Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes


            According to the 1951 Census, the number of the Scheduled Castes persons in the district was 2,52,385 (1,46,678 males and 1,05,707 females). Out of these, 2,19,410 (1,28,613 males and 90,797 females) lived in the rural areas and 32,975 (18,065 makes and 14,910 females) in the urban areas.


            According to the 1961 Census, the number of Scheduled Castes persons in the district rose to 3,05,162 (1,61,702 males and 1,43,460 females), forming 19.88 per cent of the total population of the district. Out of this Scheduled Castes population, 2,55,781 (1,34,740 males and 1,21,041 females), i.e. 83.82 per cent, lived in the rural areas and 49,381 (26,962 males and 22,419 females), i.e. 16.18 per cent, lived in the urban areas. The Mazhabis (2,31,789) were most numerous among the Scheduled Castes and the others in descending order being Balmikis (30,098), Chamars (11,542), Sansis (10,240), Kabirpanthis (7,498) and Dumnas (3,964).


            The main professionals carried on by the different Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in the district are mentioned below :—


Serial    Name of the caste                                                 Main professions



Scheduled Castes


1.         Ad Dharmi                                          Shoemaking and handloom-weaving

2.         Barar, Burar or Barar                          Reed-making

3.         Bazigar                                               Ban-making and agriculture

4.         Balmiki, Chuhra or Bangi                     Scavenging, sweeping, labour and  pig-breeding

5.         Chamar, Jatia Chamar,                        Shoemaking, handloom-weaving  Rehgar, Raigar, Ramdasi or     and agriculture

6.         Dumma, Mahasha or Doom                Making of different articles from  bamboo

7.         Kabirpanthi or Julaba                          Handloom-weaving

8.         Khatik                                                Leather-dyeing and piggery

9.         Mazhabi                                              Agriculture and skilled labour

10.       Megh                                                  Handloom-weaving

11.       Sansi, Bhedkut or Mansesh                 Sheep-breeding and piggery

12.       Sikligar                                               Iron work

Backward Classes

1.         Baragi                                                 Begging

2.         Chhimba                                             Tailoring and printing of cloth

3.         Dhobi                                                 Washing of clothes

4.         Kamboj                                              Agriculture

5.         Kashyap Rajput                                  Cooking and dhaba business

6.         Kumhar                                              Pottery and donkey transport

7.         Labana                                               Agriculture

8.         Lohar                                                  Blaksmithy

9.         Nai                                                     Barber’s job

10.       Rai Sikh                                              Agriculture


            Economically, social and educationally, all these castes are at the lowest rung of society. In the past, education among them was rate, but now the position has considerably improved. There is an urge among them for getting education at all levels.


            Among the Scheduled Castes in the district, the number of literates in 1961 was 27,177 (20,045 in the rural areas and 7,132 in the urban areas).


Measures Adopted for the Betterment of the Condition of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes


            With the achievement of freedom, the Indian Constitution recognized the need for safeguards, laws and administrative measures to ameliorate the lot of the downtrodden sections of society. Mahatma Gandhi called these people ‘Harijans’ or God’s own people. They are also described as Scheduled Castes, because their names have been listed in the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950, issued by the Government of India under the Constitution and modified subsequently. The Constitution amply safeguards the rights and interests of Harijans and prevents discrimination against them in any shape or form.


            In accordance with the special provisions in the Constitution of India, the Punjab Government undertook to promote the interests of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes. The Punjab was one of the first States to enact legislation for the abolition of untouchability. As early as 1948, the Punjab Removal of the Religious and Social disabilities Act was passed to ensure free and unhindered use of public places by the Harijans. With the enforcement of the Untouchability Offences Act, 1955, the last vestiges of disabilities, religious and social, from which Harijans have suffered for centuries, are sought to be removed.


            The Directive Principles, as laid down in the Constitution, enjoin upon the States to adopt special measures to ameliorate the lot of the hitherto neglected classes and tribes. Accordingly, every possible attempt is being made to afford the Backward Classes greater opportunities to develop socially and economically. The Directorate of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Punjab, Chandigarh, attends to the work of the uplift and advancement of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in the State. To look after this work at the district level, the office of the District Welfare Officer, Amritsar, was established in 1955-56. He is assisted by 4 Tahsil Welfare Officers, posted one each at the tahsil headquarters, viz. Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Patti, and Ajnala.


            The Constitution has provided for the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes in the Parliament and State Legislatures. These preferential concsssions, ordered to be granted for ten years from the date India became a Republic (January 26, 1950), have since been extended up to 1980. A number of seats have also been reserved for these communities in the panchayats, panchayat samitis and zila parishads.


I.                   Social Welfare Schemes


            The State Welfare Department implements the following schemes for the benefit of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes :


            (i)         Subsidy for the Construction of New Houses.—The members of Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jtis are at the lowest rung of society and in a large number of places they live in slums, and congested houses, mostly chhappars. To provide shelter for the homeless members of these classes, subsidies are granted for the construction of houses. The houses subsidized under the scheme are built in the form of colonies. A subsidy (Rs 600 from 1956-57 to 1958-59, raised to Rs 750 from 1959-60 to 1964-65, and further raised to Rs 900 from 1965-66 onwards) is granted to the deserving persons.


            The beneficiaries under the scheme are called upon to give an undertaking not to alienate the properties, so acquired. As such, the proprietary rights of the houses remain vested in the Government for 20 years and, thereafter, the house becomes the property of the beneficiary. However, the latter enjoys the free use of the house during this period.


            The total amount of subsidies granted and the number of beneficiaries under the scheme, from 1956-57 to 1967-68, are given below :—


              Year                                 Amount Disbursed                    Number of

                                                     (Rs)                                             beneficiaries


            1956-57                                       18,000                                         30

            1957-58                                       30,600                                         51

            1958-59                                       24,800                                         58

            1959-60                                       26,400                                         44

            1960-61                                       50,250                                         67

            1961-62                                         9,555                                       159

            1962-63                                       20,250                                         27

            1963-64                                       35,165                                         29

            1964-65                                       36,000                                         39

            1965-66                                       34,200                                         38

            1966-67                                       16,200                                         18

            1967-68                                            900                                           1



            (Source  :      District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


            (ii)        Subsidy for the purchase of House-sites.—The Harijan bastis are generally overcrowded. The solve this problem, a subsidy of Rs.200 is given to a deserving and needy member of the Scheduled Castes for the purpose of a house-site, measuring about 10 marlas. The scheme was introduced in 1958-59. The amount sanctioned and the number of house-sites provided, during 1958-59 to 1967-68, are given below :—


            Year                                                     Amount                   House-sites

                                                                        Sanctioned               provided



            1958-59                                                   3,200                                   16

            1959-60                                                   3,000                                   15

            1960-61                                                   3,000                                   15

1961-62                                                   3,000                                   15

1962-63                                                   2,000                                   10

1963-64                                                   2,000                                   10

1964-65                                                   1,400                                     7

1965-66                                                   2,600                                   13

1966-67                                                   9,800                                   49

1967-68                                                 (Scheme abolished)



(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(ii)                Land Scheme.—The members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis, generally depend on agriculture, but most of them have no land of their own. Thus, they earn their livelihood by taking land on lease or on batai. The arrangement, however, does not leave enough produce for the maintenance of an average family. In order to help the needy and deserving landless agriculturist members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis, a subsidy of Rs 2,000 per head is granted for the purchase of agricultural land under this scheme. They contribute Rs 2,500 each either from their own pockets or by raising loans from the Land Mortgage Bank. The total amount of Rs 4,500 is utilized for the purchase of land, measuring not less than 5 acres per person. The beneficiaries are required to cultivate the land personally. An additional amount of Rs 4,500 is also granted as a subsidy to the purchasers to meet the enhanced stamp-duty for the registration of sale deeds.


            The members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis, who are selected for the grant of subsidy for the purchase of agricultural land under the above scheme, are required to settle at the places where land is purchased for them. Being dinancially poor, it is not possible for them to construct houses or sink wells on the land purchased by them. A subsidy of Rs 500 each is, therefore, given to the beneficiaries for this purpose.


            The amount of subsidy granted and the number of beneficiaries, i.e. persons settled on land under the Land Scheme, during the period from 1956-57 to 1967-68, are given below :—


Year                             Amount disbursed as subsidy    Number of beneficiaries

                                    For the purchase of agricul-

                                                tural land


                                    Scheduled        Vimukt         Scheduled            Vimukt

                                       Castes             Jatis                        Castes                  Jatis


1956-57                         64,000                                                  32                

1957-58                         64,000              8,000                               32                   4

1958-59                         64,000              8,000                               32                   4

1959-60                         64,000              6,000                               32                   3

1960-61                         64,000            12,000                               32                   6

1961-62                         48,000              2,000                               24                   1

1962-63                         54,000              4,000                               27                   2

1963-64                         32,000            10,000                               16                   5

1964-65                                            10,000                                                  5

1965-66                         36,000            26,000                               18                 13

1966-67                         24,000              4,000                               12                   2

1967-68                         22,000              2,000                               11                   1


(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(iii)               Facilities for Drinking-water.—In most of the villages inhabited by the members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis, or in the isolated bastis of these people, there are no drinking water-wells. Where the wells exist, a large number of these need repairs. To remove these difficulties and to provide facilities for fresh drinking-water, new wells have been sunk at a large number of places and old ones have been repaired. Even though these new wells are likely to be in, or near, the bastis of the Scheduled Castes ad Vimukt Jatis, these are open to other people as well. Unskilled labour is provided free by the beneficiaries themselves for the construction and repair of such wells.


            The amount of subsidy granted in the district for sinking new wells renovating old ones, and for installing hand-pumps, along with their number, during the period 1956-57 to 1967-68, is given below :—


Year                                                                 Amount                      Number of

                                                                        Disbursed                  wells sunk/

                                                                                                         Repaired and





1956-57                                                              3,500                                         27

1957-58                                                              2,975                                         29

1958-59                                                              2,800                                         20

1959-60                                                              2,800                                         25

1960-61                                                              2,800                                         26

1961-62                                                              8,200                                         70

1962-63                                                              7,000                                         47

1963-64                                                              5,500                                         38

1964-65                                                              3,850                                         17

1965-66                                                              3,650                                         23

1966-67                                                              3,800                                         19

1967-68                                                              6,400                                         25


(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(iv)             Community Centres.—One of the best methods for the eradication of untouchability is by means of well-orgnized community centres known as Sanskar Kendras and Balwadis. These centres have been started at places which are mainly inhabited by the Scheduled Castes. In each community centre, the staff consists of one male and one female social worker with one Lady Attendant, preferably a trained Dai, who handles maternity cases free of charge. The children are fed, and taught cleanliness, songs, games, good behaviour and good habits. Women are taught social education, cooking, first-aid, home nursing, the care of baby, the mending of clothes, etc. The Lady Social Workers visit the Harijan bastis and give lectures on the removal of untouchability. Besides, they hold sewing and balwdi classes and sat sangs in these community centres. Similarly, men are given facilities for discussion, entertainment, games, etc. Arrangements for imparting adult education to men and women are also made. A reading-room is also provided, and arrangements for indoor and outdoor games and training in gardening also exist.


            Under this scheme, 9 Community Centres are functioning in the district at Gumanpur, Kot Khera and Sohian Kalan, Tahsil Amritsar; at Roka, Tahsil Ajnala; at Narli and Valtoha, Tahsil Patti; and at Nagoke, Naushehra pannuan and Panjawar, Tahsil Tarn Taran. The Government provides a subsidy of Rs 2,000 to the panchayat of a Harijan village for opening the community centres.


            The subsidy granted by the Government for the construction of community centres in the district, during 1956-57 to 1967-68, is as under :


Year                                 Amount                        Number of         Amount

                                         Allotted                        community         disbursed



                                             (Rs)                                                       (Rs)



1956-57                              2,000                              1                     2,000

1957-58                              2,000                              1                     2,000

1958-59                              2,000                              1                    2,000

1959-60                              2,000                              1                    2,000

1960-61                              2,000                              1                   2,000

1961-62                              2,000                              1                   2,000


1963-64                              2,000                              1                   2,000


1965-66                              2,000                              1                   2,000


1967-68                              2,000                              1                   2,000


(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(v)                Legal Assistance.—To afford necessary protection to the members of the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis and other Backward Classes against the tyranny of landlords or other exploiting classes, they are provided with legal assistance by the Government to defend cases against them in connection with ejectment from land or other properties. The scheme is implemented by the Deputy Commissioner, who arranges part-time counsels to take up all such cases on payment of suitable remuneration.


            The scheme was introduced into the State in 1958-59. The amount made available in the form of legal assistance and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during the period 1958-59 to 1967-68, are given below :



Year                                 Amount                        Number of                    Amount

                                         Allotted                        beneficiaries                      spent


                                             (Rs)                                                                     (Rs)



1958-59                              3,000                                  8                                 150

1959-60                              3,000                                14                                 140

1960-61                              3,000                                11                                 220

1961-62                              1,800                                62                              1,800

1962-63                              1,870                                61                              1,870

1963-64                              1,000                                45                              1,000

1964-65                              1,400                                16                              1,300

1965-66                                700                                13                                 390

1966-67                                 700                                  6                                 180

1967-68                              1,020                                34                              1,020


(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(vi)              Interest-free Loans.—After the completion of academic or professional courses, persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Backward Classes find it difficult to establish themselves in the professions of law, medicine, engineering, architecture, etc. on account of the lack of financial resources. To remove this handicap and also to help them to set up an industry or establish themselves in business, they are granted interest-free loans up to Rs 2,000 in each case under the Punjab Backward Classes (Grant of Loans) Act, 1957. These loans are recovered in 20 half-yearly instalments, and the first recovery starts after four years from the date of the withdrawal of the loan.


            The scheme was introduced in 1958-59. The amounts disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during the period 1958-59 to 1967-68, are given below :—


Year                                                                 Amount                             Number of

                                                                        Disbursed (Rs)                  eneficiaries



1958-59                                                              8,000                                           5

1959-60                                                              8,000                                           9

1960-61                                                              8,000                                         18

1961-62                                                            15,000                                         30

1962-63                                                              8,250                                         23

1963-64                                                            13,500                                         31

1964-65                                                            13,500                                         37

1965-66                                                            79,700                                       158

1966-67                                                            12,000                                         24

1967-68                                                         2,97,160                                       279


(Source :    District Welfare Officer for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Amritsar)


(vii)             Midwifery Training.—In view of their backwardness and lean financial condition, the members of the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis, and other Backward Classes cannot arrange for the proper training of their womenfolk in midwifery classes. To help them to get such training at the health centres started by the Health Department, a scheme for the grant of stipends, etc. to dals has been sanctioned. Under the scheme, deserving candidates are granted a stipend of Rs 20 per mensem each for one year. Besides, each dai is paid Rs 50 for purchasing a maternity kit and liveries.



            (ix)       Award of Scholarships and Reimbursement of Fees.—Beeing educa-tionally backward and economically poor, the members of the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis and other Backward Classes put their children to work on odd jobs in order to supplement their meager income. As a result, they do not send their children to schools, Since the removal  of illiteracy is the primary need of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, the Government allows their children various concessions, such as grant of stipends, exemption from tuition fees, and the reimbursement of public-examination fees to educate them.


(viii)           Piggery Scheme.—This scheme provides a subsidy of Rs.800 for each beneficiary to enable him to purchase and breed pigs. It, thus, helps them to earn their livelihood. Under this scheme, subsidies amounting to Rs 4,000 and Rs 5,600 were given to 5 and 7 beneficiaries during 1966-67 and 1967-68 respectively.


(ix)              Poultry Scheme.—Under the scheme, a loan of Rs 1,500 is given to a Harijan to enable him to start poultry-farming and, thus, earn his livelihood. An amount of Rs 36,000 was, thus, disbursed among 24 beneficiaries in the district during 1963-64 as poultry-farming loans.


(x)                Milk-Scheme.—This scheme provides a loan of Rs 600 for each Harijan to enable him to purchase a buffalo. An amount of Rs 1,98,000 was disbursed among 330 persons in the district during 1963-64.


II.                Industrial Training Scheme


     Besides the above-mentioned schemes, the Industrial Training Department of the State has sponsored several schemes, in order to impart training to the members of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in engineering and other fields. Of these, the following schemes need special mention :


     (i)         Industrial Training Centre.—Under this scheme, the department is running a number of Industrial Training Centres for imparting training in different vocational trades throughout the State. Admission to these centres is exclusively reserved for the trainees belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis and other Backward Classes. Free treining is given at the centres to the candidates, aged between 14 and 25 years, belonging to these communities. A stipend of Rs 25 per month is awarded to each of the trainees belonging to the Scheduled Castes and other Backward Classes and Rs 45 per month to those of the Vimukt Jatis, for a one-year course.


     (ii)        Industrial Training in Mills, Factories and Institutions.This scheme envisages the award of stipends to candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis and other Backward Classes, who receive training in different vocational or technical trades in the various industrial training institutions, centres, schools, etc. of the State Industrial Training Department and also in different mills and factories in the private sector. During the course of training, which is generally of one year, each candidate is granted a stipend of Rs. 25 per month if he belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Backward Class and Rs 45 if he belongs to a Vimukt Jati.


(i)                  Industrial Training Institutes.—Under this scheme, training is imparted in various engineering and other trades. Twenty per cent of the seats are reserved for the trainees belonging to the Scheduled Castes and two per cent for those belonging to the Backward Classes. A stipend of Rs. 40 per month is awarded to each of the 60 per cent of the trainees belonging to these classes on poverty-cum-merit basis. Free education, free medical and recreational facilities, free clothing and free hostel accommodation, subject to the availability of seats, are given.


(ii)               Industrial Schools for Boys and Girls.—In these schools, training is imparted in various vocational engineering trades. Twenty per cent of the seats are reserved for the trainees belonging to the Scheduled Castes are two per cent for those belonging to the Backward Classes. Stipends are awarded to a limited number of trainees on poverty-cum-merit basis. Free training is provided for all in these schools.


Representative Institutions


The institutions functioning in the district for the uplift of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are mainly concerned with activities for the removal of untouchability and other social evils under the guidance of Harijan leders. A list of such institutions as given below :


1.                  The Punjab State Backward Classes Federation, Amritsar

2.                  Kori Panchayat Sabha, Amritsar

3.                  Depressed Classes League, Punjab, Amritsar

4.                  Balmik Sabha, Amritsar

5.                  All-India Harijan League, Amritsar


(d)        Other Social-Welfare Activities


            Social services cover a vide range of activities which may not be possible to describe here. A brief account of the Old-Age Pension Scheme is, however, given below :


            Old-Age Pension Scheme.—This scheme was introduced into the State in 1964 with a view to affording social security through the grant of financial assistance to destitutes, old and disabled persons who are without any means of subsistence and there is nobody to support them in the evening of their lives.


            Previously, the rate of old-age pension was Rs 15 per head per mensem, but in July 1968, it was raised to Rs 25. In the district, the number of persons in respect of the old-age pension was 336 in 1967-68.


(e)        Public Trusts, Charitable Endowments and Muslim Wakfs


            Public trusts and charitable endowments play a significant part in the life of the society. They cover almost all aspects of life especially social, religious and educational. Many educational institutions, hospitals, dharmshalas and other social welfare organizations are either started or are materially assisted in their administration and maintenance with funds donated by philanthropists. In some cases, revenue-free lands are also attached to religious endowments.


            The notable public trusts existing in the district are described below :


(1)               Lala Prabhadayal Dharmshala Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—This trust was founded in 1902 by Lala Prabhdayal to provide accommodation for the people coming from outside. It maintains a temple, a dharmashala where free stay is provided for the outsiders, and a free homeopathic dispensary. The affairs of the trust are managed by two trustees. The dharmashala is rendering useful service to the outsiders and marriage-parties.


(2)                Punjab Badminton Stadium Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—Founded in 1957, the trust aims at promoting badminton, table-tennis and other indoor games in the State. The trust has its own building, which has proved very useful for holding badminton tournaments. Cultural programmes are also held in this building. A board of trustees manages and controls the affairs of the trust and the property attached to it.


(3)               Ram Lal kapur Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—Founded in 1928, the aims and objects of the trust are to propagate the Vedie, scientific and liberal education in respect of Indian culture by opening schools and colleges, and publishing the ancient Vedic books. It has published more than 25 books on ancient Vedic literature and is running a monthly magazine entitled Ved Vani. The trust also runs the Panini Vidyala at thevillage of Bahallagarh (District Sonepat) in the Haryana State. The affairs of the trust are controlled by a board of 10 trustees.


(4)               Babu Mal Temple Trust, Amritsar.—Founded in 1927, the trust maintains a temple and looks after the property attached to it.


(5)               Mandir of Shri goverdhannath Trust, Amritsar.—Established in 1954, the trust maintains the temple and the property attached to it.


(6)               Sant Singh Sukha Singh Trust, Amritsar.—Founded in 1983, it is a purely educational trust. It runs the Sant Singh Sukha Singh Khalsa Higher Secondary School, Amritsar. The organization and control of the trust are vested in a committee of which the Deputy Commissioner is an ex-officio member.


(7)               Seth Rama Nand Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—Founded in 1928, it is a purely charitable trust. It runs a free langar, where 16 students preparing for university examinations in Sanskrit take their meals. It also maintains a newly built dharmshala near the Jallianwala Bagh, where visitors are allowed to stay free of charge. This dharmashala is also used as a Janjghar (lodge for marriage-parties) free of charge.


(8)               Balmokand Khatri Eduational and Industrial Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—Founded in 1927, the trust aims at advancing education and promoting the study of science, art and local industries, both for boys and girls. It runs the B.K.E. and I. Higher Secondary School for Boys, B.K.E. and I High School for Girls, and B.K.E. and I Primary School, co-educational, all at Amritsar. These institutions are managed and controlled by a board of trustees. The trust owns bighas of land at the village of Ghuaunsabad, about 6 km from Amritsar. The income from the land is spent on the development of educational and industrial schemes of the trust.


(9)               Ram Rakha Mal Kanpur Trust (Regd.), Amritsar.—Founded in 1958 by Shri Ram Rakha Mal Kanpur, the trust provides free accommodation for the public for the purposes approved by the trust in accordance with the rules. It provides accommodation for the public at large on special occasions of marriages and other celebrations and on auspicious occasions. The income from the property of the trust is used for charitable purposes. The trust is controlled and administered by a board of trustees.


(10)           Board of Trustees, Mandir Shri Hanuman Ji, Amritsar.—It was started by Shri Chet Ram, after whose death a regular trust deed was executed on July 18, 1958. The festivals of Hanuman are held at this temple from time to time with great enthusiasm. The affairs and properties of the trust are managed by a board of trustees.


(11)           Gandoo Mall Dharm Arth Trust, Patti.—Founded in 1940, the trust aims at promoting female education in the town. It runs a high school for girls at Patti. The affairs of the trust are managed by a board of trustees.


(12)           Daliana Raghunath Mandir Trust, Jandiala Guru.—A purely religious trust, it was founded in 1956 by the Raghunath Mandir Sabha, Jandiala Guru, to manage its affairs. Thr trust maintains the temple and its property and aims at propagating the Sanatan Dharm.


(13)           Lakshmi Narain Public Charity Trust, Chheharta.—Founded in 1944, the trust aims at helping the poor and suffering people through cash and other free benefits. The trust is administered by a board of trustees, assisted by a manager and other staff. Payments are made to the crippled and destitute widows by the trust.


(14)           Sri Guru Arjan Dev Khalsa Girl’s School Trust, Tarn Taran.—Purely an educational trust, it was founded in 1940. The main aims and objects of the trust are to promote female education in the area. It runs the Sri Guru Arjan Dev Khalsa High School for Girsl and the Mata Ganga College for Women at Tarn Taran.


(15)           Sadar Dial Singh Trust, Tarn Taran.—Established in 1910, the trust is managed by a board of trustees, including a manager. The building of the trust is mainly used as a serai by the railway passengers, who get down at the railway station quite opposite the building.


            Besides he above, there are 3,378 Muslim Wakfs at different places in the district, with properties attached to them in many cases. These properties were mainained by the Custodian Department, Government of India, up to 1961, when their administration was entrusted to the Punjab Wakf Board (with headquarters at Ambala Cantonment). The administration of the Wakfs is regulated by the Central Government’s Wakf Act, 1954.


            The annual income from the Wakf properties in the Amritsar District is about 1.75 lakhs of rupees. It is spent on the upkeep of these institutions and for various charitable purposes and for the promotion of education, both religious and secular, of a particular community.


            Among the Wakfs in the district, those worth mentioning are : Masjit Khair-ud-Din, Hall Bazaar, Amritsar; Masjit Jan Muhammad, Hall Bazaar, Amritsar; Masjid Sikandar Khan, Hall Bazaar, Amritsar; Dargah Zaarah Pir, outside the Hall Gate, Amritsar; Dargah Sheikh Fattah, village Pakhoke, tahsil Tarn Taran; Khankah of Baba Sher Shah Wali, village Gharyala, tahsil Patti; Dargah of Baba Hippat Shah Patti, at patti.


            The staff of the Wakf Board posted in the district comprises one Field Inspector and six other officials, with headquarters at Amritsar.


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