Primary and Basic Schools


            Compulsory primary education was introduced into the State during the Third Five –Year Plan, starting with the age-group 6-7 in 1961-62, and extending it from 7-8 in 1962-63, 8-9 in 1963-64, 9-10 in 1964-65 and 10-11 in 1965-66. the total number of primary schools in the district in 1967-68 was 893 as compared with 857 in 1965-66. Out of the total number of 893 primary schools, there were 87 basic primary schools. In 1967-68, the number of students on the rolls in all types of primary schools in the district was 1,26,593. The details of educational institutions and scholars at the primary stage in the Amritsar District is given in the following table :-


Educational Institutions and scholars at the Primary stage in the Amritsar District as on March 31st , 1968.



Number of Institutions

Number of scholars



















Primary Schools











Basic primary Schools












In primary schools and in the primary department of middle/high/higher secondary schools, the teachers are entrusted with the teaching of the class as a whole in all the subjects. The number of students in a session of a primary school is about 50. all the primary schools have five classes. Most of the primary school teachers are either basic trained or have been orientated to the basic pattern. Under the new system of education, primary schools are being converted into five –grade schools. In 1967-68, there were 87 junior basic primary teachers’ training institutions from J.V. to J.B.T., new methods of teaching have been introduced into the primary schools.


Secondary Schools


            At the secondary stage , there were on march 31,1968, 46 higher secondary schools, 95 high schools and 104 middle schools in the district. The total number of scholars studying in these schools was 46316 , 47762 & 32764 respectively . The details about the educational institutions & scholars at the secondary stage in the district , as on march 31 , 1968 , are given in the following Table :



Number of Institutions

Number of scholars



















Higher Secondary Schools











High Schools











Middle Schools












            The total number of teachers ( both trained and untrained ) in all the higher secondary , high and middle schools , including the teachers’ training schools(J.B.T.) was 55,002 on may 15 , 1968 . Unlike the primary classes , special teachers’ training system is prevalent in the middle , high & higher classes . A teacher qualified to teach a particular subject takes different classes in that very subject  . generally , there are about 60 students in a class , and as soon as the number goes up , it is divided into sections , subject to the availability of the staff .


            Education up to the middle standard is free in all Government schools . The middle-school  examination is held only in February / March in which 10 percent brillint students are awarded scholarships . The fifth-class students are also allowed to participate in the scholarship examination held every year .


            The students of the high and higher secondary schools are awarded scholarships  on the basis of merit . Only half fee is charged in case of girls studying in the ninth and tenth classes.


Higher Education


Amritsar is one of the most advanced districts in the State in the field of education. Before the establishment of the Khalsa College in 1899, there were a large number of primary and secondary schools, but there was no college in the Amritsar. The students desirous of higher education had performed to go to  Lahore or Delhi. By the end of the nineteenth century, the demand for a college was felt and as a result of the enterprise of the residents of the city, two college was felt viz. the Khalsa College ( in 1899) and the Hindu College ( in 1924), were established. The establishment of theses colleges was mainly due to the activities  of the Singh Sabah and the Hindu Sabha, Amritsar. Subsequently, an intermediate Govt. College for Women was started at Amritsar in 1932. It was raised to the degree level in 1938. Thereafter, several other institution of higher education were established from time to time. The various institution, imparting higher education in the district by the end of the 1968, are mentioned below :


(i)                          Khlasa College, Amritsar


(ii)                        Hindu College, Amritsar


(iii)                       Government College for Women, Amritsar


(iv)                      Modern College for Women, Amritsar


(v)                        D.A.V College for Boys, Amritsar


(vi)                      D.A.V. College foe Women, Amritsar


(vii)                     Shahzada Nand College for Women, Amritsar


(viii)                   Khalsa College for Women, Amritsar


(ix)                      Sri Guru teg Bhadur College, Amritsar


(x)                        Mata Ganga Girls’ College, Tarn Taran


(xi)                      Sir Guru Arjan Dev College, Tarn Taran


(xii)                     Government College, Patti


(xiii)                   Baba Budha College, Bir Sahib


(xiv)                   Sir Guru Angad Dev College, Khadur Sahib



All of the above colleges are affiliated to the newly established Guru Nanak dev University, Amritsar.


(i)                                                              Khalsa College, Amritsar. -  Raised from a school (originally established in 1893 to a degree college in 1899, it is situated about 4 Km west of Amritsar on the Grand Trunk Road, away from the hubbub of the city, but amidst pleasant surroundings. It is a grand building, with its tower reminiscent of the old Sikh Architecture. The history of the Khalsa College, Amritsar, is in fact the history of the Sikh Community in the recent times. It is a symbol of progress, new learning and new life. When the Sikh Kingdom came to an end in 1849 and the forces of degeneration and decay set in, a need was felt to establish some central seat of learning to save the flickering flame of religious and intellectual life extinction. The first Singh Sabha was founded in Amritsar in 1873 to check this downward trend and to show way in the darkness. In 1883, the General Sabha, which later on came to be known as the khalsa diwan , adopted a resolution for the establishment of the Khalsa College at Amritsar. Sir James Lyall laid down the foundation stone on March 1892. A Sikh school was established in 1893;it was raised to a high school in 1896, it became a degree college. Later on, the post Graduate teaching was also introduced into the college.


The college is managed by a committee, responsible to the General Council. It enjoyed extensive patronage of the former Sikh princes and also had a galaxy of eminent principals, including Mr. G.A. Wathen and Rai Bhadur Man Mohan. It runs the Pre-University (the Humanities and Science Groups), Pre Medical and Pre Engineering classes and the Three year degree in B.A. and B.Sc (Medical and Non- Medical), M.Sc Agriculture, Four Year B.Sc Agriculture Course (New Regulations), B.Sc Honours in Chemistry and M.A. Classes in English, Punjabi and Economics. It also runs a diploma course I Divinity, which is of two years’ duration. The college had on its rolls 2,573 students in 1967-68.


(ii)                                                            Hindu College, Amritsar – It was founded in 1924 in order to meet the growing demand for university education in the city which was served at that time only by the Khalsa College, situated quite away from the heart of the city.  Feeling the urgent need of an institution, which should be more centrally located to serve all sections of the local community without distinction of caste and creed, eminent leaders, e.g., the late Sir Gopal Das Bhandari and other philanthropists, decided in 1924 to raise the then existing Hindu Sabha High School to the level of an intermediate college. It was raised to the level of a degree college in 1936. It is runby a council elected by the Hindu Sabha, which gives financial aid. The college hostel in the Civil Lines provides residential accommodation for the students. The college prepares students for the Pre – University (the Humanities and Science), the Three – Year Degree Course and M.A. Classes. The number of students in the city in the college in 1967 – 68 and 1968 – 69 was 1,379 and 1,400 respectively.


(iii)                                                          Government College for Women, Amritsar - Originally known as the Stratford College for Women, it was started in 1932 as an intermediate college and was raised to the degree standard in 1938. Since November 22,1963, it has been functioning in its own building in Rani Ka Bagh, opposite the District Courts. It has  a commodious modern building, with well – equipped science laboratories, lecture theatres and an assembly hall. Hostel accommodation is also provided for the students. It runs the Pre - University (the Humanities and Science Groups), the Pre – Medical and the Pre – Engineering classes and the Three – Year Degree Course in B.A. and B.Sc. (Medical and Non – Medical). The college had 1,108 students on its rolls in 1967 – 68.


(iv)                                                          Modern College for Women, Amritsar – With a view to meeting the increasing demand for women’s higher education in Amritsar, this college was established in May 1940. The Modern College Governing Council manages it. The college is housed in a commodious bungalow situated on the Mall. It runs the Pre - University and the Three – Year Degree Courses. The college had 829 students on its rolls in 1967 – 68.


(v)                                                            D.A.V. College, Amritsar – It was established in the memory of Swami Dayanad Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj. The college is a constituent unit of the D.A.V. College Managing Committee, New Delhi, which is manned by a galaxy of selfless and devoted educationalists. There is also a Local Advisory Committee of the college, composed of leading educationists and public men. Within a short span of 15 years, the college has secured a niche in the educational hierarchy of the State.  


The college imparts instruction in M.A. in English, Hindi, Mathematics and Economics in the Three – Year Degree Courses in Arts, Science and Commerce and in the Pre – Engineering, Pre – Medical and Pre – University (Science and Humanities Groups) Courses. It has also arrangement for the teaching of a number of housing of honors subjects. The college had 2,168 students on its rolls in 1967 – 68 and 2,572 in 1968 – 69.


(vi)                                                          D.A.V. College for Women, Amritsar – Started in July 1967, the D.A.V. College Managing Committee, New Delhi, runs the institution. Situated on the Lawrence Road, the college runs the Pre – University (the Humanities Group) and the Three – Year Degree Courses. It had 285 students on its rolls in 1967 – 68 and 595 in 1968 – 69.


(vii)                                                        Shahzada Nand College for Women, Amritsar – It stated functioning from 1968. This is one of the several institutions established by the Shazada Nand Educational Trust in Amritsar to perpetuate the memory of college was founded by Shri Guranditta Mal of M/S Shahzada Nand and Sons, Amritsar, at the instance of Shri Shanti Sarup Piplani, a veteran educationist, who offered to dedicate his life for the cause of women’s education. The college has made commendable contribution to the sp[read of education in the city. It prepares students for the various examinations of the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, up to B.A. with provision for both Science and Arts in the Pre – University classes. Arrangements also exist in the college for preparing students for the M.A. degree in History and Political Science. The number of students on the college rolls was 772 in 1967 – 68.


(viii)                                                      Khalsa College for Women, Amritsar – Fouded in July, 1968, the Khalsa College for Women, Amritsar, is run by the Managing Committee of the Khalsa College, Amritsar. It is situated in a separate building, having separate entrances from the main gate leading to the Khalsa College for Men. The college imparts instruction in the Pre – University (the Humanities Group) and in the Three – Year Degree Course with Honours in Punjabi (the Humanities Group). The number of students on the rolls of the college in 1969 – 70 was 196.


(ix)                                                          Guru Teg Bahadur College, Sathiala – Formerly known as the National College, it was founded in May, 1955. Before the establishment of the college, the people of Sathiala and its neighbourhood faced difficulties and hardships while sending their children for higher education to the cities. The institution was handed over to the Sikh Educational Society, Jullundhur, in 1967, which renamed it “Guru Teg Bahadur College”. It is situated on the Jullundhur – Batala Road. The historical Gurdwara of Baba Batala is about 3 km., from the college. The college is housed in a magnificient building and has a hostel, auditorium and spacious playgrounds. It prepares students for the Pre – University (the Humanities and the Science Groups) and for the Three – Year Degree Course. It had 544 students on its rolls in 1967 – 68 and 697 in 1968 – 69.  


(x)                                                            Mata Ganga Girls College, Tarn Taran :- In order to growing need of the girls of the area for higher education, the Sri Guru Arjan Dev Khalsa Girls’ School Trust, Tarn Taran, established the mtat Ganga Girls’ College, Tarn Taran. The college started functioning in the pre-university ( the Humanities Group) and in the Three-Year Degree Course in Arts. The number of students on its rolls was 230 in 1967-68 and 275 in 1968-69.


(xi)                                                          Sri Guru Arjan Dev College, Tarn Taran :- Established in 1966, the college is managed by the Sri Guru Arjan Dev Educational Trust, Tarn Taran. It caters to the need of  higher education of the students residing in the rural areas. It is situated in an ideal locality on the Tarn Taran-Jhabal Road away from the tumult of the town. The college runs the Pre-University(the Humanities Grou), the Pre Medical the Pre –Engineering and the three Year Degree Courses. The number of students on its rolls in 1967-68 was 480.


(xii)                                                        Government College, Patti :- Started in 1969, the college imparts instruction in the Pre-University class (the Humanities Group) and in the Three Year Degree Course (Arts Group). The number of students on its rolls in 1969-70 was 287.


(xiii)                                                      Baba Budha College, Bir Sahib :- Started in 1969, the college runs the Pre-University (Arts, Medical and Non- Medical Groups), the Pre- Medical, the Pre-Engineering courses, the Three Year Degree Course, Part I and II (Arts), and Part I (Science) classes. The number of students on the rolls of the college in 1969-70 was 273.


(xiv)                                                      Sri Guru Angad Dev College, Khadur Sahib :- Founded in the memeory of Sri Guru Angad Dev, the college started functioning from July 22, 1970. It prepares students for the Pre- University Course and the Three – Year Degree Course (Arts). The number of students on the rols of the college in 1970 was 270.


Guru Nanak Dev Unversity, Amritsar :- The Guru nank Dev University, Amritsar was established to commemorate the birth quincentenary of Guru Nank Dev. It is located between Amritsar and Chheharta on the G.T road, near the Khalsa College, Amritsar. Its foundation stone was laid on November 24,1969, by Shri V.V. Giri, the then President of India. This is a teaching as well as and affiliating University, having jurisidiction over the college located in the district of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jullundhur and Kapurthala. The number of affiliated colleges and their students, during 1974-75 was 70 and about 50,000 respectively.


The different teaching departments functioning on the University campus are Hindi, Punjabi, English, History, Economics, Political Science, Physchology, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology, Library Science, Planning and Laws, besides the research departments of Guru Nanak Studies and Punjabi Language, Literature and culture. The non teaching departments includes Landscape, Physical Education, Youth Welfare, Public Relations and Publications.


The master plan of the university campus was approved on November, 2, 1970. the first phase of this plan was nearing completion in 1974 –75. The buildings completed by then were : guest house, chemistry block, physics block, biology block, arts block, boys hostel, girls’ hostel, Vice- Chancellor’s  residence, health center, water storage overhead reservoir, a number of houses for the staff, etc.

The estimated income and expenditure of the university, during 1974-75, was as under :







Expenditure on maintenance, etc


Expenditure on construction of buildings etc.



(d) Professional and Technical Education


Teachers’ Training


The colleges and schools which prepare students for the teachers training degree/diploma, functioning in the district, are given below :



Name of the Institution

Degree/ diploma awarded

Duration of course


Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar


1 year


D.A.V. College of Educatin for Women, Amritsar


1 Year


Government Girls’ High School, Amritsar


2 Years


Government High School, patti


2 Years


Government High School, Khalra


2 Years


Government High School, Rayya


2 Years


Government High School, Sathiala


2 Years


Government Girls High School, Bhangali


2 Years


Government High School, Majitha


2 Years


Government Basic Training School, Sirhali Kalan


2 Years


Government Girls High School, Jandiala Guru


2 Years


Government Girls High School, Ajanala


2 Years


Government Girls High School, Patti


2 Years


Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar :- Started in 1954, it is a wing of the Khalsa College , Amritsar. Students are admitted to the B.Ed. class for undergoing a course of teachers’ training for one year. The college has its own separate Principal and training to both boys and girls is imparted. There were 250 students on its rolls in 1967-68.



            D.A.V. College of Education for Women, Amritsar :- This college formerly known as the Saraswati Training College for Women, was founded in 1956 by lala Balak Ram Kapur, an ardent advocate of female education. The D.A.V. Managing Committee, New Delhi, took over this institution in 1963. It is housed in its own spacious building outside the Lohgarh gate. The College has a Recreational Hall and a non-resident students Centre. The B.Ed. course is of one year duration. The number of students on the rolls of the college in 1967-68 and 1968-69 was 215 and 239 respectively.



Medical Education


            The modern type of medical education was started in the district in the early twenties of the present century when the Medical School, Lahore 9 now the Medical College, Amritsar) was transferred to Amritsar in 1920.


            Medical Education, Amritsar :- Founded in 1943, the college is doing a pioneering work in the field of medical education. It prepares students for degrees of M.B.B.S and M.D.M.S., and also for the diplomas of D.T.D., D.O. M. S. and Anesthesia and Pharmacy. The number of students on the rolls in 1967-68 was 1,010.


            Besides the Medical College, Amritsar, there are other medical institutes, viz, the Punjab Government Dental College and Hospital, Amritsar; the Hygiene and Vaccine Institute, Amritsar and the Punjab Health School, Amritsar. These institutes are described in the next chapter, ‘ Medical and Public Health Services’. A course for the trainig of nurses exists in the V.J. Hospital, Amritsar.


Agricultural Education


            The Khalsa College , Amritsar, has a department of educational education attached to it. It was started in 1923. It prepares students for degree of B.Sc Agriculture, which is of four years’ duration. It has a big farm equipped with modern agricultural implements. The farm grows many varieties of crops for demonstration and teaching. A well-equipped dairy far is maintained on modern scientific lines. The students receive practical training in the modern methods of food production. A big fruit garden and a nursery have been raised for commercial purposes on the college farms. The number of students on the rolls of the agricultural Wing of the Khalsa College, Amritsar was 188 in 1967-68 and 216 in 1968-69.


Technical Education


            With advances in the field of science and technology, increasing emphasis is being laid on scientific and technical education. The district has the following institutions in the field of engineering and technology :


i)                   Government Industrial School for Boys, Amritsar


ii)                  Government Industrial School for Girls, Amritsar


iii)                R.B. Girdhari lal Industrial School, Amritsar


iv)                Sital Industrial School for Girls, Amritsar


v)                 Dayanand Polytechnic Institute for Girls, Amritsar


vi)                Punjab Institute of Textile Technology, Amritsar

vii)              Government Institute of Garment Technology, Amritsar

viii)             Government Industrial Training Centre, Patti


ix)                Government Industrial Training Centre, Sirhali Kalan


x)                 Government Industrial School for Girls, jandiala Kalan


xi)                Government Industrial School for Girls, Rayya.


(e) Physical Education


Physical education is a part of general education which aims at making a child physically fit, mentally alert and morally sound. Due consideration is given to the physical education in the schools and colleges. In the colleges, physical education  is directed and guided by the Physical Directors. It  is obligatory on part of every student to attend a certain numbers of periods in Physical education. In schools, there are two types of teachers- Physical Training Masters/Mistresses and Physical Training Instructors. Primary schools-teaches are given special training in physical education which is supervised by the Block Education Officer. For genera supervision and guidance, there is one Assistant Education Officer for physical education. Special rallies are organized in physical activities at various places in the District. Inter –School tournaments are organized separately for higher/secondary/middle and primary schools. Since 1963, the District has been bagging the general shield in the Inter-District Tournament, The standard of games in the District is quite high in comparison with that in other district in the State.


            Beside the above, the following schemes, under separate departments, also promote the cause of physical education :


(i)                The promotion of sports and games by the Sports Department ;

(ii)               The National Fitness Corps, sponsored by the Central Government ;

(iii)             The National cadet Corps; and

(iv)             The Bharat Scouts and Guides.


(i)                           Sports Department :-  The sports department was known as the Sports Cell upto 1960. It became full fledged department in 1961 and by 1962 it had its branches at the district level.


            The department is represented at the district level by the District Sports Officer, Amritsar, who functions under the administrative control of Divisional Sports officer, Jullundhur. He is assisted by a State Football Coach and State Cricket Coach and other miscellaneous Class III and Class IV staff.


            The main duties of the District Sports Officer are to discover sports talent from  amongst the villagers and students by holding coaching camps in schools and by arranging tournaments at the district level. He is also required to popularize sports in the district.


(ii)       National Fitness Corps :-     The Government of India a Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. H.N. Kunzru for the co-ordination and integration of schemes operating in the fields of Physical Education, Recreation and Youth Welfare. The Committee, in its report, submitted to the Government of India in 1963, recommended that, at the school stage , there should be one Integrated Programme in the field of Physical education woven into the fabrics of the educational system, and the existing  programmes under the Physical Education, Auxiliary Cadet Corps and National Discipline Scheme should no longer be continued as separate schemes. Consequent upon the acceptance of the recommendation of the Committee by the Government of India, the new programme was named ‘ National Fitness Corps’. It combines in it the best features of the three programmes- Physical Education, Auxiliary Cadet Corps, and the National Discipline Scheme, hitherto operating at the school level.


            The national ftness Corps aims at developing physical efficiency, toughness, courage, endurance, discipline, patriotic fervor, appreciation for the democratic values of life and love for the country among the students. Essentially, a planned programme of national reconstruction to help childrens to grow into responsible citizens, the scheme endeavors to achieve its aims by inculcating in children a sense of discipline, organization and leadership. This object to be fulfilled entails a programme for developing the physical , mental ad emotional capacities. It includes a variety of exercises, gymnastics movements and activities involving the general development of physique.


            This programme is compulsory curricular activity for all the childrens of the age-group 9-16 in the middle, high and higher secondary schools. Initially, owing to the shortage of trained teachers, it has been introduced only in high and higher secondary schools, and the middle schools are to be covered during the Fourth Five year Plan in a phased manner. Its strength in the Dsirtict at the end of March, 1968 was 41,710 ( boys 29231 and girls 12479).


            The Circle-in-charge, National Fitness Corps Amritsar, is in-charge of the working  of the scheme in the Amritsar and Gurdaspur district. He is under the Senior Supervisor, National Fitness Corps ( Northern Region), Ministry of Education, Government of India, Chandigarh. 


(ii)                         National Cadet Corps :-  With a view to fostering physical fitness and incucating in the youth the spirit of discipline, co-operation , leadership and team work , the National Cadet Corps wasintroduced into colleges and schools in the State in 1948. Amritsar was the first district in the State to have schools in the State in 1948.  Amritar was first district in the State to have this youth organization introduced in its educational institutions. Its motto is ‘Unity and Discipline’. The aims of the National Cadet Corps are: to develop character, comradeship, the ideal of service and capacity for leadership in young men and women; to provide service training to young men and young women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country and to build up a reserve of man power to enable the armed forces to expand rapidly during a national emergency. 


             The Group Headquarters of the National cadet Corps are located at Amritsar and it had 7 N.C.C. units under its command and control in 1968 .


            Cadets from the various schools, colleges  and institutes  receive training in military subjects , such as a field craft, rifle-firing , map readi ng foot drill, civil defence etc. They also attend 120 periods during the year. Girls are given training in first aid, telephone, telegraph and wireless. Cadets also attend an annual training camp which lasts for 10 days.


            The training to the cadets is imparted by N.C.C. and A.C.C officers who are selected from among the teachers. They are However assisted by the permanent instriuctional staff of the army.  Senior and Junior  Division Cadets are organized into units , each commanded by a regular Army Major or y an equivalent rank in the Air Force.


(iii)                       Bharat Scouts and Guides :- Established in 19200, the organization of Disrtict Bharta Scouts and Guides is working under the presidentship of the deputy Commissioner, Amritsar. The District  Scout Commissioner, assisted by 3 Assistant District Commissioner  and 1 District Guide Commissioner, looks after the movement in the District.

 The main activities of the Bharat Scouts and Guides comprise social  service; training of boys and girls to become good citizens by achieving self reliance, discipline and co-operation; character development through camps , sight-seeing, hiking and handicrafts. The Total strength of the Bharat Scouts  and Guides in the district, as on march 31, 1968 was 6570 ( Cubs 3456 and Scouts 3114).


(f)        Cultivation of Fine Arts


             There are no separate institution in the district for imparting training in music , dancing etc. However, music is taught as one of the subjects in the girls’ schools and colleges.


            Indian Academy of Fine Arts, Amritsar :- The Indian Academy of Fine Arts was founded by Shri Thakur Singh in 1928 for the study and appreciation of fine arts and crafts., ancient and modern, along with  sculpture, modeling  photography, music, dancing and literature. The academy is situated on the Madana Mohan Maulviya Road, with an Art Gallery and the Thakur Singh School of Arts. It has organized a number of  All- India exhibition.. The Thakur Singh School of Arts, established in 1933, is the only recognized institution for fine arts run under the Indian Academy of Fine Arts, Amritsar. This institution imparts the education of arts fin free-hand painting, still life, still paintings, landscape paintings and sculpture. Classes are held in the evening in the school where students received training in various groups.


(g)       Oriental Schools and Colleges

            There are no schools or colleges for the oriented learning as such in the district. The only institution teaching Sanskrit is the Shri Laxmi Narain Sankrit College, Amritsar.


            Shri Laxmi Narain Sanskrit College :- Established in 1930, the college is of its own type in the district. It is situated in the newly constructed building on the main road near the Durgiana Mandir and its Managed by the Durgiana Committee, Amritsar. It prepared students for Prajna , Vishard and Shastri ( Part I and II) examinations of the Panjaba University, Chandigarh. The duration of these courses is one year. No fees are charged from students. The college also provide them with free lodging and boarding. Scholarship are awarded to students who stood first in their respective classes. The number of studentson the rolls of the college in 1967-68 and 1968-69 was 64 and 68 respectively. The students generally hails from Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.


(H) Education for the Handicapped


      No Government center exists in the district for education of the handicapped – the deaf, the dumb  and the blind. How ever, there are two institutions, viz. ‘ Andh Vidhyala’, for the blind and ‘Pingalwara’, for the handicapped ,at Amritsar. They  are run by philanthropist. Their expenses are met mostly through public contributions and grants. A description of these institutions is given in chapter XVIII, ‘Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organization’, on pages 569 and 571.


(i)                Adult Literacy, Social Education and Measures for the diffusion of culture among the masses


A programme of social education has been introduced in the district for the spread of literacy and diffusion of culture among the masses. It is organized by the circle Social Education officer, Jullundhur. A number of social education centres for males and females  ( age group 14 – 45) have been setup in the urban areas to spread social education among the illiterates. These etres functions under the Social Education Workers. There are six such centres in the district.  In addition to the programme of imparting instructions in 3 R’s( Reading , Writing and Arithmetic), these centres maintain small libraries  and also devote some attention to such aspects of social education as health, hygiene, good citizenship, etc.


Besides, the above , the Municipal Committee, Amritsar, is also running 6 social education  centres at different place in the city.


(j)        Cultural and Literacy Societies and Periodicals


      Sangeet Kala Kendra, Amritsar :- This is the only musical society in the district. It was established in February, 1966 with a view to promoting the cause of music among the residents of Amrtisar. The main object of the Kendra is to foster artistic and cultural activities in the city, thorough the presentation of dances , dramas and music- instrumental,  classical and light- on various occasions. Most of the programmes are held in the hall of Thakur Singh Art Gallery. It also arranges a big sammelans during the Holi festivals in the Gita Bhavan, in which great artists of all-Inida fame participate. The membership of the Sangeet kala Kendra in 1970 was 120. For membeship, the admission fee is Rs.100 and monthly fees Rs.10.


      Among  the other cultural societies, functioning in the district, those worth mentioning are : the Amritsar Natak kak Kendra, Amritsar; the Punjab Natak Academy, Amritsar; and  the Kheria Punjab Cultural Society, Amritsar. These societies are patronized by amateurs and artists, who produce various dramatic productions for the entertainment of the public. They are not aided by Government and their expenditure is mostly met from contributions by the people.


Literacy Societies


      Among the literacy societies functioning in the district, the following deserve mention:

1.   Lok Likhari Sabha, Amritsar ( established in 1950)

2.      Punjabi Sahit Kendra, Amritsar ( established in 1968)


            These societies promote the cause of literature by encouraging young writers thorough the constructive criticism of their writings and by publishing their works. They hold fortnightly or monthly meetings in which a number of writers participate and read out their stories ,poems n, dramas etc. Kavi darbars are also arranged , wherein a large number of renowned writers, critic, poets and novelists participated.


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