(A)   Trade and Commerce

 

For a long time, Amritsar has enjoyed a very high position as an entrepot of trade. Before the partition, it was the biggest centre in north-western India in the trade of textiles, woolens, etc. It used to be a feeding-point for the West Asian countries connected with India by land routes through Afghanistan.  At one time, the chief imports of the city were cotton and woolen piece goods from Lancashire and Yorkshire, but most of these requirements are now supplied by the Bombay and Ahmedabad mills. Japan supplied the Amritsar market with a great variety of sundry articles, e.g. buttons, laces, ribbons, combs, cutlery, crockery and electrical goods, in addition to large quantities of cotton, woolen and artificial silk piece-goods and woolen yarn. Other commodities, imported mostly from the European countries, were dyes, sewing machines, chemicals, medicines and hardwares of various descriptions. The principal items of export from Amritsar were goatskins, sheepskins, cow and buffalo hides, wool, goat hair and seeds of various kinds. The largest market for goatskins was America, to which country considerable quantities of skins were exported. Hides were exported to England, Greece and the Near East and a small quantity  to America. A certain quantity of wool was also exported to America, but the bulk of the wool collected in the district was exported to  Liverpool (England) where it was sold at the wool auctions held there once a month. Goat hair was also sent to the Liverpool auction and a certain amount to America. The seeds produced in or near the district were imported by America where oil was extracted from these for use in medicines.

 

            In spite of the partition (1947), Amritsar continues to be the leading centre of trade and commerce and maintains its supremacy in textiles. It is the biggest manufacturing center of textile goods, ruffles and shawls, and art silk industry. Certain varieties of cloth, like shaneel, are manufactured only in Amritsar and Bombay. Amritsar also enjoys a unique position in the trade of dry fruits, being the main center of imports from Afghanistan and Pakistan. As regards papar-warrian, it has almost a monopoly and the ‘Amritsari  papar-warrian’ are well known throughout the country for their spicy flavour. Being the leading commercial centre, Amritsar fully represents the agricultural opulence of the Punjab, and exports wheat, gram, paddy, cotton, maize, etc. Though situated on the Indo-Pak border, the district is well connected by rail, road and air. With these communication facilities, it is possible to carry on trade and commerce without any difficulty with far-flung places within the country and also with those beyond its frontiers. It has a direct business sweep from Kabul to Bombay. Amritsar is popular for the trade of dry fruits and grapes which are imported from Afghanistan and Iran.

 

            The principal items of import in the district are dry fruits, grapes, karyana commodities, cloth, millets, cardamom (ilaichy), saugi, almond, pista (pistachio), etc. The main items exported from the district include textile goods, nuts, bolts, nails, screws, machinery, woolen goods, papar-warrian, wheat, gram, cotton, paddy, maize, toria, etc.

 

(a)      Course of Trade

 

The usual course of trade in agricultural produce in the district is through the

 dealers who are members of the regulated market committees. The farmers bring their agricultural produce to a near by mandi and the dealers sell it to the traders who export it by goods-carriers and rail to other mandis. A few transactions of foodgrains also take place in the  villages, where kachcha arhtias charge cheaper rates. Besides being a big commercial and trading centre, Amritsar is also one of the leading districts of the State in respect of agricultural produce. It has eleven grain markets, where agricultural commodities are marketed on a large scale. These markets are at Amritsar, Ajnala, Rayya, Gehri, Patti, Verka, Bhikhiwind, Chogawan, Tarsikka, Majitha and Tarn Taran. Amritsar is the biggest grain market, where large quantities of wheat, maize, gram, rice, gur, etc. are marketed. Patti and Tarn Taran are also big markets in the district. The rayya mandi is in a developing stage and is likely to become one of the biggist markets in the district in the near future. The wholesale business centers exist only in the Amritsar city. Their names are: Katra Ahluwalia, Guru Bazaar Ghanta Ghar, Majith Mandi, Katra Mohar Singh, Vaishno Market and Krishna Market. The important retail marketing-centres of the district are at Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Patti, Ajnala, Chogawan, Majitha, Rayya and Bhikhiwind.

 

(b)      Trade Centres

 

(i)                 Regulated and Unregulated Markets.__  In order to save the cultivator from

 the evils of unhealthy market practices and to ensure a fair price for his produce, the State Government passed the Punjab Agricultural Produce Markets Act, 1939. The  Act provides for the regulation of markets through market committees which represent growers, commission agents and traders, local bodies and the State Government. The market committees standardize various market practices and charges, and enforce the use of standard weights, thus ensuring a fair deal  to the cultivator. The markets at Amritsar, Ajnala, Rayya, Gehri, Patti, Bhikhiwind, Tarn Taran and Khem Karan are notified as regulated under the Act.

 

            The system of marketing is identical in all the regulated markets. The procedure is determined by the rules and regulations framed for the purpose by the local market committees. In brief, these relate to the hours of work, incidental charges to be collected from the sellers and the buyers of produce. In the regulated markets, offers of reates are determined either through open auction or through secret bids. The commission agents, in many cases, advance loans to the agriculturists who bring their  produce below a particular price, deemed fit by them. The commission agents charge 1.56% as commission and it includes sundry charges, such as commission, and weighing and threshing charges. Before May 1961, the sellers were liable to the payments of commission, but with the passage of the Punjab Agricultural Produce Markets Act, 1961, the buyers are required t bear the commission charges.

 

            The unregulated markets in the district are at Kairon, Khalra, Jhablal, Atari, Fathehabad, Ramdas, Kathunangal, Mahta, Jaintipura, Fatehpur  Rajputan, Khalchian, Khem Karan and Beas. Khalra occupied a prominent place before 1947. Being a border town, it has lost considerable trade since the partition in favour of Bhikhiwind. Still it is a well-known market for chillies. The remaining markets usually deal in foodgrains, toria and cotton.

 

            In the unregulated markets, there are no rules and regulations for marketing. It is the buyer who dictates the terms and the seller has to agree to the wishes of the buyers. In most of the cases, the buyers ( shopkeepers, etc.) make forward advances to the growers and others (cartmen, etc.) who enter into an agreement to bring the produce at the conditions of sale as the buyer dictates.

 

            The main commodities for which transaction usually take place in the regulated markets in the district are as under:-

 

Amritsar

Wheat, barley, gram, maize, gur, moong, jowar, bajra, rice, mash, masur, onion and potato.

Ajnala

Wheat, barley, gram, maize, gur, moong, jowar, bajra, rice, mash, masur, cotton, onion and potato.

Bhikhiwind

Wheat, barley, gram, maize, gur, moong, jowar, bajra, rice, mash, masur, cotton, onion and potato.

Gehri

Paddy, wheat, maize, toria and gram

Patti

Wheat, barley, gram, maize, gur, moong, jowar, bajra, rice, mash, masur, onion, potato, khandsari and paddy.

Rayya

Wheat, barley, gram, maize, gur, moong, jowar, bajra, rice, mash, masur, onion, potato and paddy.

Tarn Taran

Wheat, gram, maize, gur, jowar, masur, onion and potato

Khem Karan

Wheat, gram, maize, bajra, and cotton

 

            The Government exercises control in regulating the trade in agricultural produce with the help of the market committees, constituted in all the regulated markets for the implementation of the provisions of the Punjab Agricultural Produce Markets Act, 1961.

 

            A statement showing the total arrivals of agricultural produce in the different regulated markets in the district during 1965-66 and 1967-68 is given in Appendix III on pages 256-257.

 

(ii)               Fairs or Melas and Other Rural Marketing Centres

 

Fairs or Melas.__  Melas and festivals have a special place in the Indian life. People are very enthusiastic about the celebration of festivals. Certain festivals mark the changes in the seasons and generally one season ends on the day the festival falls and a new season commences. Some of the festivals are marked by colourful ceremonies that have come to be associated with them. Melas are held at particular places every year on the same day. People from neighbouring villages participate in it and, apart from the purchase of eatables, they make other purchases to meet their household requirements.

 

            A number of fairs and festivals are held in the district. The notable among these are Diwali and Baisakhi, which are celebrated at Amritsar with exceptional pomp and show. People from all over the country visit Amritsar in large numbers on thes festivals. Melas are held at Ram Tirth, Baba Bakala, Govindwal, Khadur Sahib and Ramdas on the “Puranmashi” of every month. A list of religious fairs and festivals held in the district is given in Chapter III, ‘People’ on pages 112-113.

 

            The fairs and festivals which have some trade significance are as follows:

 


 

Fairs and festivals of trade significance in the Amritsar District

 

Town/ village

Fair/ festival

Date and duration

Significance and legend

Approximate number of visitors and radius covered

Castes/ communities

Commodities sold

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Ajnata Tahsil

Veoke

Mela Baba Ber Sahib or,
Bade di Ber

Maghar 7 (November-December)

Three days

Religious

2000

32 kms

Sikhs and Hindus

General merchandise clay pots, small agricultural implements

Lopoke

Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev or, Jor Mela

Jeth Sudhi 4 (May-June)

Three days

Religious

6000 32 kms

Ditto

Small agricultural implements, clay pots

Dialpura

Mela Bada Buddha

Asuj 21 (September-October)

Two days

Religious

In memory of Bada Buddha. The legend goes that a sick man saw in his dream Bada Buddha who adked him to construct a temple in the name of the Baba

 

1500

8 kms

All

Utensils

Amritsar Tahsil

Rayya

Cattle fair

On the 5th of every Bikrami month six days

Commercial

2000

16 km

All

Cattle and other animals

Baba Bakala

Guru Teg Bahadur fair

Sawan Puranmashi (July-August)

Three days

Religious

The fair is held in the sacred memory of Guru Tegh Bahadu who passed 26 years of his life in meditation here.

40000

32kms

Sikhs and Hindus

Religious books, earthen pots, kirpans, agricultural implements, utensils

Amritsar

Diwali and Horse & Cattle fair

Katat Bedi 10

(October- November) to Katak Sudi 6 (October- November) Twelve days

Religious, seasonal and commercial

40000

All

Horses, cattle, mules

Basarke

Birthday of Guru Amar Das

Bhadon Puranmash Two Days

Religious

5000

Sikhs and Hindus

Leather goods, general merchandise, earthen pots

Thatha

Mela Bada Buddha

Asuj 21 (September- October)

Three days

Religious

50000

Ditto

Leather goods, general merchandise

Tarn Taran

Massya

On Amavas of every Bikrami month

Two days

Religious

5000

Ditto

Cloth, leather goods, general merchandise, utensils

 

Diwali

Katak Amavas (October- November)

Religious

Several thousands

Ditto

Leather goods, general merchandise, utensils

 

Cattle fair

Every month

One week

Commercial

20000

80 kms

All, men only

Cattle and other animals

Patti Tahsil

Gharyala

Mela Wali Sher Shah

March

Four days

Religious

In memory of a fakir Wali Sher Shah

50000

All, from all over the Punjab

Shoes, utensils, general merchandise

Sur Singh

Mela uru Hargobind Sahib

Asarh 7 (June-July)

Three days

Religious

To celebrate the birthday of Guru Hargobind

25000

Sikhs and Hindus

Bamboo sticks, utensils

Harike

Baisakhi

Baisakh 1

(April 13)

One day

Seasonal and religious

12000

64 kms

Sikhs and Hindus

Animal, leather goods, utensils, general merchandise

 

(Census of India 1961, Punjab District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, pp. 126-61)

 


BANKING,  TRADE AND  COMMERCE

 

            Cattle Fairs.__  The district is agriculturally very much advanced. Besides having good markets, it has a number of mwaishi mandis (cattle fairs), which are arranged on different dates at various places. Each sch mandi is generally arranged for two to three days. Apart from mandis held on some special days, monthly mandis are held at Amritsar and Tarn Taran. A cattle show is held at Tarn Taran on the Amavas day. It is an important centre for the sale and purchase of cattle in the ilaqa. People from all over the ilaqa bring their cattle and buffaloes to the show. Sales and purchase of cattle are made on the spot. A cattle fair is also held at Rayya. On the Diwali and Baisakhi, big cattle shows are also held at Amritsar which last for a week. These mandis also attract many shops which cater to the tastes of the people who come to purchase or sell their livestock.

(c)      Co-operation in Trade

 

(i)                 Co-operative Marketing.__  There is a District Wholesale Co-operative

 Marketing and Supply Society at Amritsar. It was registered on September 30, 1953. It undertakes wholesale business of Government supplies of agricultural seeds, implements, insecticides, fertilizers and some other important goods, e.g. sugar and oil. Besides, there are the following registered co-operative marketing societies in the district:-

 

Name of the society

Date of registration

1. The Tarn Taran Co-operative Marketing Society, Tarn Taran

 

2. The Amritsar Co-operative Marketing Society, Amritsar.

 

3. The Gehri Co-operative Marketing Society, Gehri

 

4. The Ajnala Co-operative Marketing Society, Ajnala

 

5. The Patti Co-operative Marketing Society, Patti

 

6. The Bhikhiwind Co-operative Marketing Society, Bhikhiwind

 

7. The Rayya Azad Co-operative Marketing Society, Rayya.

 

8. The Verka Co-operative Marketing Society, Verka

 

9. The Majitha Co-operative Marketing Society, Majitha

 

10. The Chogawan Co-operative Marketing Society, Chogawan

7th  June,  1955

 

 

20th October, 1955

 

 

7th  August, 1957

 

 

21st  August, 1957

 

 

12th  November,1957

 

29th  November  1957

 

 

21st October ,1960

 

 

14th  March, 1966

 

 

10th  October,  1967

 

 

17th July, 1968

            Before the  introduction of the co- operative marketing, the  growers faced a number of difficulties in marketing their produce. The commission agents embarrassed the cultivators in several ways in regard to correct weight fair rates and prompt payments. The marketing societies have, to a great extent removed the hardships of the cultivators. They charge a lower commission from the cultivator members. Many godowns have been constructed by the Co-operative Marketing Societies, both in the rural and urban areas, where storage facilities are provided to the members. The number of godowns owned by the co-operative marketing societies in the district as on June 30, 1968, was nine. These godowns are of much use in collecting the produce of the cultivators in the villages and arrangements are made for its transportation the nearest marketing society. The storage charges in these godowns are quite nominal. If any member stores his produce for a week, no charges are made. If the storage facilities are availed of for more than a week, a nominal amount on account of storage at the rate of 5 paise per bag per month is charged. The marketing societies at Tarn Taran, Ajnala, and Rayya have started the  processing of  paddy.

 

            The membership of Co-operative Marketing Societies covers primary societies and individual members. Besides the marketing of agricultural produce, these societies undertake the supply and distribution of agricultural necessaries, such as improved seeds, implements, insecticides, fertilizers and other consumer goods, e.g. sugar, kerosence and salt, to the farmers. These societies are rendering useful service to the cultivators by giving a fair deal to them in all agricultural transactions. The societies do not accept lower bids and themselves purchase the produce of their members at reasonable rates. The  farmers are now getting fair prices of their produce and are no longer at the mercy of the commission agents.

 

            The work done by the co-operative marketing, societies in the district during 1964-68 is shown in Appendix IV, on page 258.

 

(ii)               Co-operative Consumers’ Stores.__  Before the introduction of the centrally

 sponsored scheme for the organization of co-operative consumers’ stores in big cities, primary co-operative consumers’ stores were organized. These primary units did not make any appreciable progress owing to inadequate active membership, meager share capital, lack of business experience and weak organizational structure. Consequently, a scheme was prepared by the Government of India, Under the scheme, a number of primary consumers’ stores around separate wholesale stores were to be opened in all towns and cities, each with a population of 50,000 or above.

 

The Amritsar central co-operative consumers’ store ltd., Amritsar, was registered on January 25, 1963. It aims at ensuring equitable distribution of various kinds of articles to the consumers at competitive rates. On March 31, 1968, it was running 17 branches in various localities of Amritsar. The membership of  the store on June 30, 1968, stood at 12450, with a paid-up share capital of 1.76 lakhs of rupees.

 

(d)  State Trading

           

            In order to provide the necessaries of life at reasonable rates, the Government introduced the state-trading scheme in the district in 1958-59. The need for fair-price shops was felt in 1960, when there was scarcity of wheat-flour and sugar. Many fair-price shops were, therefore, opened to ensure fair prices to consumers and to curb black marketing. On March 31, 1968, there were 373 fair price shops functioning in the urban areas of the district. These shops are supplied with imported wheat, wheat-flour and other miscellaneous articles on fixed rates. These are necessary to check the abnormal rise in prices and to supply wheat or wheat-flour or both to consumers at reasonable rates and further to keep the prices under check in the lean months.

 

            The state trading of foodgrains (wheat) was introduced into  the state during 1959. The total quantity of foodgrains purchased by the Food and supplies department under the scheme from the important markets in the district and by the Food Corporation of  India, during 1968-69 and 1969-70,  is given below:-

 

 

Year

Particulars

Quantity purchases (Qunitals)

1968-69

1969-70

Wheat

Wheat

1021000

1152528

 

(Source:  District Food and Supplies, Controller, Amritsar)

 

            In order to ensure a fair price to the cultivators for their produce, the Government has introduced the price-support scheme. The price fluctuations in the market are watched to ensure that these do not fall below the prescribed limit. In the event of prices going downwards, the Government undertakes to purchase the wheat stocks at scheduled rates.

 

(e)  Merchants’ and Consumers’ Associations and Organs for the Dissemination  of  Trade News.

 

            Merchants’ Associations.__  The various Merchants’ Associations functioning in the district are as follows  :

 

  1. Galla Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Pacca  Arhtias’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Kachcha Arhtias’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Gur Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Rice Merchants, Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Karyana Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Karyana Commission Agents’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Dry Fruit Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Chakki Owners’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Kohlu Owners’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Oil Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

  1. Fruit Merchants’ Association, Amritsar

 

These associations look after the interests of the member traders.

 

            Consumer’s Associations.__  There are no consumers’ associations in the district.

 

            Market Intelligence.__   For efficient marketing and proper co-ordination of supply and demand, authentic information about the volume of marketable surplus, prices, arrivals, stocks and movements of important agricultural commodities is essential. The buyer and the seller must be acquainted well with the demand and supply position in order to strike a fair bargain. The market news is, thus, disseminated to the public through handbills, posters, bulletins, calendars, circular letters, newspapers, magazines, window displays, etc. the co-operative marketing societies receive market-information cards form the allied societies. A few good market committees also send daily information cards to the Sarpanches of the villages covered by them.

 

(f)   Weights and Measures

Before the introduction of the system of decimal weights, pucca and kachcha seers were in vogue in the district. The kachcha seer was prevalent usually in the rural areas. Two and a half kachcha seers equaled on pucca seer,i.e. 80 tolas

 

            There is another local measuring-unit for liquids, especially milk, viz. garvi, in the district. It roughly weighs 100 tolas or one seer and a quarter.

 

            The Amritsar District Gazetteer, 1892-93 gives the following scales of the local  units of the area:-

 

9  sarsahis

1  marla

20  marlas

1  kanal

4  kanals

1  bigha

2  bighas

1  ghumaon

 

Sarsahis were too small to be taken notice of in the land records and were neglected. The measure of length in land mensuration was the karam or kadam, which was five feet long. A sarsahi was one wquare karam. Thus , a marla was 25 square yards, a kanal 500 square yards and a ghumaon 4000  square yards. The Amritsar land-measure was in use all through the Bari Doab.

 

            The standard maund of  40 seers or 82.27 pounds was known in the district as a man pakka, for the agriculturists used a different standard of weight. Their maund, or kachcha man was equal to 16 seers pakka, instead of 40, but it contained 40 kachcha sers like the standard measure. The following was the standard scale:-

 

8  chawals

1  ratti

8  Rattis

1  masha

12  mashas

1  tola

5  tolas

1  chhitank

16  chhitanks

1  seer

 

            But in arriving at the local seer, which was two-fifths of the standard seer, the scale was:

2  tolas

1  sarsahi

16  sarsahis

1  seer

 

            Before1941, there was no uniform standard of weights and measures, but this handicap was removed with the passage of Punjab Weights and Measures Act, 1941. The metric weights and measures, under the Punjab Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1958, passed in pursuance of the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1956 (Government of India), were introduced into the district with effect from October 1958. In case of weights, the use of old weights was allowed for a period of two years and, from October 1960, the use of metric weights was made compulsory. In case of measures, a period of one year was allowed for the use of measures previously in vogue, and from April 1962, metric measures were made compulsory. The use of metric units became obligatory from April 1962.

            In the beginning, the people had some difficulty in understanding the system of new weights and measures. The clever shopkeepers availed themselves of this opportunity and exploited the ignorant and uneducated masses. But in course of time, the people became accustomed to the new system. Now they experience little or no difficulty in making transactions in the metric measures.

The Inspector, Weights and Measures, verifies weights, scales, etc, used in the district for trade purposes.

 

(g)   Storage and Warehousing.

 

            The state government advances loans and subsidies for the construction of godowns in rural areas to co-operative agricultural societies. Loans and subsidies are also given to co-operative marketing societies for the purpose. Ordinarily in all mandis, the commission agents provide storing facilities for the produce brought to them for sale. The produce is usually stored in godowns. There is no particular system of storage at the railway stations. The produce is either stored in godowns or in sheds made of tim. In villages, the method of storage in bharolas and bharolis still exists. There are 10 stores in the Amritsar city and 4 in Chheharta. The cp-operative societies have also constructed a number of godowns for storage at various places in the district.

 

            Before the formation of the state warehousing corporation,the agriculturists were not  provided with any facilities in regard to the scientific storage of their produce. Their indigenous stores or kothas (bins) in their houses, huts made of mud and mattings were exposed to the ravages of rain and to the depredations of insects and rodents. The warehousing corporation came into being as a result of the recommendations made in 1954 by the All-India Rural Credit Survey Committee. The Agricultural Produces Development and Warehousing Corporation Act,1956, has pioneered the formation of the central warehousing corporation and a network of state warehousing corporations with the avowed object of providing scientific storage at low charges and arranging for cheap and quick credit facilities against the stored produce. The Punjab State Warehousing Corporation was constituted by the Government on January 2, 1958, under the Act. It is  running its warehouse in hired accommodation at Tarn Taran. The central warehousing corporation is also running its warehouse at Amritsar. The corporation provides for the scientific storage of agricultural produce in the warehouses, and the scheduled banks make advances to depositors on the pledge of the warehouse receipts, according to the credit restrictions of the Reserve Bank of  India. Furthermore, the corporation also undertakes the fumigation of stocks under the Technical Advisory Scheme on the payment of the fumigation charges.

 

            The corporation also supplies on hire empty gunny bags on very nominal charges to the growers to enable them to store in the warehouses their produce brought in bulk from their villages. The best available godowns are selected from the existing accommodation available at the mandis and are made ideal after applying scientific methods. These godowns are made rat-proof and insect-free. All the rat-holes are closed after cynogassing and the godowns are disinfected by spraying them. Besides these arrangements, the godowns and stocks are got insured against the risk of theft, flood, fire and burglary.

 

            The Punjab State Warehousing Corporation accepts for storage even the stocks where infestation has started. Such stocks, immediately after acceptance, are disinfested and made free from living infestation, stopping thereby their further deterioration to the benefit of both the individual depositor as well as to the country at large.

 

            The storage charges of warehouses have been kept as low as possible to cover the actual expenses incurred, because the scheme is designed to run on no-profit-no-loss basis.     

 

 

Co-operative Agricultural Credit Societies in the Amritsar Districtm, 1958-59 to 1967-68.

 

 Co-operative year ending June

Number of Co-operative Societies at the end of the year

Societies

Individuals

Share Capital paid-up (in lakhs of rupees)

Loans advanced during the year (in lakhs of rupees)

Deposits (in lakhs of rupees)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1958-59

1135

-

76680

18.47

35.45

13.55

1959-60

1139

-

81275

20.45

38.67

15.72

1960-61

1140

-

82460

23.78

39.78

17.75

1961-62

1130

-

83657

25.78

42.50

18.29

1962-63

1159

-

87825

26.60

43.55

18.65

1963-64

1172

-

90467

29.75

45.60

19.21

1964-65

1160

-

95360

31.80

49.70

19.45

1965-66

1175

-

98340

33.92

56.02

20.41

1966-67

1165

-

105955

38.53

111.75

23.51

1967-68

1163

-

111992

45.18

168.51

29.69

 

 

Co-operative Non-Agricultural Credit Societies in the Amritsar District, 1958-59 to 1967-68.

 

Co-operative year ending June

Number of Co-operative Societies at the end of the year

Societies

Individuals

Share Capital paid-up (in lakhs of rupees)

Loans advanced during the year (in lakhs of rupees)

Deposits (in lakhs of rupees)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1958-59

111

-

3120

1.45

1.62

1.18

1959-60

119

-

3372

1.61

1.88

1.40

1960-61

121

-

3460

1.72

2.15

1.62

1961-62

127

-

3555

1.88

2.35

1.90

1962-63

123

-

3735

2.02

2.65

1.08

1963-64

124

-

3940

2.45

2.88

1.24

1964-65

127

-

4275

2.75

3.02

1.62

1965-66

129

-

4492

2.97

3.17

1.90

1966-67

182

-

7065

3.95

4.82

2.60

1967-68

180

-

7209

4.36

5.42

3.15


APPENDIX  III

 

Total arrivals of agricultural produce in the different regulated markets in theAmritsar District, 1965-66 and 1967-68

Name of Agricultural Produce

Regulated Markets

Wheat

Gram

Barley

Maize

Bajra

Jowar

Moong

Mash

Moth

Gur

Sha- kkar

Khan sari

cotton

Ameican            desi

Onion

Patato 

Ground nut

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Amritsar

1965-66

170170

41971

7441

18969

1096

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

9460

---

---

---

---

1967-68

206104

32253

16402

24085

2692

511

1988

5547

1906

1114

---

---

---

3642

---

---

176

Ajnala

1965-66

5190

---

---

184

241

---

---

---

---

----

---

---

---

173

---

---

---

1967-68

4055

321

651

168

---

---

---

---

---

40

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Bhikhiwind

1965-66

52878

1131

13

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

11616

944

---

---

---

1967-68

17346

4021

390

1693

120

135

---

---

---

897

---

---

---

3690

---

---

---

Gehri

1965-66

84404

3971

437

14823

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

416

2106

---

---

---

1967-68

77489

9311

745

33061

128

---

282

14

---

14

---

---

92

894

---

---

---

Patti

1965-66

41545

13160

572

6935

945

869

---

---

---

---

---

---

23372

5138

---

---

---

1967-68

16094

17775

1331

22091

775

1148

273

82

594

1696

---

673

24572

2021

---

---

30

Rayya

1965-66

58001

5109

113

11590

87

83

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

1967-68

93284

13795

98

48660

30

18

401

23

1

173

---

---

4874

1601

---

---

---

Tarn Taran

1965-66

152904

12220

---

29620

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

23135

26864

---

---

---

1967-68

119300

34779

774

48713

46

1502

---

---

142

7063

---

290

13371

6344

---

---

---

Khem Karan

1965-66

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

1967-68

38

106

---

43

122

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

31029

204

---

---

---

 

(Source : Punjab State Agriculture Marketing Board,Chandigarh)

 

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