†††† Dacoity :- No case of dacoity was reported in the district during the decade, 1959 to 1968.

 

†††† Robbery :- As in case of dacoities, the district has shown considerable improvement in the incidence of robberies.Systematic naka bandis and as extensive patrolling of strategic points are mainly responsible for keeping this crime under effective control.

 

††††† The following table depicts the position of the crime during the period 1958-1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

3

3

1960

2

5

1961

-

1

1962

3

-

1963

1

1

1964

3

1

1965

1

1

1966

2

1

1967

-

-

1968

4

4

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

†††† Burglary :- There was not much fluctuation in the incidence of this crime in the district during the period 1959-68. The incidence of the rime ranged from 267 (in 1959) to 288 (in 1968). Most of these cases remained untraced, perhaps because the possible clues, which were of value in tracing such cases, had generally been destroyed inadvertently by the ignorant people who had gathered at the spot after the occurrence. In some cases, the complainants lay suspicions on innocent persons on account of their personal enmity or disputes. Vigilant patrolling by the police, the rounding up of the untraced criminals and bad characters and intelligent and efficient investigation by the district Central Intelligent Agency have effected considerable education in the incidence of the crime.

 

The incidence of burglary in the district during 1959 to 1968 is given below:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

267

277

1960

180

159

1961

157

142

1962

153

127

1963

195

149

1964

211

199

1965

134

172

1966

260

197

1967

327

188

1968

288

204

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

††††††††††† Rioting :- Riots generally take place in the rural areas. Disputes over land and personal rivalries on account of party factions are responsible for the incidence of this crime. It has, however, been observed that the parties, which generally fall out on momentary passions, come to their senses after sometime and patch up their differences by the time the cases are put up in court. The results of prosecution in such cases are, therefore, poor.

 

The following table gives the incidence of riots in the district, during the period 19589 to 1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

6

2

1960

2

6

1961

-

1

1962

2

2

1963

2

-

1964

2

2

1965

-

1

1966

11

3

1967

7

7

1968

1

-

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

††††††††††† The above figures show that there has been an appreciable decline in the incidence of this crime. Only one case was reported during 1968.

 

††††††††††† Theft :- The incidence of ordinary theft has shown an upward trend in the district and mostly the increase hasbeen reported from the urban areas of the district. A tremendous increase in the population of the Amritsar city, Chheharta and Verka because of rapid industrialization, resulting in the influx of a large labour force of unknown antecedents without any corresponding increase in the strength of the police force, are the main causes leading to an increase in the number of thefts. Thefts in the rural areas of the district take place in small numbers, first, because the village abadis are small and the inhabitants know one another, and, second, the rural population is generally well off.

 

The following table gives the incidence of theft in the district from 1959 to 1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

364

361

1960

267

273

1961

242

204

1962

232

215

1963

327

248

1964

327

339

1965

337

371

1966

641

487

1967

675

500

1968

498

357

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

Cattle-lifting :-This crime is mostly prevalent in the rural areas and its incidence has shown a progressive increase, as borne out by the following table for the decennium 1959 to 1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

41

32

1960

20

27

1961

33

27

1962

40

33

1963

47

36

1964

44

48

1965

34

35

1966

45

30

1967

43

21

1968

53

30

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

Traffic in Women :- The crime under this head did not show any noticeable variation during the decades 1959 to 1968. The greatest difficulty in curbing this crime is that most of the case are ultimately found to be of constant in which the young girls willingly elope with their paramours in order to enjoy gay and romantic time. Some of the cases are, however, registered simply on administrative and moral grounds, even though the girls are known to be above the age of consent (i.e. 18 years) and to have willingly gone with their paramours. In such cases, the primary concern of the police is to restore the kidnapped girl of the parents.

 

Kidnapping is a social evil and the police can hardly play an effective role in curbing it. In rare cases, economic distress may lead to kidnapping, but mostly it takes place for immoral purposes. The laxity of moral values, the lack of education, and the allurement of voluptuous life sometimes result in the elopement of innocent girls. The reported cases of kidnapping and abduction were isolated in character, and not the work of any organized gang operating in the district.

 

The table shows the incidence of crime under this head from 1959 to1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

31

30

1960

42

33

1961

37

31

1962

39

36

1963

34

25

1964

51

29

1965

29

32

1966

39

22

1967

75

17

1968

66

16

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

††††††††††† Cheating :-With the rapid industrialization and urbanization of Amritsar and other towns in the district, the incidence of cheating has shown a marked increase. Most of the cases are reported to the policy by the parties in order to settle certain disputes of civil nature. A good number of these cases are ultimately compromised by the parties and this factor accounts for the low percentage of convictions.

 

The following table gives the incidence of cheating in the district, during 1959 to 1968:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

18

19

1960

8

14

1961

14

5

1962

19

9

1963

20

9

1964

18

7

1965

37

30

1966

60

23

1967

47

20

1968

30

13

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

†††††††††††

Offences under Local and Special Laws :- The offences under this head comprise cases under the Police, Arms, Excise, Opium, Gambling, Essential commodities, Railways, Prevention of Corruption Act, etc. The number of cases reported under this head are given below:

 

Year

Reported cases

True cases

1959

4171

4094

1960

4109

3804

1961

4681

4412

1962

5002

4526

1963

5611

4967

1964

5828

5776

1965

6196

5868

1966

5727

4606

1967

5289

4766

1968

5782

5149

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

††††††††††† Incidence of Motor-Vehicle Accidents:- With the rapid industrial and commercial development of Amritsar, the population of the city has increased enormously, with the result that there is a great congestion on the roads. The vehicular traffic, particularly on the G.T. Road, has vastly increased. Amritsar is a big business and trading centre and, as such, there is an endless flow of people visiting this city.

 

All these factors have resulted in an increase in the number of accidents. The prosecutions for traffic offences, launched under the Indian Motor-Vehicles Act, 1939, in the district, during theperiod 1959 to1968 is given below:

 

Year

Reported cases

1959

4990

1960

4390

1961

4921

1962

6867

1963

8247

1964

8939

1965

5823

1966

6079

1967

6140

1968

7264

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

††††††††††† Road Traffic :- Besides the Indian Motor-Vehicles Act, 1939, sections 279, 337, 338, and 304-A of the Indian Penal Code, the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911, and the Municipal Bye-Laws, the Stage Carriages Act, XVI of 1961, the Police Act of 1888, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1890, the Punjab Motor-Vehicles Taxation Act, 1924, and the Hackney-Carriage Act, 1879, regulate the road traffic. The prosecutions launched in the district under the various Acts, during 1959 to 1968, are shown below:

 

Name of the Act

Year

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

Indian Penal Code

17

14

14

29

48

50

50

27

66

59

Municipal Act and Municipal Bye-Laws

3722

3076

3136

2764

-

27

-

-

-

-

Stage Carriage Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Police Act

3458

2595

2599

2688

401

538

1844

1519

336

219

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Punjab Motor-Vehicles Taxation Act

215

175

161

165

440

547

500

590

-

-

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

 

(a)   History and Organization of Police

 

History of Police

 

††††††††††† From an early period, the necessity for some agency for ensuring the safety of life and property and for enforcing law appears to have been felt in all organized communities or groups of persons. In India, the law-enforcement organization has been traditionally associated with the administration of justice.

 

††††††††††† In the Punjab, the police force in the modern sense of the term was organized by the British after the annexation of the Punjab in 1849. The Police system was reorganized from time to time with the recommendations of the different commissions and committees, e.g., the Police Commission of 1861, the second Police Commission of 1902, and the Punjab Provincial Police Committee of 1925.

 

††††††††††† The partition of the Punjab in 1947 and the mass migration of population in its wake not only created an unprecedented problem of law and order, but also completely paralysed the police organization in the State. The police force had to bear the burnt of the after-effects of the partition. It had to combat unprecedented lawlessness in order to restore law and order.

 

††††††††††† Under the new national set-up after the independence of the country, the duties and functions of the police have to be reoriented. They have to assume the new role of the servants of the people and the guardians of law and order. The changed conditions, therefore, called for a review of the needs and the problems of the police as well as of the reorientation of their outlook and administration. Accordingly, the Punjab Police Commission of 1961 was constituted to inquire into, and report on, the role of the police in the context of the democratic set-up consistent with the paramount need for the security of the State, in the context of the measures for controlling meetings and demonstrations and for securing the police-public co-operation and cognate matters. Although the report of the Commissions was not released, yet its recommendations were out in May, 1962 and are being implemented by the Government.

 

Organization of Police

 

††††††††††† For the purpose of police administration, the district falls under the charge of the Deputy Inspector-General of Police, Jullundur Range, Jullundur. The police force of the district is controlled by the ?Senior Superintendent of Police, who is assisted by 1 Superintendent of Police, 6 Deputy Superintendents of Police, 9 Inspectors, 70 Sub-Inspectors, 137 Assistant Sub-Inspectors, 265 Head Constables and 2117 Constables. Besides, the village watchmen (chowkidars) are in position in all such villages as have no municipal or notified area committees. Thikri paihra on voluntary basis is also carried out in the rural areas of the district. The arrangement id of immense help in controlling the crime against the people and their property.

 

††††††††††† The main duty of the police is to combat crime and the criminals in order to keep the law-and-order situation well under control and, thus, ensure the safety of the public. Their working and nature ofduties differ with their postings. Officers and men posted in the police-lines, offices, court duties, standing guards, police-stations and police-posts have different duties to perform according to the nature of the work assigned to them.

 

††††††††††† The strength of the police in the district, as on March 31, 1968, is given in the following table:††


Police strength in the Amritsar District, as on March 31, 1968

 

 

Senior Superintendent of Police

Superintendent of Police

Deputy Superintendent of Police

Inspectors

Sub-Inspectors

Assistants

Head Constables

Constables

Civil/Armed Police

Permanent

1

1

4

7

40

127

207

1751

Temporary

-

-

1

1

12

10

56

346

Mounted Police

Permanent

-

-

-

-

1

-

2

20

Temporary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Prosecution Staff

Permanent

-

-

1

-

17

-

-

-

Temporary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

1

1

6

9

70

137

265

2117

 

(Source : Senior Superintendent of Police, Amritsar)

†††††††††††

†††††††††††


††††††††††† The various police-stations and police-posts in the district have already been mentioned in the chapter on ĎGeneral Administrationí on pages 327-328.

 

††††††††††† Civil Police:-The civil police is employed on duty at the district head quarters and in the various police-stations. There are two police subdivisions in the district, each under a Deputy Superintendent of Police, one at Tarn Taran and the other at Patti. There are 24 police-stations and 15 police-posts in the district. Each police-stations is under the charge of a police officer, known as the Station-House Officer, assisted by one or more Assistant Sub-Inspectors, Head Constables, 1 Moharrir Head Constable as Station Clerk, 1 Constable as Assistant Moharrir or Assistant Station Clerk and a number of Constables. It is the duty of the Station-House Officer to keep the law ans order situation well under control in the area within his jurisdiction and to investigate the offences occuring in it.

 

††††††††††† Punjab Armed Police and Mounted Police:- One P.A.P.Reserve is stationed in the district for anti-dacoity operations. Mounted Police has also been posted in the district.

 

††††††††††† Prosecution Staff:- Formerly, the prosecution staff was drawn from the regular police force of the district. The selected personnel were among those who had passed the law examination from the Police Training School, Phillaur; but this wing of the force has been reorganized and officers, with the requisite legal qualifications, are directly recruited to it.††††††††

 

††††††††††† The Prosecution Branch is under the charge of a Prosecuting DeputySuperintendent of Police, who is assited by 1 Prosecuting Inspector and 17 Prosecuting Sub-Inspectors.

 

††††††††††† Criminal Investigation Department:- There is a unit of the Criminal Investigation Department at Amritsar. It started functioning after the partition (1947), mainly to prevent the foreigners from entering or residing in the district. The staff consists of 1 Superintendent of Police, 1 Deputy Superintendent of Police, 6 Inspectors, 26 Sub-Inspectors, 42 Assistant Sub-Inspectors, 44 Head Constables and 88 Constables.

 

††††††††††† There is no Finger-Print Bureau in the district, but the single-digit system of finger-prints is worked by the Central Information Bureau staff where the records regarding professional criminals are maintained.

 

††††††††††† Vigilance Police:- A unit of the Vigilance Police, under the charge of an Inspector, is posted in the district. Its main job is to make inquiries into the complaints of corruption and other irregularities committed by government employees. If they so desire, they can get such cases registered and the investigations of these cases are carried out by the Vigilance staff themselves. It is after the completion of an inquiry or investigation that they decide whether the accused is to be proceeded against departmentally or tried judicially.

 

††††††††††† Anti-Smuggling Staff:- The problem of smuggling raised its ugly head after the partition (1947), because this district has land borders with Pakistan. A special anti-smuggling staff from among the members of the district police was, therefore, created. Its work is supervised by a Deputy Superintendent of Police, and other staff working under him. This staff has been working there since 1956. It carries out surveillance of smugglers, their financiers and other helpers in the trade. The Amritsar city provides a ready market for the exchange of smuggled articles, and the plain-clothed members of the staff carry on patrolling in the markets of the city.

 

††††††††††† Police Wireless Station:- The wireless organization has a unique significant usefulness. It provides the quickest means of transmission of messages and is the only source for the purpose when other means of communication, i.e., telephone and telegraph, break down.

 

††††††††††† Railway Police:- A police-station of the Government Railway Police is situated in the Amritsar Railway Stationpremises. It attends to crime and other police duties on the railway lines and other buildings connected with the working of the railways. Whereas the Police-Station maintains liaison with the district police, it works under the control of the Assistant Inspector-General, Government Railway Police, Punjab, with headquarters at Patiala. The jurisdiction of the Police-Station extends from the Indo-Pak Border, Wagha, up to Beas on the main line and on branch lines up to Khem Karan, Ramdas and Jaintipura. There are Government Railway Police-Posts at Tarn Taran, Verka and Patti Railway Stations.

 

††††††††††† The staff of the Railway Police consists of 3 Sub-Inspectors, 2 Assistants Sub-Inspectors, 8 Head Constables and 51 Constables.

 

††††††††††† Excise Police Staff:- It consists of 1 Sub-Inspector, 2 Head Constables and 24 Constables, who are on deputation from the Police Department.

 

††††††††††† Village Police:- The instituton of chowkidari is very old. Even in the remote past, every village khad one such official who used to receive as his remuneration a share from each cultivatorís produce. This remuneration was paid by the community equally and was reckoned on the basis of the number of hearths. The village chowkidar formed the lowest rung kof the police organization. Before the abolition of the institutions of zaildari and sufedposhi in 1948, the village chowkidar rendered a useful service by assisting these officials in maintaining law and order in the village.

 

††††††††††† At present, the chowkidar form a regular class and are paid out of the levy called bash assessed from the landowners of the villages, which have no municipal or notified-area committees. The utility of this institution has diminished to some extent owing to the general apathy of the villagers towards rendering assistance to the administration for keeping which and ward. The people are generally averse to performing thikri paihra and have an impression that the maintenance of law and order is the responsibility of the police only.

 

Punjab Home Guards

 

††††††††††† The Punjab Home Guards Act was passed in 1948. It empowered the Government to raise on voluntary basis a disciplined and self-reliant force of citizens, known as Home Guards, in order to supplement the police force in the maintenance of law and order and other essential services during emergencies and affording relief in the event of natural calamities like flood and fire. A voluntary organization, under the name of Home Defence, was also started in 1950. Only the members of its administrative and instructional staffwere government-paid. The organization was given a new name in 1960, when it was renamed the Punjab Volunteers Corps. The Civil Defence staff was also adjusted in the new set-up. It was reorganized in 1963 under the nomenclature of the Punjab Home Guards.

 

( c) Jails and Lock-ups

 

††††††††††† The institution of jails is essentially of British origin and forms a part of the judicial system introduced by them. Under the British regime, the jails formed the punishing-cells and, on release, there was little improvement in the mental attitude of the prisoners whose approach to society remained unchanged. Consequently, they remained emotionally unbalanced and continued to be a menace to society.

 

††††††††††† After independence, a tremendous change has been effected in the working of the jails, which now function as reformatories. Utmost care is taken in respect of the diet, health, education and emotional set-up of the prisioners. Steps are taken to enable them to earn their livelihood as labourers on release and to become useful and respectable members of society.

 

††††††††††† There is a Central Jail at Amritsar and a Sub-Jail at Patti.

 

††††††††††† Central Jail, Amritsar:- The Central Jail, Amritsar, is situated on the Ajnala Road near the village of Gumtala. It was established on August 15, 1958. Its staff consists of 1 Superintendent, 1 Deputy Superintendent, 3 Assistant Superintendents, 2 Sub-Assistant Superintendents, 1 Welfare Officer, 1 Medical Officer, 1 Matron, 1 Teacher, 1 Storekeeper, 1 Tractor-Driver, 1 Pharmacist, 4 Clerks and Class IV staff. Besides, there are 4 Head Warders and 79 Warders.

 

††††††††††† The authorized accommodation of the Jail is for 999 prisioners. The total admission during the year, the average daily population and the maximum population and the maximum population on any day during the year in the jail for the period 1966 to 1968 are given in the following table:

 

Amritsar

 

1966 (1stJune to 31stDecember)

1967

1968

1. Total admission during the year

3401

6264

8276

2. Average daily population

566.9

815.6

1162.4

3. Maximum population on any one day during the year

866

1140

1496

 

 

(Source: Superintendent, Central Jail, Amritsar)†††† the Number of convicted prisoners, released on different grounds during the period 1966 to 1968 was 1,09,72,073 and 2964 respectively. The prisoners sentenced for terms of seven years or less are kept in this jail.

 

Educational, Recreational and Medical Facilities

 

††††††††††† This jail has a paid teacher on permanent basis, and four convict teachers, out of the educated prisoners, have been put on teaching duty. Academic, spiritual, social and religious education is regularly imparted to the prisoners. A library, with plenty of books on all subjects also exists in the jail for the use of prisoners. Daily Newspapers in Hindi, Punjabi, Urduand English are also available to the prisoners. An examination is held for the prisoners and, those who pass this test, are granted special remission by the Superintendent of Jail, in addition to the Literacy Certificates granted by the District Education Officer, Amritsar.

 

††††††††††† The provision of games, e.g. Kabaddi and volley ball, for the prisoners also exists. Matches are held, offand om, in the jail. A dramatic club is also run by the prisoners. Dramas recreational programmes are arranged from time to time. Films are also shown to the prisoners occassionally. The jail has a radio-set and a loud speaker for the recreation of the intimates.

 

††††††††††† A canteen is also run by the prisoners on co-operative basis under official supervision. The prisoners can purchase articles through coupons, which are issued to them against cash deposists. The profit earned from the canteen are spent on the welfare of the prisoners. There is a Prisonerís Panchayat, which helps the jail authorities in routine jail administration. It also look after the interests of the prisoners.

 

††††††††††† Arrangements for medical aid also exists in this jail. A hospital is run, under full-time M.B.B.S Doctor and two Pharmacists, to look after the health of the prisoners. In case of serious illness, the patients are immediately sent to the V.J.Hospital, Amritsar, where better medical facilities are available. Minor operations are conducted in the jail hospital.

 

Jail Industries

 

††††††††††† The industries carried on in the Central Jail, Amritsar, comprise the making of ban from munj,the making of ropes from hemp, the making of chicks,the weaving of dirries,niwar and tapes, the manufacturing of soap and phenyl, the keeping of poultry, etc. this average number of prisoners employed in various industries and production projects of the jail, are given in the following statement:

 

 

 

Statement showing the average number of prisoners employed in various industries and production projects of the Central Jail, Amritsar, 1964-68

 

Year

Ban and Hemp

Carpentry

Chicks

Durries

Niwar and Tape

 

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

1964

55.88

31832.60

44.30

134465.88

7.11

6232.00

8.07

6576.92

3.99

2492.80

1965

42.65

23146.27

55.77

135457.61

4.29

7833.23

4.34

3933.83

8.60

7352.36

1966

23.10

19433.99

47.10

127274.45

5.50

5006.65

6.74

6936.08

4.00

2409.00

1967

60.29

28471.10

35.33

65883.06

14.88

8360.62

23.12

10150.12

17.15

3971.60

1968

-

253.36

21.10

43312.53

6.05

1930.82

35.30

10076.00

28.91

9730.50

 

 

Year

Soap

Phenyl

Miscellaneous

Poultry

Profit

 

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

Production (Rs)

Average (Number)

1964

2.61

6054.14

0.83

11520.00

54.97

11328.16

1.00

1066.44

56635.06

1965

1.05

6200.62

1.29

20081.45

36.54

16848.56

1.00

841.43

93372.79

1966

0.86

4548.70

0.98

13015.00

17.13

13254.78

1.00

8133.08

78799.97

1967

1.92

12127.50

2.38

21624.00

42.37

23265.61

1.00

8750.32

13064.62

1968

1.42

20318.75

0.37

21600.69

69.74

13610.90

1.00

6543.14

23627.73

 

Contents †† Next