APPENDIX VII

(Vide page 490)

 

Maternity and Child Centres in the Amritsar District, as on 1st January, 1969

 

Serial
No.

Name of the institution and location

Tahsil

Rural/
Urban

Type of
Management

 

Medical
Officers

Staff

Dispen- sers

 

Lady Health

Visitors

 

Dais

1.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Lakhuwal

Ajnala

Rural

Government

-

-

1

1

2.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Rasulpur Kalan

Amritsar

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

3.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Sathiala

Do

Do

Zila Parishad

1

1

-

1

4.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Ram Bagh, Amritsar

Do

Urban

Municipality

-

-

1

1

5.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Mehma Singh Road, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

6.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Katra Karan Singh, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

-

-

7.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Kot Baba Dip Dingh, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

1

1

-

1

8.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Nawan Kot, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

9.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Gandawala, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

10.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Hussainpura, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

11.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Putlighar, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

12.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Sirki Bandan, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

13.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Chowk Parag Das, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

1

1

14.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Jogiwara, Amritsar

Do

Do

Government

1

1

1

1

15.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Karimpura, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

2

1

16.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Haripura, Amritsar

Do

Do

Do

-

-

2

1

17.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Katra Sher Singh, Amritsar

Do

Do

Municipality

1

1

1

1

18.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Yasin Road, Amritsar

Do

Do

Government

-

-

-

-

19.

Lady Emerson-Seth Chatarbhuj Hospital, Amritsar

Do

Do

Voluntary Organization

2

1

1

2

20.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Kasel

Tarn Taran

Rural

Government

-

-

1

1

21.

Maternity and Child Health Centre, Gohiwar

Do

Do

Panchayat Samiti

-

-

-

-

22.

St. Mary’s Hospital, Tarn Taran

Do

Urban

Christian Mission

-

-

-

-

 

(Health Statistics, Disrict Amritsar, 1969, p. 92; Chief Medical Officer, Amritsar)

 


APPENDIX VIII

(Vide page 493)

Ayurvedic/Unani Dispensaries/Hospitals in the Amritsar District, as on 1st January, 1969

Serial
No.

Name of the institution and location

Tahsil

Rural/
Urban

Type of
Management

No. of
beds

 

Vaids

Staff

Dispen- sers

 

Dais

1.

Ayurvedic Dispensary, Kakar

Ajnala

Rural

Government

-

1

1

1

2.

Ayurvedic Dispensary, Chamiari

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

3.

Unani/Ayurvedic Dispensary, Gagomahal

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

4.

Ayurvedic Dispensary, Bhangali Kalan

Amritsar

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

5.

Ayurvedic Dispensary, Akal Ghrh Bhapian

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

6.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Jalalusman

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

7.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Dhulka

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

8.

Unani Dispensary, Tahli Sahib Hola Mohalla

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

9.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Ghagar Bhana

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

10.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Valtoha

Patti

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

11.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Makhi Khurd

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

12.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Bhangala

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

13.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Mano Chahal

Tarn Taran

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

14.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Kang

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

15.

Ayurvedic Dispensary, Dehra Sahib

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

16.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Ekalgadda

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

17.

Unani Dispensary, Pandori Sidhuan

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

18.

Unani Dispensary,  Nagoke

Do

Do

Do

-

1

1

1

19.

Ayurvedic Dispensary,  Bhail Dhaiwal

Do

Do

Do

10

1

1

1

(Health Statistics, Disrict Amritsar, 1969, p. 90; Chief Medical Officer, Amritsar)

APPENDIX IX

(Vide page 493)

 

Work done by the Blood Bank in respect of collection and transfusion of blood in the Amritsar District, 1964-1968

 

Name of the Institution

Year
(calendar year)

Blood
donors

Blood
given

Transfusion

Blood
collected
(in ml)

Blood
discharged
(in ml)

Blood grouping

Blood matching

Blood injected
(in ml)

Blood Transfusion Department, V.J. Hospital, Amritsar

1964

3,671

3,594

3,594

12,83,845

11,63,510

8,890

5,499

62,725

 

1965

3,968

3,813

3,813

13,81,785

12,66,290 (25,950 for plasma)

10,900

5,411

77,795

 

1966

4,229

4,116

4,116

14,66,310

13,61,985 (2,450 for plasma)

10,493

6,882

67,725

 

1967

4,395

4,120

4,120

1,50,100

13,94,925

9,473

7,012

1,08,725

 

1968

3,788

3,380

3,380

13,27,250

11,73,125

9,092

5,753

1,71,025

 

(Source : Chief Medical Officer, Amritsar)

 


APPENDIX X

(Vide page 494)

 

Work done under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954, in the Amritsar District, 1958-1968

 

Year
(Calendar year)

Number of samples seized

Number of samples sent for analysis

Number of samples found adulterated

Prosecutions launched

Fine
realized

Imprisonment
(persons)

1958

812

812

135

135

13,488

--

1959

2,253

2,253

451

451

75,141

--

1960

2,112

2,112

315

315

36,574

--

1961

2,237

2,237

444

444

54,272

--

1962

--

--

--

--

--

--

1963

1,909

1,909

291

291

34,376

22

1964

2,018

2,018

208

197

50,930

4

1965

2,447

2,447

314

295

31,180

--

1966

1,789

1,789

116

144

72,015

1

1967

1,729

1,729

389

357

49,505

--

1968

1,360

1,360

305

379

34,110

--

 

(Source : Chief Medical Officer, Amritsar)


CHAPTER XVII

 

Other Social Services

(a)

Labour Welfare

(b)

Prohibition

©

Advancement of Backward Classes and Tribes

(d)

Other Social Welfare Activities

(e)

Public Trusts, Charitable Endowments and Muslim Wakfs

 

            Social services signify such activities of the State and individuals as are undertaken to correct social disequilibrium among persons, classes or groups of persons. The scope of such activities has been continually widening. Progressive modern States have for their ultimate objective the general well-being of the community. The State also renders many specialized services in the various spheres, e.g. education, public-health and housing. The modern welfare State is, thus, built on a strong framework of social services. The successive Five-Year Plans have also provided fairly wide opportunities and scope for the further improvement and expansion of social services.

 

(a)      Labour Welfare

 

Labour Welfare assumes vast importance in a State which is passing through rapid industrialization and consequent urbanization. It implies such services, facilities and amenities as may be established in, or in the vicinity of, undertakings to enable the persons employed in them to perform their work in healthy and congenial surroundings, and provide them with amenities, conducive to good health and sound morals. Welfare activities may also include anything done for the intellectual, physical, moral and economic betterment of the workers by the employers, by the Government or by other beneficent agencies, as laid down by law. Thus, labour welfare includes housing, medical and educational facilities, nutrition, facilities for rest and recreation, co-operative societies, day nurseries and creches, the provision of healthy accommodation, holidays with pay, social insurance measures, etc., undertaken voluntarily by the employers.

 

            Labour welfare may, thus, be broadly classified into three categories : statutory, voluntary and mutual. Statutory welfare constitutes the provision of welfare facilities which depend on the coercive power of the Government. Under voluntary welfare come the activities undertaken by the employers for the workers. Mutual welfare is a co-operative enterprise of workers to improve their lot in a suitable manner.

 

                        Before the independence (1947), there was hardly any systematic and regular governmental organization for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes, for the welfare of industrial workers and for dealing with other labour problems in the State. A separate Labour Department to look after labour welfare was established in the State as late as 1949. In the district, there are two Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers posted at Amritsar. The Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, 1st Circle, Amritsar, is assisted by 1 labour Inspector and 2 Shop Inspectors, whereas the Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, 2nd Circle, Amritsar, is assisted by 2 Labour Inspectors and 1 Shop Inspector. The Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers deal with the administration and disputes under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Ths Shop Inspectors, although under the immediate control of their respective Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers, function under the Chief Inspector of Shops and Commercial Establishments-cum-Labour Officer (Headquarters), Chandigarh. They are responsible for the administration of the Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 1958, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, and the Payment of Wages, Act, 1936.

 

            The Fctories Act, 1948, is administered by two Factory Inspectors posted at Amritsar. The Labour Inspectors and the Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers act as Inspectors of Factories. Besides, the Deputy Chief Medical Officer of Health, Amritsar, also functions as Additional Inspector of Factories for enforcing the health and sanitary provisions contained in the Act.

 

            The Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers are Conciliation Officers for the district under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. They initiate conciliation proceedings for the settlement of industrial disputes and try to settle disputes by mediation through joint discussion. If they fail, the matter is referred, through the Government, to the Labour Court, Jullundur, or the Industrial Tribunal, Punjab, Chandigarh. Appointed under Section 7-A of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Industrial Tribunal, Punjab, Chandigarh, plays a very important role in the redress of grievances of the industrial workers in the State. The Presiding Officer of the Industrial Tribunal frequently visits Amritsar/Chheharta/Verka for the adjudication of industrial disputes relating to any matter specified in schedules II and III of the Act.

 

Labour Legislation

 

            Industrialization creates a number of social and economic problems, e.g., the employment of women and children, the minimum wages, trade unions, the provision of adequate accommodation and the removal of deplorable working conditions in the factories. Labour laws are, therefore, enacted to facilitate their solutions, as ordinary civil laws are inadequate to meet them. The State has adopted a progressive policy, and is keeping pace with the labour policy of the Governmemt of India and is observing the standards laid down by the International Labour Organizaiton. This policy has produced a plethora of legislation and their administration. These laws also deal with the regulation of industrial relations between the management and the workers. Under the Constitution of India, labour is a concurrent subject and both the Parliament and the State Legislatures are empowered to make labour laws.

 

            The salient features of the Central and Stte Labour Acts in force in the district are as follows. The Facotories Act, 1948, provides for the health, safety and welfare of the workers. The Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 1958, regulates the conditions of work and terms of employment of the workers engaged in shops, commercial establishments, theatres, restaurent, etc. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, provides for the grant of cash benefits to women workers for specified periods before and after confinement. The Employment of Children Act, 1938, prohibits the employment of childern below the age of 15 years in certain risky and unhealthy occupations. The Payment of Wages Act, 1936, regulates the timely payment of wages without any unauthorized deductions by he employers. The Minimum Wages Act, 1948, ensures the fixation and revision of the minimum rates of wages in respect of certain scheduled industries involving hard labour. The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, provides for the investigation, and settlement of industrial disputes through mediation, conciliation, adjudication and arbitration. There is scope for the payment of compensation in case of layoff and retrenchment under the Act. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, requires the industrial establishments to define precisely the conditions of employment under them and make them known to the workmen. These rules, once certified, are binding on the parties for a minimum period of six months. The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, provides for compensation to injured workers of certain categories and, in case of fatal accidents, to their dependents, if the accidents arose from, and, in the course of, their employment. It also provides for the payment of compensation in case of certain occupational diseases. The Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926, recognizes the right of workers to organize themselves into trade unions, and, when registered, to have certain rights and obligations and function as autonomous bodies. The Employer's State Insurance Act, 1948, provides for sickness, maternity, disablement and medical benefit. The Employees' Provident Fund Act, 1952, seeks to make provision for the future of an industrial worker after he retires or is retrenched, or for his dependents in case of his early death. The Punjab Industrial Housing Act, 1956, provides for the administation, allotment, realization of rent, etc., in regard to quarters constructed under the subsidized Industrial Housing Scheme.

 

            The labour welfare, thus, covers a wide range of activities and, in its present from, is generally recognized and regarded as an essential part of the industrial system and management. The labour laws in the State are administered by the Labour Department, heded by the Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh. The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948, and the Employees' Provident Fund Act, 1952, are, however, operated under the direction of the Employees' State Insurance Corporation, Chandigarh, and the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh, respectively. The Labour Commissioner is assisted by the Chief Inspector of Factories at the State headquarters, and by the Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, Factory Inspectors and Labour Inspectors ad other staff at the district level.

 

            According to the 1961 Census, the number of workers in the Amritsar District was 4,58,000, forming 29.8 per cent of the total population of the district. In 1968, the average number of workers employed in the registered working factories in the district was 1,023 and, covered under the various labour laws, it was 22,255.

 

            Industrial Relations.-The relations between the employees and the employers are governed by the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947, and the machinery provided thereunder is twofold-first, the prevention of disputes by providing internal machinery in the form of Works Committees and Welfare Officers, and, second, the provision of a permanent Conciliation Officer, Conciliation Board, Court of Inquiry and Industrial Tribunal. The Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers are responsible for enforcing the providions of the Act. They are required to foster good relations between the employers and the employees by removing, as far as possible, the causes of friction and by the timely redress of the grievances of the parties.

 

            Even though the functions of the Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers are mediatory, with no power to give any orders or awards, they have been successful in bringing about a large number of agreements between the parties. The relations between the employees and the employers are normally peaceful, but sometimes these become strained and strikes or lock-outs take place.

 

            The following table gives particulars regarding the industrial disputes in the Amritsar District unde the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, from 1966 to 1969 :

 

            Nuber of industrial disputes in the Amritsar District, 1966-69

 


Year                Number           Number           Number of      Number of
                        of                     of stikes          workers           man-days
                      disputes            and lock-         involved in      lost
                                                outs                 strikes

 


1966                   759                          5                 2,701              6,374

1967                   766                        15                   6,937           1,82,459

1968                   370                         3                   3,433             10,322

1969                   380                         1                       267                  935

 


(Source :      Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh; and Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, Amritsar)

 


Works Committees

 

            Under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the factoties or industrial establishents employing more than 100 persons are required to constitute a Works Committee for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employers and the workers. A works committee consists of the representatives of employers and workers engaged in a particular industry so that the number of the representtives of workmen in the committee shall not be less than that of the representatives of the employers.

 

            Trade Unions.-Trade unions are voluntary organizations of workers formed to promote and protect their interests through collective action. As the trade unions are the most suitable organizations for adjusting relations between the employers and the emplyees, they have acquired and important place in the economic, political and sockal life of the community.

 

            In the post-independence period, the trade union moement in the district has gained considerable momentum and there has been a constant increase in the number of registered trade unions. The particulars of the trade unions, registered under the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926, functioning in the district are given in Appendix on page 544.

 

            The Indian Factories Act, 1948.-All the factories Acts, passed during the period 1934 to 1947, were repealed and a new consolidated legislation, called the Indian Factories Act, 1948, was enacted. It incorporates several provisions for the welfare of labour, including the provision regarding the conditions of work inside the factories. The number of factories registered under the Factories Act, 1948, in the district in 1970 was 750. The enforce the provisions of the Act and look after the general welfare of the employees, Labour Welfare Officers have been employed by five factories, viz. O.C.M. India (P) Ltd., Chheharta; Indian Woollen Textile Mills, Chheharta; Rayon and Silk Mills (P) Ltd., Amritsar; Punjab Woollens, Chheharta; and Punjab Woollen Textiles, Amritsar.

 

            Employees' Provident Fund Scheme.-The wages of industrial workers are not adequate enough to enable them to effect any substantial savings. When old age or illness renders them unfit for earning, they are forced to lead a life of abject poverty and misery. In the event of a worker's premature death, his dependents are left without any means of subsistence. In order to save the old and destitute workers from starvation deaths, there must be some provision to help them in difficulty. This purpose is served by the provident fund. The Employees' Provident Fund Scheme, framed by the Government of India under the Employees' Provident Fund Act, 1952, and enforced on November 1, 1952, attempts to remedy this unhappy situation.

 

            In the Amritsar District, by March 31, 1968, 299 factories/establishments, with an employment strength of 21,512 workers, were covered under the Act. Of these, 18,429 workers contributed to the scheme.

 

            The provident fund is deducted at the rate of 6¼ per cent of the monthly wages from the employees' wages and salary, and an equal amount is contributed by the employers. The entire amount is deposited in the State Bank of India in the employers' provident fund accounts. The fund vests in a tripartite Central Board of Trustees, having nominees of the Central and State Governments and employers' and employees' representatives. The Central Provident Fund Commission at New Delhi is the Chief Executive Officer. The Regional Provident Fund Commissioner, Chandigarh, executes the scheme in the Punjab.

 

            Provision has been made under the Act to grant advances to the members for the payment of premium on their life insurance policies, for the purchase of dwelling-sites or houses, for the construction of houses, for meeting the expenses in case of serious illness, etc.

 

            To afford timely financial assistance to the nominees/heirs of the deceased members, the Death Relief Fund was set up in 1964. A Minimum of Rs 500 is assured by way of relief. A non-refundable advance is also granted in case of an employee’s retrenchment in order to mitigate the immediate hardship caused by such an eventuality.

 

            Employees’s State Insurance Scheme.—The scheme was introduced into the Punjab in 1953 in pursuance of the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948. It is designed to provide security for the industrial workers against sickness, maternity, and employment injury in the form of cash benefits, viz. sickness, benefit, disability benefit, dependents’ benefit and maternity benefit, providing medical care under all contingencies. The Employees’ State Insurance Amendment Act, 1966, introduced Funeral Benefit under which an amount not exceeding Rs 100 is paid to the claimants towards the expenditure on the funeral of an insured person. The scheme is compulsory wherever applicable. The workers drawing Rs 500 or less per mensem, working in the factories employing 20 or more persons and using power, are covered under the Employee’s State Insurance Act, 1948. The scheme, however, does not apply to the mines under the operation of the Mines Act, 1952, a Railway Running Shed and the Seasonal Factories, as defined in the Act.

 

            The following contribution is made by the employers and the employees :

 

(1)               The contribution made by the employers and the employees is payable by the principal employer each week in respect of the whole or part of wages which are payable to the employees and not otherwise. The rates of contribution (by both employers and employees) are indicated in the schedule I o the employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948. The employers’ share of contribution is about 4.6 per cent of the workers’ wages. However, in view of the transitional provisions contained in Chapter V-A of the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, in lieu of employers’ contribution, as indicated in schedule I of the Act, the employers’ special contribution is collected as follows :

 

Till the enforcement of the scheme, an employer is to pay a special contribution at the rate of 3.4 per cent of the total wage bill. From the day the benefit provisions of the Act are extended to any station, the employers’ special contribution is payable at the rate of 3 per cent of the total wage bill. This rate became effective from April 1 1968. 

 

(2)               An employee is to contribute at the rate mentioned in schedule I of the Act from the day the scheme is extended to that area. It comes to about 2.3 per cent of his wages.

 

            The scheme functions under the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation which has its headquarters at New Delhi. It is under the administrative control of the Director-General, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation, New Delhi. The scheme is executed in the State through the Regional Director, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation, Chandigarh, who inspects factories, collects contributions and arranges the payment of cash benefits.

 

            The provision of medical benefit is the statutory responsibility of the State Government and facilities are to be given according to the standards laid down by the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation. Most of the expenditure on medical care is contributed by the Corporation, and only 1/8 of the total expenditure is borne by the State Government. The expenditure on other cash benefits is to be met entirely out of the Employees’ State Insurance Fund and is arranged by the Regional Director. The medical benefit is given under the panel system. A 125-bed E.S.I. hospital is functioning at Amritsar for the treatment of the insured persons covered under the scheme.

 

            To begin with, the Employees’ State Insurance Scheme was introduced in Amritsar. Verka and Chheharta on May 17, 1953. Thereafter, the scheme was extended to Khasa on May 10, 1959. The scheme does not cover any other station in the Amritsar District. By March 31, 1969, there were 21,300 insured persons covered under the scheme in the district.

 

Subsidized Industrial Housing Scheme

 

            Housing is unquestionably one of the vital problems in case of industrial workers. The Government of India have, therefore, been making sustained efforts to encourage and assist the industrialists to construct houses for their workers. The scheme formulated in 1946 and 1949 for this purpose did not, however, prove satisfactory. It was, therefore, decided to offer financial assistance on more liberal terms to the State Governments, to the employers and workers for the construction of residential houses. In pursuance of the recommendations made in the First Five-Year Plan 1951-56, the Subsidized Industrial Housing Scheme was introduced in September 1952, and certain modifications were made in it in 1953.

 

            Under the subsidized Housing Scheme, there are three types of tenements for the purpose of subsides and loans. Those put up by the State Governments or statutory bodies, such as the Improvement Trusts; those put up by the industrial employers for the use of labours in their employ; and those put up by the co-operative housing societies of the workers. The State Government has built 300 tenements for the benefit of the industrial workers at Amritsar. Besides, loans and grants are also advanced to private employers, who let out the tenements to their workers at subsidized to private employers who let out the tenements to their workers at subsidized rates.

 

Labour welfare centres

 

            These Labour Welfare Centres, two at Amritsar and one at Chheharta, are functioning under the Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh. These centres were opened in 1953, 1956 and 1960 respectively. They provide educational as well as recreational facilities for the industrial workers and their families. The female members of the workers are imparted training in tailoring and embroidery. Indoor and outdoor games are organized at these centres for the workers and a radio-set and musical instruments are provided for recreation. There is a library and a reading-room for the use of workers. Cultural and variety programmes are also organized occasionally at these centres for the entertainment of the workers.

 

(b)      Prohibition

 

            Like other districts of the State, Amritsar is also not a dry area. In 1967-68, there were 59 country-liquor vends and 11 foreign-liquor vends in the district. There is a distillery at Khasa.

 

            The consumption of exciseable article in the district, during 1963-64 to 1967-68, is given below :—

 


Year               Country          Indian-          Foreign          Beer              Opium           Bhang
                       liquor              made            spirit              liquor
                                             foreign

                                             spirit
                       (proof             (proof            (proof            (bulk             (kg)               (kg)
                       litres)              litres)             litres)             litres)

 

 


1963-64         3,42,738         22,478          1,068            81,465          1                  

1964-65         4,76,391         29,523          975               69,107          1                  

1965-66         3,89,542         30,546          560               26,436          1                  

1966-67         5,52,061         66,654          1,478            1,21,066       1                  

1967-68         8,16,620         63,229          1,483            1,22,389       1                  

 


            (Source : Excise and Taxation Officer, Amritsar)

 

            The Excise and Taxation Officer, Amritsar, assisted by 11 Excise Inspectors, administers the excise and Opium Acts in the district. The number of cases registered under these Acts, during the period 1963-64 to 196-68, is given below :—

 


Year                                                          Number of cases detected

                                                      Excise Act               Opium Act          Total

1963-64                                         3,149                       1,017                  4,166

1964-65                                         3,605                       1,184                  4,789

1965-66                                         3,791                       958                     4,749

1966-67                                         2,968                       810                     3,778

1967-68                                         2,335                       1,046                  3,381

 

(Source : Excise and Taxation Officer, Amritsar)

 

(c)      Advancement of Backward Classes and Tribes

 

            The caste-system served a useful purposes when it was originally devised. In the early stages, it permitted considerably inter-caste mobility and served as a useful measure for the division of labour according to the talents and aptitudes of the individuals and groups. Thus, the caste-system, originally conceived as a practical method of securing the division of labour with the object of obtaining the maximum of social efficiency and responsibility with the minimum of social friction, has hardened during he centuries into a rigid mould which hampered national progress. The caste-system raised strong walls of mutual exclusiveness. Some castes began to look down upon others instead of realizing that all were equally essential for the healthy growth of society and national economy. In this way, nearly a fifth of the population of India came to be regarded as belonging to the lowest rung of the social ladder. Even among these, there were further sub-divisions and many millions all over he country were treated as untouchable and outcastes.

 

            Before 1950, the classification of Scheduled Castes and Tribes was governed by the Government of India (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1936, and the Thirteenth Schedule of the Government of India (Provincial Legislative Assemblies) Order, 1936. The tribes, thus classified, were termed Backward Classes. Whereas the Thirteenth Schedule to the Government of India (Provincial Legislative Assemblies) Order, 1936, did not specify any area as Scheduled Areas, the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, indicated in the Schedule appended to the Order certain specified areas, and the listed tribes which could be regarded as Scheduled Tribes, if they lived in these Scheduled Areas.

 

            Apart from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the State Government also prepared a provincial list of Backward Classes. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, residing outside the areas specified in the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950, respectively, were deemed to be Backward Classes for the purposes of provincial lists. There are no Scheduled Tribes in the Punjab.

 

 

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