2001, was 1200   and 300 respectively.

            The motto of Bharat Scouts and Guides is ‘Be Prepared’.

 

(f) Cultivation of Fine Arts

 

There is no such institution in the district.

 

(g) Oriental Schools and Colleges

 

No oriental school and college is functioning in the district.

(h) Education for the Handicapped

 

There is no institution which is rendering education to the handicapped in the Nawashahr District.

 

(i) Adult Literacy, Social Education and Measure for the Diffusion of Education and Culture among the Masses

 

 The campaign was started in the Nawashahr District in 1997. In order to mobilize the masses, seminars, workshops, exhibitions and literacy camps are organized at various places in the district. To create interest in the voluntary organizations catchy slogans like ‘Each One Teach One’ are cited. Mass meetings are organized. Help of print media and audio visual media is also taken to create interest in the public towards education. Literacy melas/fetes, inter school festivals and competitions are organized in the district.

The main aim of the programme was to impart functional literacy to the target group of 15-35 years. Functional literacy aimed at four objectives viz., achieving self-reliance in literacy and numeracy; awareness building regarding present backward conditions; skill formation to improve socio-economic status and intellectual orientation towards the state welfare ideas, national integration and female emancipation. It helped to increase enrolment in 6-11 years age group and reduction of drop out rate; non-formal education for 15-35 age group and empowerment of 15-35 years target groups which are productive units of the economy.

As on 31 March 2001 number of persons admitted in the Nawashahr District for Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and Post Literacy Campaign (PLC) were 57,919 and 43,230 respectively. During the same period learners who passed Primer III during Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) were 46,993 and learners who passed Primer I during Post Literacy Campaign were 39,344.

 

(j) Cultural and literary Societies and Periodicals

 

Nawashahr is a district of progressive and literary people. In the district, many cultural, literary, social and educational societies are functioning, which have enabled its people to get recognize far and wide. Many cultural organizations are engaged in various cultural activities according to their own objectives. These cultural organizations have considerable contribution in promoting Punjabi culture, social interaction and national unity. The Nawashahr district has many painters, film artists, folk singers, lyrists, and sculptures, Dhadi, Ragi, Dholachi, Serhra Lekhak and Nakliye.

 

The list of cultural societies functioning in the Nawashahr District is given below:

1   Dr. Sadhu Singh Hamdard Memorial Cultural Mela        Sabha, Nawashahr

2     Punjabi Sabhiacharak Gaunda Punjab, Jandiali

3     Naujawan Sabha, Mehli

4     Sur Sanjh Sabhiacharak Manch, Mukandpur

5     Doaba Jagriti Manch, Ghumana

 

Many literary personalities belongs to Nawashahr District, who have enriched the treasure of Punjabi literature. During the period of Independence struggle, the Babbar Akalis, Gadri Babas and freedom fighters had written many literary articles for awakening the people.

Special contribution by Sadhu Singh Hamdard occupies a unique position. In this district many monthly and other newspaper/ periodicals were started. Some of these are still in circulation.    

The list of literary societies contributing to this cause is mentioned below:  

1   Likhari Sabha, Jagatpur

2   Doaba Sahit Sabha, Nawashahr

3   Doaba Sahit Sabha, Balachauar

4   Punjabi Sahit Sabha, Balachauar

5   Doaba Kala Manch, Manguwal

6   Kala Sampark, Nawashahr

7   Lok Manch, Banga

8   Bhumika Manch, Banga

9   Jagriti Kala Kendra, Aur

10  Navjot Sahit Sanstha, Aur

11  Adabi Majlis, Sahlon

12  Amaardeep Sahit Sanstha, Rahon

13  Zila Likhari Sabha, Nawashahr

14  Punjab Sahit Sabha, Nawashahr

15  Doaba Likhari Sabha, Dhahan

16  Lok Chetna Manch, Banga

 

Periodicals.-Information pertaining to the periodicals published in the district has been given in Chapter XVIII ‘Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organizations’.

 

(k) Libraries, Museums, etc.

 

With the spread of education, libraries are becoming popular in the district. The facility of public libraries and reading rooms is available in almost all the towns and big villages in the district. The schools and villages also have their own libraries for the use of students and teaching staff. All these libraries are doing useful service to the people. These libraries subscribe to a number of journals, daily newspapers, weeklies, fortnightlies and monthly magazines. The main libraries in the district are detailed below:

 

Serial

No.

Name of Library

Date of Opening

Number

of Books

1

Dr Ambedkar Municipal Committee Library, Banga

24 April 2001

2,000

2

Municipal Council, Library Nawashahr

1948-49

4,612

3

Sant Baba Sewa Singh Library, Naura

November 1982

5,000

(Source: District Education Officer, Nawashahr)

 

 

Museums

           

Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum, Khatkar Kalan.- Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Memorial Museum was inaugurated at Khatkar Kalan, the ancestral village of Sardar Bhagat Singh on 23 March 1981, being the Fiftieth Martyrdom Anniversary of Sardar Bhagat Singh. It is located on Nawashahr–Banga road and is situated at a distance of approximately 5 km from Banga and about 8 km from Nawashahr. The museum is a commemorative tribute to Shaheed Bhagat Singh and his compatriots (Rajguru and Sukhdev) who had raised the banner of revolt against British Raj to wrest freedom and Independence for the motherland. Mementoes and relevant material relating to the great martyrs and revolutionaries have been preserved in the Museum as a token of homage to the brave sons. The half burnt bones of Sardar Bhagat Singh, Raj guru and Sukhdev and blood stained sand along with the blood stained newspaper on which their bones were collected are well preserved and displayed. A copy of the judgment of the Ist Lahore Conspiracy Case in which Shaheed Kartar Singh Sarabha was sentenced to death is also a note able exhibit. Sardar Bhagat Singh’s scribed notes (in his own handwriting) on this copy of judgment, a copy of the Gita with his autographs which was presented to Sardar Bhagat Singh while he was in Lahore Jail and other personal belongings are also on display. The pen used by Judge for signing the execution is exhibited here. The paintings of the revolutionaries and Ghadarities who inspired Bhagat Singh to wage freedom struggle have been displayed in the Museum. A life size bronze statue in the memory of the great martyr is also installed in front of the museum. These exhibits are silent reminders of supreme sacrifices these martyrs made for the motherland. They shall inspire the generations to come.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

 

 

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