(Vide Page 430)

List of the Bye-Laws framed by the Municipal Committee, Tarn Taran


1.      Slaughter-House Bye-Laws


2.      Traffic Bye-Laws


3.      Building Bye-Laws


4.      Weights and Measures Bye-Laws


5.      Business Bye-Laws


6.      Marriage Bye-Laws


7.      Milk and Butter Bye-Laws


8.      Kite-Flying Bye-Laws


9.      Bye-Laws for the Registration of Nurses


10.   Bye-Laws for the Control of Vehicles


11.   Octroi Barrier Bye-Laws


12.   Bye-Laws regarding the Removal of Night-soil


13.   Sweeper Bye-Laws


14.   Swine Bye-Laws


15.   Death and Birth Bye-Laws


16.   Betel Bye-Laws


17.   Bye-Laws for the Sale of Ice


18.   Bye-Laws under section 121 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911


19.   Bye-Laws regarding the Appointment of Agents


20.   Bye-Laws for the sale of Kerosene


21.   Bye-Laws for the Control of Rickshaws


22.   Hackney-carriage  Bye-Laws


23.   Municipal Employees’ Conduct and Service Bye-Laws




List of Bye–laws framed by the Municipal Committee, Majitha


1.      Building Bye-laws

2.      Hand-cart Bye-laws

3.      Birth and Death Bye-laws

4.      Bill Poster Advertisement, Placard and Notice Bye-laws

5.      Agent Bye-laws

6.      Sale of Ice and Aerated –water Bye-laws

7.      Country-cart Bye-laws

8.      Slaughter-House Fee Bye-laws

9.      Cooked-Food Bye-laws

10.   Offensive and Dangerous Bye-laws

11.   Meat Bye-laws

12.   Cycle Bye-laws

13.   Stable Bye-laws




List of Byelaws framed by the Municipal Committee, Chheharta


1.      Birth and Death Bye-laws

2.      Building Bye-laws

3.      Sweeper Service Rules

4.      Business Bye-laws

5.      Dog Bye-laws




Education and Culture


Historical Background


Literacy and Educational Standards


General Education


Professional and Technical Education


Physical Education


Cultivation of Fine Arts


Oriental Schools and Colleges


Education for the Handicapped


Adult Literancy, Social Education and Measures for the Diffusion of Culture among the Masses


Cultural and Literacy Societies and Periodicals


Libraries and Museum


(a)   Historical Background


There is no ancient or medieval center of learning in the district. Some education was imparted through gurudwaras or mandirs, and this education was only of religious type. The primary object of education in the olden days appears to have been the religious initiation of the pupil. The teacher had to teach the pupil as to how to perform the religious duties in the prescribed manner. This teaching, however, included some general knowledge, grammar, mathematics and mythology. This system of education appears to have been followed all through the Middle Ages.


Under the Mughals, an attempt was made to follow a systematic educational policy in order to promote learning among the masses. The personal and religious character of education in any case was maintained throughout this period. Individual teaching was practiced, especially among the higher classes and the nobility. Education was looked upon as a personal or a family process. The teacher had to live with his pupils, talking and listening to them, observing them or being observed by them. Since the earning of livelihood had not yet become the principal aim of education, this less business-like but certainly more scientific attitude was consistently followed.


In Ranjit Singh’s time, there were some well-known schools maintained by state endowment. In Amritsar, for instance, there was Bhai Juna Singh’s school, a fairly large one, where both the Adi-Granth and the Dasam Granth and Gur Bilas and other religious books, along with arithmetic, Vyakaran and Puranas, were taught. Meals were served to the students by the school and no fees were charged. Similarly, there was Bhai Lakhan Singh’s school, which the teacher held in his own house teaching religious books. Bhai Ram Singh, widely known for his learning, had a flourishing school to which students from distant parts of the country came to take lessons in the higher departments of learning such as the scriptures, vyakaran, kavya, Alankar, pingal, literature history, niti, arithmetic and astronomy.


The first Punjab Administration Report of 1849-50, which was prepared after the Punjab became a province in 1849, throws valuable light on the kind of the educational system, then in vogue in the Punjab. The pattern of education in the Punjab had its parallels in many parts of the country, though there were local variations. The indigenous schools were of the following five types:


1.      Pathshalas in which writing and the rudiments of Arithmetic were taught in Hindi.

2.      Maktabs in which the Koran was taught in Arabic, along with Gulistan and Bostan, the didactic and poetical works of Sadi in Persian.

3.      Schools in which Gurmukhi was taught, together with study of the Adi-Granth, the repository of the Sikh faith.

4.      Mahajani schools in which various tachygraphic forms of Lande and Sarafi were taught, in addition to the multiplication tables (Pahare). In particular, these schools were popular with the business community for their special emphasis on accounts.

5.      Miscellaneous schools in which different languages, e.g., Sanskrit and Persian, were taught.


The mode in which teachers were remunerated varied from donations on festivals to offerings of grain or grants of land.


Amritsar remained for long the chief seat of Sikh learning. Education owed much to the system of rent-free grants and endowments made under the Sikh Government. Dr. G. W. Leitner, at one time the Principal, Government College, Lahore, who worked for the foundation of the Punjab University, at Lahore, produced a book entitled, History of Indigenous Education in the Punjab since Annexation and in 1882. This book describes especially the number of educational institutions existing at that time in the Amritsar city. It suggests that, besides the Golden Temple and Bungahs attached to it, there were an out 300 schools in the city where Gurmukhi was taught, and rhetoric studied. The number of Gurmukhi schools, however, was showing a downward trend.


Dr. Leitner was an ardent protagonist of the traditional system of education in the Punjab. He has paid a glowing tribute to the popular attitude towards education in the pre-British Punjab in these words:


“Respect for learning has always been the redeeming feature of  ‘the East’. To this the Punjab has formed no exception. Torn by invasion and civil war, it ever preserved and added to educational endowments. The most unscrupulous chief, the avaricious moneylender, and even the free-booter, vied with the small landowner in making peace with his conscience by founding schools and rewarding the learned. There was not a mosque, a temple a dharamshala that had not a school attached to it, to which the youth flocked chiefly for religious education. There were few wealthy men who did not entertain a Maulvi, Pandit or Guru to teach their sons, and along with them the sons of friends and dependents. There were also the secular schools, frequented alike by Mohammadans, Hindus and Sikhs, in which Persian or Lande were taught. There were hundreds of learned men who gratuitously taught their co-religionists, and sometimes all comers, for the sake of god, ‘lillah’. There was not a single villager who did not take pride in devoting a portion of his product to a respected teacher. In respectable Mohammedan families husbands taught their wives and these their children: nor did the Sikhs prove in that respect to be unworthy of their appellation of ‘learners and disciples’²”.

According to Leitner, mainly Pandit Achint Ram and others who taught Sanskrit, Grammar, Poetry and logic to 75 pupils and later on prepared students for the Pragya and Visharad examinations of the Panjab University, conducted the largest Pathshala in Amritsar. The largest maktab in the city was attached to the mosque of Sheikh Khair-ud-Din in the hall bazaar in which 200 pupils were taught the Koran, Persian and various branches of Arabic learning. The salary of a Maulvi varied from Rs.4 to Rs.21per mensem. The largest of Gurmukhi schools was attached to the Akal Bungah where Bhai Atma Singh taught the Adi-Granth in Gurmukhi to about 100 to 150 students. In many localities like Katra Bhangian, Katra Ahluwalia, Katra Khazana, Katra  Karam Singh and Karmo Deohri, Kama their existed small Persian, Arabic and Urdu schools, where their students numbered between 2 and 18 in a schools and the income of the teacher ranged from Rs.3 to Rs.40. In a higher Arabic, Persian and Urdu school, students numbered between 4 and 60, and the subjects taught were Medicine, Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arabic, and Persian etc. In the Mahajani schools the number of students ranged from 12 to 80 in each school. The Sanskrit schools were scattered allover the city and the standard of teaching in them was quite satisfactory. The number of student in these schools was between 4 and 75 and the income of a teacher ranged from Rs7 to 80. By October 30, 1882, there were in the Amritsar city 132 Maktabs and Madrassas with 1,795 pupils; 65 Pathshalas, with 1,074 pupils; 63 Gurmukhi schools with 1,193 pupils; and 24 Mahajani schools, with 798 pupils. Thus the total number of indigenous schools in the Amritsar city was 284, with 4,860 pupils.


The most distinguish men of learning in the Amritsar city at that time were Ganga Ram, Kirpa Ram, Pir Baksh, Aziz-ud-Din, Mohmmad Rukn-ud-Din, Akbar Shah, Mohmmad Fazil Karim, etc. the most distinguish Gurumukhi scholars and Authors were Bhai Hazara Singh and Bhai Kishan Singh. The well-known Sanskrit Scholars were Pandit Tulsi Ram, Pandit Balmukand and Pandit Baij Nath.


It must be mentioned that the indigenous education was deficient in critical and scientific ideas. Students were mostly made to learn and possibly to admire the virtues of their traditional religions. Learning at that time by rote and some children showed marvelous powers of memory by reproducing many columns of Arithmetical figures, which amazed the spectators. Discipline in the schools was somewhat strict. In larger schools, the teachers were permanent, but there were also itinerant teachers who follow the local demand.


²G.W. Lietner, History of Indigenous Education in the Punjab since Annexation and in 1882, p.1


The beginning of western education in the real sense can be traced back to the opening of the Mission schools in 1880. The Christians started their mission to spread education among the masses. The main interest of the mission was to inculcate in the minds of the people the love for Christianity; hence this education was mainly religious and in no way secular. But it was the missionary activity, which yielded the fruitful results in the field of female education in the District. The Church Missions Society established missions and posted chaplains who founded the Alexandra high School and the middle- class schools for girls, besides the high schools for boys. The oldest girls’ school in Amritsar is the Alexandra High Schools founded by the Church Mission Society in 1878. It was originally founded for Indian Christian girls, but since 1907 it has admitted children of other communities as well. The Sacred Heart School on the Majitha Road is also a missionary institution, which provides instruction for both Christian and non-Christians students up to the matriculation standard.


The Muslims had 4 schools in the Amritsar city, 3 of which (Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental, Muslim and Islamia) were managed by the Anjuman-I-Islamia, founded in 1874, and the fourth was the Chistia High School which was governed by a council of prominent local citizens. The special object of the Anjuman-I-Islamia was to encourage among the Muslim community. In May 1933, a Muslim Intermediate College was started near the Hall Gate by adding the first two college classes to the local M.A.O. High School. The college was raised to the degree standard in1945, and was financed and run by the Anjuman-I-Islamia. After the migration of the Muslims form the city, this college ceased to function. Later on, the D.A.V. Management took over the building, where the D.A.V. College has been functioning since 1955.


Besides the Mission schools and the Muslim schools, a number of other schools were subsequently opened in the district. The Singh Sabha, Amritsar, opened some high schools in 1890. The D.A.V. High School and the Hindu Sabha High School followed these schools. The D.A.V. organization has been a very strong one and has been playing a vital role in the spreading of education among the masses. The people reacted against the spread of Western education, yet they were alive to the need of the provision of educational facilities on a larger scale.


Ever since the beginning of the present century, literacy among the people of Amritsar has been on the increase. The very fact that the number of schools has been increasing gradually shows that more and more people feel interested in receiving education. Among the popular educational institutions in the Amritsar city are the Government High School, the Hindu Sabha High School, the Pandit Baij Nath High School, the Dayanand High School, the Balmukhand Khatri High School and the Government Clerical and Commercial School. The Pandit Baij Nath High School and the Balmukhand High School are fairly old and enjoy a good reputation for discipline, results and games. These schools also have branches in different parts of the city. Acharya Sunder Singh founded the Ram Ashram High School, Majitha Road, in1923 with 7 students. This co-educational institution, run on modern lines, has played a vital role in the lives of the students by laying special emphasis on studies and extra-curricular activities.



(b)   Literacy and Educational Standards


In 1951, the literacy percentage in the Amritsar District was 22.4. By 1961, it rose to 29.7 as compared with 24.2 for the State and 24 for the Indian Union. Amritsar has made a quick improvement in the field of education during the first three plan periods, as is shown in the following table:    


Progress of school education in the Amritsar District during 1951-52 to 1965-66








Primary Schools





Middle Schools






High Schools











6. Ibid.









Primary Schools





Middle Schools





High Schools





Higher Secondary Schools      



















Primary/Junior Basic Schools

Middle/Senior Basic Schools





High/Higher Secondary Schools












(Amritsar District Census handbook, 1961,p.39; Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1968, pp. 314-316 and 327)


The school going boys in the Amritsar District, according to the 1961 Census, were 34.7 percent of the male population past five years and below twenty years in age, but the girl students were only 23.1 percent of the female population in this age-group.


The people, in general, are becoming education-minded and there is a great demand for more and more schools, especially in the rural areas. The parents seem to be eager that their children should be given proper facilities for education. There is an equally strong urge among the parents for giving education to their girls, with the result that the number of women students has shown an upward trend.


Though the responsibility for providing education for the citizens has mainly been assumed by the Government, yet various educational societies, missions, and philanthropic endowments are also rendering valuable service in the field of education. These are briefly mentioned below:


Educational Societies Rendering Service in the Field of Education


i)                   Christian Missions – The Christian missionaries have done pioneering work in the sphere of education in the district. They run the Alexandra High School and a middle school for girls in the Amritsar city, a high school for boys and the Sacred heart School, which provide instruction for both Christians and non-Christian students. Foreign missionaries have also taken up social work in the Sacred Heart School.


ii)                The Chief Khalsa Diwan, Amritsar: - The Chief Khalsa Diwan, Amritsar has played a very important role in the development of education. A Sikh school was established in Amritsar as early as 1893. It was raised to a high school in 1896and to a degree college in 1899. With the establishment of this Khalsa College, the long felt need of the people for higher education was fulfilled. The Chief Khalsa Diwan, Amritsar, also runs a B.Ed Training College and department of agriculture education (both on the campus of the Khalsa College), the Khalsa College for Women, a boys’ higher secondary school, and a girls’ high school at Amritsar and a number of high schools in the District.


iii)                Hindu Sabha Trust :- The Hindu Sabha Trust, Amritsar runs the Hindu College , Amritsar. This institution was raised from the Hindu Sabha High School, established in 1906, to a intermediate college in 1924 and a full fledged Degree college in 1936. The college is rendering a commendable service in the sphere of education in the district.


iv)               The D.A.V. Society :- It is running two separate colleges, one for boys and the other for girls; a polytechnic institute; one B.Ed college for women, viz. the D.A.V College of Education for Women; a boys’ higher secondary school; and two high schools in the Amritsar city. Through its various institutions, the society has played a significant role in the development of the education in the district.


v)                 Shahzada Nand Educational Trust, Amritsar :-  In order to perpetuate the noble memory of Sh. Shahzada Nand, a great and noble business magnate and philanthropist of the Punjab, the trust is running a network of educational institution in the Amritsar city. The Shahzada Nand College for Women, Amritsar was established in 1967-68. the trust is also running a higher secondary school and a high school with braches at various places in the city.


vi)               Sri Guru Arjan Dev Educational Trust, Tarn Taran :- The trust runs Sri Guru Arjan Dev College, Tarn Taran, which was established in 1966. this institution caters to the long felt need of the people residing in rural areas for higher education.


Besides, the Shromani Gurudwara Parbhandah Committee and the Ramgarhia Trust also run boys’ and girls’ high schools at Tarn Taran. There is also number of schools for boys and girls run by other societies in the town.



Women’s Education


Before the annexation of the Punjab by the British in 1849,little attention was paid to the education of women. Most of the people held orthodox views about female education. The Christian missionaries were the first to take up the cause of female education in the district, and their activities yielded fruitful results. They established the Alexandra High School for Girls and also a middle school for girls in Amritsar as early as 1878. Even earlier, a midwifery school was opened in Amritsar in 1886. Besides, the Shrimati Dayawanti Kanya Vidyalya was founded in 1906.


Backwardness in respect of women’s education still prevails in the rural areas of the district, especially in the Ajnala Tahsil. The people of the rural areas are against sending their young girls to schools and colleges situated far away from their homes. Some parents like to keep their girls at home to be of helpto them in household affairs, whereas others, especially in the rural areas, are averse to co-education in the schools. The introduction of compulsory primary education has, however, mitigated the evil at the primary stage in the rural areas. The people have become conscious of the benefits of education and have started sending girls to schools. The district made rapid progress in the field of women’s education during Third Five-Year Plan, 1961-66. There were as many as 1,00,474 girl students studying in 95 different schools as compared with 1,52,730 boys studying in the various schools in the district. The college education among the women has also received much impetus and there are now four colleges for women in the Amritsar city for imparting instructuion up to M.A. classes. Besides, there are three teachers’ training colleges for women at Amritsar.


Education of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes

The members of the Schedule Castes and Backward Classes have been given various inducements and encouragements by the State Government with regard to education has given the members of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes various inducements and encouragements. They are given free education up to the middle standard in all Government and provincialized schools. Free books, stipend and scholarships are awarded to the students belonging to these classes in all educational institutions, including colleges under the various schemes sponsored b the State Government and the Union Government. Even the admission fee in respect of different examinations is reimbursed to such students. Besides, books and clothes are given free tot the poor and needy students out of the School Red Cross Fund. In spite of granting various concessions and facilities to these classes and the introduction of free compulsory primary education, these people, particularly those residing in the rural areas, are not very enthusiastic about education.


The financial assistance given tot the students, belonging to the Scheduled Castes in the district, during 1963-64 to 1967-68, is given below:



            Year                          Stipends            Number of Students Benefited

            1963-64           ..          1,52,434                                  1,493

            1964-65           ..          1,09,770                                  1,949

            1965-66           ..             57,785                                  2,279

            1966-67           ..          1,40,152                                  2,529

            1967-68           ..          1,34,877                                  2,513


            The number of students belonging to the scheduled castes studying in different schools in the district, during the yea 1967-68, was as under :


Type of institution                               Number of Scheduled Castes Students                             

Boys                Girls                Total


Primary/ Junior Basic Schools..            12,684              4,395               17,079

Middle/ Senior Basic Schools   ..            2,108                833                 2,991

High Schools                           ..            2,984                956                 3,940

Higher Secondary Schools       ..            2,512             1,002                3,514

Basic Training Schools ..                   6                    3                      9



Role of Local Bodies in the Field of Education


The Zila Parishad (formerly District Board),Amritsar, and the various municipal committees in the district, viz. the Amritsar, Chheharta, Jandiala Guru, Patti and Tarn Taran, did commendable work in the field of education. Voluntary education was their exclusive responsibility. Before the provincialization of schools in October 1957, the number of primary, middle and high schools, maintained by the local bodies in the district, was as follows:



Name of local body                 Number of schools maintained by the local bodies before 1957                                   

                                Primary                     Middle                     High

                                              Boys        Girls     Boys       Girls        Boys       Girls

1. Zila Parishad, ..                    632          103         36            15            20           --


2. Municipal..                            24             11           1             4              1            1

Committee, Amritsar

3. Municipal                               -                -             -             -              1           --

Committee, Chheharata

4. Municipal Committee,           2                  3            -             1              1           --

Jandiala Guru

5. Municipal Committee,            1                 2            -            -               -             1


6. Municipal Committee,..           2                 2            -              -               1            1

Tarn Taran


On the provincialization of schools, the local bodies were required to pay annually a specified contribution for the maintenance of these schools. The contributions made by them from 1957-58 to 1967-68 are shown in the following table:


Contributions made by the local bodies for the maintenance of provincialized schools in the Amritsar District during 1957-58 to 1967-68:


Contribution made by the local bodies for the maintenance of provincialized schools in the Amritsar District  during 1957-58 to 1967-68

Amount deposited

Amount deposited upto 31st March 1968 (Rs)


Name of the local body

1957-58 (Rs)

1958-59 (Rs)

1959-60 (Rs)

1960-61 (Rs)

1961-62 (Rs)

1962-63 (Rs)

1963-64 (Rs)

1964-65 (Rs)

1965-66 (Rs)

1966-67 (Rs)

1967-68 (Rs)


Zila Parishad Amritar














Muncipal Committee Amritsar














Muncipal Committee Chheharta














Muncipal Committee Jandiala Guru














Muncipal Committee Patti














Muncipal Committee Tarn Taran
















Medium of Instruction


Under the Sachar Formula that had been in force in the Punjab since October 1949, parents had the option to declare Hindi as the mother- tongue of their children in the Punjabi zone and Punjabi in the Hindi zone. The teaching of Punjabi as the first language and as the medium of instruction began from the first class and Hindi as the second language was introduced from the fourth class. Since the formula operated in the reorganized Punjab (after the merger of Pepsu with it on November 1, 1956) as well, parents could opt for a language other than Punjabi as the medium of instruction for their children and the State Government had to make arrangements for its teaching. Under the Pepsu Formula of 1954,Punjabi was the medium of instruction and the first language from the first primary class onwards in the Punjabi zone of the former Pepsu and Hindi was taught as a compulsory subject from the third primary class.


With the re-organization of the Punjab from November 1,1966, the whole of the new Punjab State had become a unilingual Punjabi-speaking State. With the passage of the Punjab Official Language Act, 1967, Punjabi has become the official language of the district level and from April 13,1968, at the State level. On July 2,1969, the State Government took the decision to replace the Sachar Formula and the Pepsu Formula with the three-language formula. Under the decision, Punjabi has become the first compulsory language and the medium of instruction at all stages in Government schools in the State. Hindi is the second compulsory language from the fourth class, whereas English is the third compulsory language from the sixth class.


Educational Set-up


Before the re-organization of the educational set-up in 1963, there were separate agencies for the control of boys’ and girls’ schools in the district. The District Inspector of Schools and the girls’ middle schools by the District Inspectress of Schools controlled the boys’ schools up to the middle standard. They were assisted by Assistant District Inspectors / Inspectoresses in regard to the control of the primary schools. The Divisional Inspector and Divisional Inspectoress of Schools, Jullundur controlled the high and higher secondary schools for boys and girls, respectively. With the reorganization of the educational set-up on May 8,1963, the District Education Officer, Amritsar, has been made responsible for the administration of all primary, middle, high and higher secondary schools for boys and girls in the district. Four Deputy Education Officers, one of who is a woman, assist him. The District Education Officer is under the supervisory control of the Circle Education Officer, Jullundur. He generally consults the Deputy Education Officer (Woman) in matters relating to the women teachers.


The District Education Officer is assisted  by 15 Block Education Officers whose areas of operation are normally coterminus with the development blocks.there may, however, be more than one Block Education Officer in a block, depending upon the number of primary schools, assist the District Education Officer. IN addition to the above supervisory staff, an Assistant Education Officer (P.T) assists the District Education Officer in the promotion of physical education in schools.


At the ministerial level, the establishment, accounts, examination and general branches function under the general supervision of a Superintendent, who is responsible to the District Education Officer for general administration and working of the District Education Office. The Superintendent is assisted by an Assistant Superintendent, 1 Head Clerk and a number of Assistants and Clerks.


(c)   General Education

Pre-Primary Schools


The problems of pre-primary education is of great interest and importance in India. The pre-primary education is essential for the physical mental, emotional and social growth of the children  between the ages of 3 & 6. The aim of this education is to create a healthy social environment wherein the child may develop his physique and intellect. Co-operation, and not competition, is emphasized in such schools. The main aim of such education at this stage is to provide healthy external conditions for the young children and to give them social experience rather than formal instruction. Thus, a love for work is developed and the child begins to find work in play and the play in work.


The pre-primary education in the district is neither much organized nor given any special impetus. The people are, however, becoming conscious of the psychological needs of the childrens, with the result that some voluntary organizations and individual have started private schools to meet the requirement of the small children.


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