(viii)  Animal Diseases and Veterinary Hospitals

Animal Diseases

 

            Although a comprehensive effort has been made to control and reduce the incidence of veterinary diseases, these continue to reduce the vitality and working efficiency of the livestock. The common animal diseases prevalent in the district are haemorrhagic septivaemia, black-quarter, foot-and-mouth disease, and parasitic diseases. Haemorrhagic septivaemia cause heavy losses among the livestock. It occurs in the low lying and marshy areas after rains in August, September and January. All the animals are vaccinated as a prophylactic measure before the rains to ward off the incidence of the disease. Prophylactic vaccination has proved very successful in controlling the outbreak of this disease. The outbreak of black-quarter is controlled with the black-quarter serum and vaccine. The foot-and-mouth disease generally breaks out in the threshing seasons of the crops and is cured by resorting to local treatment. Rinderpest is a highly fatal disease amongst the cattle. The Rinderpest Eradication Scheme, launched during the Second Five-Year Plan, aims at eradicating the disease by immunizing the entire cattle population through mass-scale vaccinations and inoculations in the villages. It has been almost completely eradicated from this district.

 

Veterinary Hospitals

 

            Three veterinary hospitals were started in the district in 1907-08. Their number rose to 4 in 1915-16, 6 in 1921-22, 11 in 1930-31, 14 in 1942-43, 18 in 1950-51 and 23 in 1960-61. Five permanent outlying dispensaries were started in 1936-37, and their number rose to 8 in 1942-43, 10 in 1950-51 and 18 in 1960-61. There was (as on March 31, 1968) a network of 30 veterinary hospitals, each under a Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, 32 permanent outlying dispensaries, each under a Veterinary Compounder, and other veterinary institutions as under:

 

Veterinary hospitals and permanent outlying dispensaries in the Amritsar District, as on March 31, 1968

 

Veterinary hospitals

Permanent outlying dispensaries

Zila Parishad

Municipal Committee/ Panchayat Samiti/ Government

Panchayat Samiti

Provincial

Tahsil Amritsar

1.       

Hathigate, Amritsar (maintained and run by the Municipal Committee, Amritsar)

1.      Naushehra Nangali

2.      Fatehpur Rajputan

 

2.       

Chatiwind, Amritsar (maintained and run by the Municipal Committee, Amritsar)

3.      Thande

4.      Bundala

 

3.      Jandiala Guru

 

5.       

Bhoewal

4.      Tarsikka

 

6.       

Verka

5.      Rayya

 

7.       

Basar Ke

6.      Butala

 

8.       

Dhulka

7.      Kathunangal

 

 

 

8.      Tahli Sahib

 

 

 

9.      Majitha

 

 

 

10.  Mahta

 

 

 

Tahsil Tarn Taran

11.  Tarn Taran

 

9.       

Bhail Dhaiwal

12.  Naushehra Pannuan

 

10.  Kairon

 

13.  Chohla

 

11.  Bhuchar Dhala

 

14.  Atari

 

12.  Naushehra Dhala

 

15.  Fatehabad

 

13.  Dera Sahib

 

16.  Jalalabad

 

14.  Dhotian

 

17.  Kasail

 

15.  Kang

 

18.  Panjawar Kalan

 

16.   

Shahbazpur

19.   

Khadur Sahib (run by the Panchayat Samiti)

17.   

Sirhali Kalan

20.   

Pandori Sidhuan (run by the Government)

18.   

Nagoke

Tahsil Patti

21.  Patti

 

19.  Burj Deva Singh

 

22.  Valtoha

 

20.  Narli

 

23.  Bhikhiwind

 

21.  Sabhra

22.  Sugga

23.  Bhangala

24.  Gharyala

25.  Minhala Jai Singh

26.  Rahoke

27.  Sur Singh

28.  Algon

29.   

Khem Karan

Tahsil Ajnala

24.  Ajnala

 

30.  Vachhoha

 

25.  Ramdas

 

31.  Saurian

 

26.  Raja Sansi

 

32.  Sarangdev

 

27.   

Gagomahal (run by the Panchayat Samiti)

 

 

28.  Chogawan

 

 

 

29.  Chetanpura

 

 

 

30.   

Jasraur (run by the Panchayat Samiti)

 

 

 

(Source: District Animal Husbandry Officer, Amritsar)

 

(e)  Forestry

            The whole of the Amritsar District and a part of the Gurdaspur District fall under the jurisdiction of the Divisional Forest Officer, Amritsar. He is assisted by an attached officer, one Head Assistant, 5 Forest Rangers, 6 Deputy Rangers, 19 Foresters and other Class III ministerial staff and 102 Forest Guards in Class IV, besides other miscellaneous staff.

 

            This office was established in 1945. The main functions of the department are to undertake the plantation of fuel-trees and to conserve forests. The department also grows plants along drains and bunds. It plants trees along roads, canal and railway strips, and protects the old reserve forests of Serai Amanat Kahn, Bhoru, Gagewal and othlan. The areas lying alongside the Ravi River the bet  areas and the gullied areas along the right bank of the Beas River are also being acquired for plantations.

 

            (i)  Importance of Forestry in the Economy of the District:-  There are no regular forests in the district with exception of the following four old reserved forests in the district with the exception of the following four old reserved forests, i.e. rakhs, covering 9.64 square kilometers:

 

Name

Area in sq.km.

Located in

1.                  Rakh Serai Amanat Khan

4.95

Tarn Taran Tehsil

2.                  Rakh Bhoru

2.38

Ditto

3.                  Rakh Gagrewal

2.11

Ditto

4.                  Rakh Othtan

0.20

Ajnala Tahsil

Total

9.64

 

 

(Source: Divisional Forest Officer, Amritsar Forest Division, Amritsar)

 

            The Rakh Serai Amanat Khan was transferred to the Forest Department by the civil authorities in 1946. It mainly contains shisham-trees raised by supplying canal irrigation during the early fifties. There are large patches of highly saline and alkaline soils which do not sustain any growth of useful trees.

 

            The Rakh Bhoru is situated along a natural drain and the area is subject to inundation during the rainy season. The area contains a patchy growth of shisham-trees, and recently eucalyptus has been introduced into the areas waterlogged by rains to improve the tree-stock.

 

            The Rakh Gagrewal is situated on the right bank of the Beas River near the village of Gagrewal. Kikar-trees were raised in this rakh in the early fifties by the direct sowing of seeds.

 

            The Rakh Othtan is a small patch of forest near Ajnala. It contains a good growth of shisham-trees and mesquite-trees.

 

            The process of the consolidation of holdings has further led to the cutting of trees in large number. Under the grow-more-food campaign, most of the culturable waste-land has also been reclaimed and brought under the plough. To augment their income, the village panchayats have been eager to bring the culturable commons undr cultivation. Thus, areas which are quite poor and where cultivation does not appear to be economical are given to the Forest Department for afforestation.

 

            The indiscriminate cutting of trees has been the main cause of the scarcity of fuel in the country side. The rural population has perforce to meet their domestic needs for fuel by using cow dung cakes which, if used as manure, would increase considerably the fertility and productivity of the soil.

 

            After the partition of 1947, there arose an acute shortage of fuel in the State. Steps were taken to bring more Government land under the control of the Forest Department for raising fuel and economic plantations thereon. Consequently in 1951, the railway and national highway strips, and in 1956, the PWD road-strips and canal-strips were transferred to the Forest Department for plantations. In addition to controlling the spread of desert and adopting other soil-conservation measures, the Forest Department aims at increasing the timber, fuel and fodder resources by afforesting the Government and private land. During the Vanmahotsava Week in the second week of July every year, a large number of fruit-trees, timber-trees and other trees and planted.

 

            The forests in the district are considerable importance. The areas include rail, road and canal strips. The area under forests in the district is classified, according to legal status, as ‘Reserved’, ‘Protected’ and ‘Unclassed’. Reserved forests are permanently assigned either to the production of timber or to other forest reduce and in these the right of grazing and cultivation is seldom allowed. In protected forests3, these rights are allowed subject to certain restrictions.

 

            The protected forests cover 63 square kilometers and include all rail strips, road strips and canal strips in the district where shisham and other species of trees are being raised for timber and fuel-wood.

 

3The forests were declared protected vide Punjab Government Notification No.1122-Ft-58/1195, dated the 3rd May, 1958.

 

            The area under the control of the Forest Department under different categories in the district during 1967-68 was as under:-

 

Particulars

Area in sq.km

(i) Reserved Forests

10

(ii) Protected Forests

63

Rail Strips

8

Road Strips

11

Canal Strips

44

(iii) Unclassed

---

(iv) Area notified under section 38 of the Indian Forests Act, 1927

---

(v) Area notified under section 4-5 of the Land Preservation Act, 1900

---

Total

73

 

(Source: Divisional Forest Officer, Amritsar Forest Division, Amritsar)

 

            (ii)  Forest Produce:-  The forest produce is classified into major and minor produce. The major produce includes timber and firewood which are auctioned periodically, whereas the minor produce includes grasses tan-bark, leaves, etc. The annual income from the sale of forest produce in the district during 1955-56, 1960-61, 1965-66 and 1967-68 was as under:

 

Year

Major produce (Rs.)

Minor produce (Rs.)

1955-56

240038

2530

1960-61

380026

33704

1965-66

384780

26411

1967-68

773876

56703

 

(Source: Divisional Forest Officer, Amritsar Forest Division, Amritsar)

 

 

(f)  Floods

 

            Floods are a common feature of the district. Water, usually from the Gurdaspur side, collects and flows into this area. Three big drains, each 90 feet wide, have dug and arterial drains have also been dug to fall into these big drains. The drains help to remove the flood water easily. Before the construction of these drains, floods used to cause havoc to crops, etc. and large sums had to be spent for giving relief to the flood-stricken people. The following table shows the damage caused by floods and heavy rains in the district from 1961 to 1968:

 


 

 

Damage caused by floods during the rainy season in the Amritsar District, 1961-68

 

Year

Number of villages/ towns affected

Areas affected

(sq.km)

Number of human lices lost

Number of cattle lost

Number of private houses damaged

Damage to crops

Area affected (hectares)

Produce damaged (’00 quintals)

Value of damage (‘000’ rupees)

1961

762

754

9

32

9815

75278

578

21413

1962

1202

4898

30

450

59727

181154

10289

50178

1963

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

1964

457

1259

22

322

10547

64618

4729

27613

1965

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

1966

864

1541

16

48

26689

55485

6258

47425

1967

26

10

---

---

---

644

34

576

1968

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1967, 1968 and 1969)

 

 (g)      Famine

 

            The Amritsar District is one of the most well-developed districts in the Punjab and it has the maximum irrigation facilities. So the chances of famine are remote, am account of scarcities in the past is, however, given below:

 

            The Scarcity of 1868 and 1869 caused much distress in the south of the district, particularly among the mental classes for two successive seasons. The presence of the Amritsar city increased the difficulties of the district, for its reputed wealth made it a centre to which the distressed persons were attracted and there were at one time many thousands of immigrants in the city and its neighborhood, subsisting wholly upon charity. Relief measures such as the construction and repair of roads from Tarn Taran to Jandiala Guru, Vairowal, and the Harike Ferry, and from the city to Ajnala were adopted and the famine rates. Houses from which the poor could be fed were opened in the Amritsar city and at the tahsil headquarters. The work of filling in the great ditch, from which the materials for the ramparts had been excavated, and which was a fruitful source of disease, was begun. Nearly 3,000 labourers were employed each day in this work alone. The work was brought to a close in April 1869 after the winter rain had removed the chief fear of famine, but had to be restarted in August when the monsoon rains failed again. This time, the Ahluwalia Dhab, a morass in the centre of the city, was the relief work and from the first to last day, bearly a lakh of labourers were employed to fill it up. The prove of wheat rose to 9 ½ seers a rupee. At that time, it was remarked that the attraction of high prices might tend to denude the district of stocks, and leave a tract naturally rich and self-supporting in a bad way when the famine would come. Amritsar may now suffer from scarcity; which may react in the cattle on which so much depends, but it is not likely with its present advantages ever to suffer from actual famine.

 

            The District Generally Safe from Famine:-  Since the scarcity of 1868-69, there have been other years of scarcity, such as 1899-1900 and 1907-08 when the failure of rains resulted in a serious shortage of fodder and the price of wheat and other principal staples rose very high. This is liable to happen in any year, but even in the worst years famine was never proclaimed and is never likely to be so, as the district is so well protected by canal and well irrigation. In fact, Amritsar may be regarded as a district from which large supplies can be exported in case of famine in other parts of India, not only from local produce but from the huge imported stocks always held in the city. The unprotected area of the Ajnala Tahsil, which lies beyond the Sakki Nala, is the tract most quickly affected by a shortage of rains and, consequently, is most liable of famine, but despite its isolated position and lack of communications by rail and road, even here any serious famine need not be apprehended.

 


 

Appendix I

(Vide page 142)

Area under principal crops in the Amritsar District

 

(thousand hectares)

 

Crops

1950-51

1955-56

1960-61

1965-66

1967-68

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

28

31

41

68

70

Wheat

134

142

139

161

177

Bajra

14

11

8

6

8

Maize

25

27

33

36

49

Jawar

---

---

---

---

0.2

Barley

4

3

4

3

6

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

59

66

42

30

32

Moong

---

---

---

---

0.32

Mash

1

0.50

---

---

0.45

Moth

1

0.50

---

---

---

Massar

3.00

2.00

5

4

5.48

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

Rape and mustard

22

10

---

12

21

Sesamum

12

6

2.50

3

3.6

Linseed

---

---

---

---

0.3

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

13

12

13

17

15

Cotton American

---

34

15

18

19.5

Cotton desi

23

7

16

14

13.1

Potatoes

---

---

---

1

0.8

Chillies

---

1

2.00

3

3.68

 

(Statistical Abstract of District Amritsar, 1967, pp. 56-83; and

Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1968, pp. 62-80)

 


Appendix II

(Vide page 142)

Production of principal crops in the Amritsar District

 

(thousand tonnes)

 

Crops

1950-51

1955-56

1960-61

1965-66

1967-68

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

42

41

67

90

98

Wheat

139

132

143

231

274

Bajra

5

4

7

4

7

Maize

14

21

47

44

69

Jawar

---

(b)

(b)

---

---

Barley

3

3

3

2

6

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

41

48

35

30

25

Moong

---

(b)

(b)

(b)

0.09

Mash

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.24

Massar

2.2

1.3

---

2.2

2.90

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

Rape and mustard

15.6

6.7

8.4

10.9

6.0

Sesamum (thousand cwt.)

52.6

9.8

---

26.98

1.64

Linseed

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.20

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

24

37

49

62

63

Cotton American (thousand bales)

(b)

26.6

18

20.1

25.2

Cotton desi (thousand bales)

16

6

19

16.8

16.8

Potatoes

1.5

0.3

13

12.6

11.0

Chillies

---

---

---

---

3.44

 

(Statistical Abstract of District Amritsar, 1967, pp. 84-91; and

Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1968, pp. 62-80)

 

(b) Denotes less than 500 tonnes


 

Appendix III

(Vide page 142)

 

Yields of principal crops in the Amritsar District

 

Crops

1950-51

(per acre in pounds)

1955-56

(per acre in pounds

1960-61

(per acre in pounds

1965-66

(per acre in pounds

1967-68

(per acre in pounds

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

1363

1185

1660

1339

1425

Wheat

932

837

1038

1458

1570

Bajra

320

301

887

667

875

Maize

498

692

1435

1258

1440

Jawar

---

95

171

---

---

Barley

747

850

857

667

1000

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

629

651

857

1000

781

Moong

---

---

---

---

---

Mash

---

---

---

---

---

Massar

---

---

---

---

---

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

Rape and mustard

---

---

---

---

---

Sesamum (thousand cwt.)

---

---

---

---

---

Linseed

---

---

---

---

---

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

1629

2604

3674

3795

4270

Cotton American (thousand bales)

---

122

158

199

232

Cotton desi (thousand bales)

106

108

198

216

231

Potatoes

6720

9875

18630

17000

14000

 

(Statistical Abstract of District Amritsar, 1967, pp. 92-99; and

Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 19611966 and 1968)

 

 

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