APPENDIX

(Vide page 524)

 

List of Trade Unions in the Amritsar District

 

 


Serial             Name of the trade union                                               Date of

No                                                                                                 Registration

 

1.               N.R. Locomotive Workshop Mazdoor Union,           14th March, 1943
           Amritsar

2.               Amritsar Commercial and Trade Employees’ Union  10th September,
              Amritsar                                                                               1954

3.               Punjab Swarnkar Mandal, Amritsar                             18th April, 1955

4.               General Labour Union, Tarn Taran                               10th May, 1955

5.               Imarti Karakum Committee, Amritsar                            5th June, 1955

6.               Punjab Cine Employees’ Association, Amritsar          20th April, 1956

7.               Press Workers’ Union, Amritsar                              15th October, 1957

8.               Amritsar Trade Union, Amritsar                              16th October, 1957

9.               Rickshaw Workers’ Union, Amritsar                       21st August, 1958

10.           Municipal Mazdoor Sabha, Amritsar                        11th March, 1959

11.           Amritsar Federation, Amritsar                                   11th May,  1959

12.           Amritsar Sabzi and Fruit Merchangs’ Association,   17th October, 1959
              Amritsar

13.           Amritsar Halwai Union, Amritsar                         25th November, 1959

14.           Chah Mazdoor Sabha, Amritsar                            28th November, 1959

15.           Amritsar Cycle Merchants’ Employees’ Union         20th January, 1960
              Amritsar

16.           Amritsar General Mazdoor Sabha, Amritsar            21st January, 1960

17.           Brick-kiln Owners’ and Contractors Employees’        30th July, 1960
              Union, Amritsar

18.           Shop and Commercial Employees’ Union, Amritsar 30th August, 1960

19.           Private Car-Drivers’ Union, Amritsar                   29th September, 1960

20.           Club and Hotel Employees’ Union, Amritsar             4th October, 1960

21.           Sarakhsha Safai Mazdoor Union, Amritsar             14th February, 1961

22.           Municipal Labour Union, Amritsar                         24th July, 1961

 


23.           Amritsar Oil, Flour and General Mills Union,           8th January, 1962
              Amritsar

24.           Khokha-Owners’ Association, Chheharta                     18th June, 1962

25.           Municipal Workers’ Union, Chheharta                          28th July, 1962

26.           Harijan Workers’ Union, Amritsar                          26th October, 1962

27.           Shop Assistants’ Union, Amritsar                         21st December, 1962

28.           Newspapers Editors’ and Journalists’ Association,        11th July, 1963
              Amritsar

29.           Amritsar Food Products Workers’ Union, Amritsar        30th July, 1963

30.           Punjab Dry-Cleaners’ and Dyers’ Association,         24th January, 1964
              Amritsar

31.           District Amritsar Cycle and Rickshaw Repair Union      5th June, 1964
              Amritsar

32.           Municipal Labour Union, Patti                                        5th June, 1964

33.           Rickshaw Mazdoor Sangh, Amritsar                    30th December, 1964

34.           Punjab Commercial and Trade Employees’ Union   15th January, 1965
              Amritsar

35.           Punjab State Barbers’ Union, Amritsar                            1st June, 1965

36.           Municipal Mazdoor Sabha, Jandiala Guru                   11th April, 1966

37.           Amritsar General Labour Union, Amritsar                6th January, 1967

38.           Grow-More-Food, Tube-wells and Canal Farmers’    14th April, 1967
              Union, Amritsar

39.           Amritsar Dry-Cleaners and Dyeing Workers’ Union   25th Oct, 1967
              Amritsar

40.           Lower Grade Municipal Election Union, Amritsar    7th March, 1968

41.           Galla Mazdoor Sangh, Amritsar                             30th October, 1968

42.           Dehati Mazdoor Union, Amritsar                       22nd November, 1968

43.           All-Jammu & Kashmir Mazdoor Union, Amritsar       27th July, 1969

 


              (Source : Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh)

(Note : For the list of the industrial workers’ unions in the district, refer to Chapter V, ‘Industries’, pages 214-215.

 

CHAPTER XVIII

 

PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERICE ORGANIZATIONS

(a)

Representation of the District in the State and the Union Legislatures

(b)

Political Parties and Organizations

(c)

Newspapers and Periodicals

(d)

Voluntary Social Service Organizations

 

(a)               Representation of the District in the State and the Union Legislatures

 

            Although India had a Legislative Council as early as 1861, yet it was under the Indian Councils Act, 1892, that the representative principle was first introduced. The Indian Councils Act, 1909, for the first time largely recognized the principle of election which was further extended under the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935.

 

            Elections of 19311.—In the elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly held in 1937, under the Government of India Act, 1935, there were wholly or partly 16 seats in the Amritsar District, as per constituencies given below :

 


Particulars                                                 Name of the constituency                          Number

                                                                                                                                 of seats

 


1.      General Constituencies                     Urban    Amritsar City                                   1

                                                                 Rural      Amritsar and Sialkot

 

II.      Muhammadan  Constuencies            Urban    Amritsar City                                   1

                                                                 Rural      Amritsar                                           1

                                                                              Tarn Taran                                       1

                                                                              Ajnala                                              1

III.    Sikh Constituencies                          Urban    Eastern Towns                                 1
                             (including the Amritsar
         District)

                                                                 Rural      Amritsar North                                 1

                                                                              Amritsar Central                               1

                                                                               Amritsar South                                 1

IV.    Women’s Constituency                                  Amritsar                                           1

V.     Indian Christians’ Constituency                      East Central Punjab                          1

VI.    Landholders’ Constituency                             Central Punjab Landholders             1

VII.   Labour Constituency                                      East Punjab                                      1

 


1Krishna Swarup. The Punjab Elections Manual (Lahore, 1936)

 

 

AMRITSAR

 

 

            The First General Elections, 19522.—After the independence (1947), the main task before the coalition Government at the Central was to frame the new Constitution for the country. The Constituent Assembly set up for the purpose completed this colossal task. The Constitution was finally approved in November 1949, and enforced from January 26, 1950. Thereafter, the coalition Government was to seek the confidence of the people through General Elections. Before independence, the right to vote was only with 13 per cent of the population and that, too, in a very complex manner, i.e., by laying stipulations of adult on attaining the age of 21 becomes entitled to vote if he is otherwise eligible. This system of universal suffrage entitled 50 per cent of the population to vote.

 

            The delimitation of constituencies was the next stage in the elections. In the early part of 1948, the Constituent Assembly called upon the Government to undertake a census of the population. The population figures of 1941 were never considered to be reliable. Besides, these were over 8 years old. The partition of the Punjab had been accompanied with a mass inter-migration of population. Certain areas of the Lahore District (of Pakistan) were added to Amritsar. After collecting the data and, in accordance with the provision of clause 6 of the Constitution (Delimitation of Constituencies), an assembly seat was allocated to a population of 1,00,079 or 46,571 voters. On the above basis, 2 parliamentary Constituencies and 14 Assembly seats were allocated to the Amritsar District.

 

            After the calculations had been made, the district map was taken out and, under the name of each tahsil, police-station, zail or town, the number of votes for the unit concerned was noted down together with the number of Scheduled Castes votes, the total number of votes being shown as the numerator and the Scheduled Castes votes as the denominator. According to stipulation, the constituencies with a high percentage of Scheduled Castes population were them marked. Two adjoining units of concentration were then paired off to form double constituency with two seats-one general and the other reserved for the Scheduled Castes. According to this procedure, 2 Assembly Constituencies were declared double-member constituencies. These were reserved for the Scheduled Castes. This was done to ensure a proper representation of the Scheduled Castes. This was done to ensure a proper representation of the arrangement. Thereafter, new electoral rolls were prepared in view of the increase in the number of voters, delimitation of constituencies, etc.

 

            For conducting elections, elaborate polling arrangements for the district were planned and organized. To avoid inconvenience to the voters, polling-stations were so arranged that no voter had to travel more than 3—5 kilometres to cast the vote. Care was taken to arrange the simultaneous polling throughout the State to distribute the anti-social elements evenly. About 7,000 polling-stations had to be set up against 1,300 in 1946; and thousands of subordinate staff had to be initiated into the new complicated election procedure. The experience of the general elections in 1951-52 revealed several shortcomings of the gigantic exercise. The defects and deficiencies were removed in the subsequent general elections.

            2Report on the First General Legislative Elections in the Punjab State held under the Constitutions of India, 1951-52 (Simla, 1952).

            Out of the total population of the district numbering 13,67,040 (151 Census), 8,61,956 persons were eligible to cast votes in the First General Eelections, 1952.

           

            There were two Parliamentary Constituencies, viz. Tarn Taran and Amritsar. Both the elected candidates had party affiliation with the Congress. The number of votes polled by different political parties was as follows :

 

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage of

                                                      of valid             total valid

                                                      votes                votes polled in

                                                      polled               the district

 

 


Indian National Congress                1,64,589               46.2

Akali Dal                                        67,800                  17.0

Communists                                    54,844                  11.2

Forward Block                               15,282                    3.3

Ram Rajya Parishad                       21,883                    5.3

Independents                                  68,467                  17.0

 


            Total                                  3,92,865                100

 

 


            For the Vidhan Sabha, there were 12 constituencies consisting of 14 seats in the district (2 constituencies being double-member), viz., Ajnala, Ramdas, Amritsar (double-member constituency), Amritsar City North, Amritsar City East, Amritsar City Central, Amritsar City West, Jhabal, Khalra, Patti, Tarn Taran (double-member constituency) and Beas. From these constituticies, 11 Contress, 2 Communist, and 1 Akali Dal candidates were declared elected. The total number of votes polled by each party are given below :


 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                                              of votes                      

                                                                              polled                        

 

 


Congress                                        1,88,827               36.8

Akali Dal                                        1,06,069               20.6

Communists                                    64,562                  12.6

Lal Communists                              13,062                    2.5

Socialists                                        10,596                    2.1

Jan Sangh                                       11,169                    2.2

Ram Rajya Parishad                       8,104                      1.6

Forward Bloc                                 5,798                      1.1

Independents                                  1,05,546               20.5

 


            Total                                  5,13,733                100

 


           

            The Second General Elections, 19573.—The task of conducting the First General Elections, 1952, being the first exercise of the type, was of great magnitude and complexity. The Second General Elections, however, were attended is some respects with even greater difficulty. The area involved was much larger, because the former Pepsu had since merged with the Punjab. However, the total period for the polling was reduced appreciably. Voting for the Assembly Constituencies was completed in a single day or, in a very few cases, in two days, instead of being spread over a number of days, as in 1951-52. The counting of votes was also taken up in each constituency as soon as the polling had been completed, instead of after the polling in the entire State had been completed.

 

            The delimitation of constituencies was done in 1951, 1953 and then in 1956. The contingency to demarcate the constituencies arose in 1956 on account of the merger of PEPSU with the Punjab. Two Parliamentary Constituencies and 13 Assembly Constituencies were declared double-member constituencies and were reserved for the Scheduled Castes.

 

            With the reduction of the total period of polling in each constituency, it became necessary to deploy a much large number of polling staff as well as police in 1956-57.

 

            Out of the total population of 13,67,040 (1951 Census) in the district, the number of electors was 8,22,175. Total number of votes polled was 5,23,362.

 

            3Report on General Eelctions in Punjab, 1957 (Chandigarh, 1959)

            There were two Parliamentary Constituencies, viz. Tarn Taran and Amritsar. Both the elected candidates belonged to the Congress. The position of the contesting parties was as under :

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                                              of votes                      

                                                                              polled                        

 


Congress                                        2,43,344             46.50                                   

Jan Sangh                                       95,198                18.18

Communists                                    1,53,294             29.30

Independents                                  31,536                  6.02

 


            Total                                  5,23,362                100

 

 


            For the Vidhan Sabha, there were 11 constituencies, constiting of 13 seats (including 2 seats reserved for the Scheduled Castes) and, as such, there were two double-member constituencies. The names of these constituencies were : Patti, Sirhali Kalan, Tarn Taran (double-member constituency), khalra, Ajnala, Majitha, Amritsar City east, Amritsar City West, Amritsar City Civil Lines, Amritsar (double-member constituency) and Beas. From these constituencies, 8 Congress, 2 Jan Sangh, 2 Communist and 1 Independent candidates were elected. The number of the votes polled by each contesting party is given below :

 

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                                              of votes                      

                                                                              polled                        

 


Congress                                        3,00,385             49.00

Communists                                    1,18,823                 1.5

Praja Socialist Party                        8,962                      1.5                                   

Jan Sangh                                       70,930                  11.6

Independents                                  1,13,643               18.5

 


            Total                                  6,12,743                100

 

 

 


            The Third General Elections, 19624.—A major improvement in the matter of elections in the State this time was to further reduce the period of poll. While it took 19 days to complete the poll during the Second General Elections, 1957, the poll this time was held and completed in a single day, i.e., on 24th February, 1962, throughout the State except in the Kulu and Seraj constituencies where polling was held towards the end of April. The Punjab was thus the only State which had the distinction of having a single-day poll both for the Parliamentary and Assembly elections. The counting of votes in regard to 152 constituencies was started on 25th Fegruary and completed by 28th February, 1962.

 

            As a result of the bifurcation of the two-member constituencies, 13 Assembly Constituencies were formed as against 11 Assembly Constituencies (2 constituencies being double-member constituencies). The position in respect of the Parliamentary Constituency remained unchanged.

 

            Out of the total population of the district (1961 Census) of 15,34,916, the number of electors was 8,55,530.

 

            There were two Parliamentary Constituencies, viz., Amritsar and Tarn Taran. The Congress candidates were elected from both the constituencies. The number of votes polled by each of the contesting parties was as under :

 

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                                              of votes                      

                                                                              polled                        

 


Congress                                        2,85,072               45.1                                         

Communists                                    1,58,049               25.0

Akali Dal                                        1,10,617               17.5

Jan Sangh                                       67,849                  10.7

Independents                                  6,987                      1.1

Ram Rajya Parishad                       4,040                      0.6

 


            Total                                  6,32,614                100

 

 


            4Report on General Elections in Punjab, 1962, (Chandiarh 1963)

 

            For the Vidhan Sabha, there were 13 constituencies in the district, viz., Sirhali Kalan, Patti, Khalra, Tarn Taran, Nagoke, Jandiala Guru, Amritsar City East, Amritsar City Civil Lines, Amritsar City West, Ajnala, Majitha, Amritsar Sadr and Beas. From these constituencies, 7 Congress, 2 Akali Dal, 2 Jan Sangh, 1 Independent and 1 Communist candidates were elected. The number of votes polled by each party is given below :

 

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                      of votes           

                                                      polled              

 

 

 


Congress                                        2,70,359          46.6                           

Akali Dal                                        98,881             17.2

Communists      Tahsil). The Contress candidates were elected from both the constituencies. The party position and votes polled by each candidate was as under :

 


Name of the party                                                   Number of votes polled     

 


Beas Constituency—

            Congress                                                     22,623

            Independent                                                18,615

Patti Constituency—

            Congress                                                     22,452

            Independent                                                18,747

            Independent                                                  2,746

 


            The Fourth General Eelctions, 19675.—The General Elections held in 1967 were the fourth in the country and the first in the new State of the Punjab which came into being after reorganization on 1st November, 1966. Consequently, the constituencies delimited in 1965 were subjected to fresh delimitation, as notified by the Delimitation Commission in November 1966. By this order, the district was divided into 2 Parliamentary Constituencies and 14 Assembly Constituencies.

 

            As at the time of the Third General Elections, the poll throughout the State was held on a single day on 19th February, 1967. The counting was started on 21st February and completed on 24th.

 

            In the Fourth General Elections (1967), the total number of voters in the district was 8,80,129.

 

            From the two Parliamentary Constituencies in the district, viz. Tarn Taran and Amritsar, a Congress and a Jan Sangh candidate were elected. The details of the votes polled by each party are given below :

 


Name of the party                           Number            Percentage

                                                      of votes           

                                                      polled              

 


Congress                                        2,70,359               46.6                                   

Akali Dal                                        98,881                  17.2

Communists                                    58,550                  10.1

Jan Sangh                                       49,850                    8.5

Independents                                  72,446                  12.1

Swatantra                                       18,163                    3.2                                   

Praja Socialist                                 11,716                    2.0                                   

Hindu Maha Sabha                         893                         0.2                                   

Ram Rajya Parishad                       513                         0.1

 


            Total                                  5,82,371                100

 


            During the period of the Third General Elections, i.e. from 1962—1967, bye-elections were held in 1964 in two constituencies as the election of the then sitting M.L.A.s was held void. The first was the Beas Constituency (having in its extent the Beas Thana and the Malhian zail in the Jandiala Guru Thana in the Amritsar Tahsil) and the second was Patti Constituency (having in its extent the Patti and Valtoha  Thonas in the Patti Tahsil, Uddoke Village in Kathunaugal Thana in the Amritsar Tahsil, and Bahamniwala Village in the Sirhali Kalan Thana in the Tarn Taran Tahsil). The Congress candidates were elected from both the constituencies. The party position and votes polled by each candidate was as under :

 


Name of the party                           Number of

                                                      votes polled     

Beas Constituency—                     

            Congress                            22,623

            Independent                       18,615

Patti Constituency—

            Congress                            22,452

            Independent                       18,747

            Independent                       2,746

                       

            The Fourth General Elections, 19675.—The General Elections held in 1967 were the fourth in the country and the first in the new State of the Punjab which came into being after reorganization on Ist November, 1966. Consequently, the constituencies delimited in 1965 were subjected to fresh delimitation, as notified by the Delimitation Commission in November 1966. By this order, the district was divided into 2 Parliamentary Constituencies and 14 Assembly Constituencies.

            As at the time of the Third General Elections, the poll throughout the State was held on a single day on 19th February, 1967. The counting was started on 21st February and completed on 24th.

            In the Fourth General Elections (1967), the total number of voters in the district was 8,80,129.

            From the two Parliamentary Constituencies in the district, viz. Tarn Taran and Amritsar, a Congress and a Jan Sangh candidate were elected. The detail of the votes polled by each party are given below :

Name of the party                                                      Number of                       Percentage

                                                                     votes polled

Congress                                                                        2,53,810                       37.8

Jan Sangh                                                                       1,04,035                       15.5

Akali Dal (Sant Group)                                                   1,69,199                       25.2

Akali Dal (Master Group)                                                  39,788                         5.9

Swatantra                                                                          31,008                         4.6

Communist Party of India                                                   11,273                         1.6

Communist Party of India (Marxist)                                    11,598                         1.7

Independents                                                                     51,558                         7.7

            Total                                                                   6,72,269                        100

                5Report on General Elections in Punjab 1967 (Chandigarh, 1968)

            For the Vidhan Sabha, there were 14 constituencies (including 3 Scheduled Castes constituencies) in the district, viz. Khadur Sahib, Patti, Valtoha, Atari (S.C.), Tarn Taran, Bes, Jandiala Guru (S.C.), Amritsar East, Amritsar South, Amritsar Central, Amritsar West, Verka (S.C.). Majitha and Ajnala. From these constituencies, 5 Congress, 4 Akali Dal (Sant Group), 3 Jan Sangh, 1 Communist Party of India and 1 Communist Party of India (Marxist) candidates were elected. The votes polled by each of the contesting parties are given below :

 


Name of the party                                                         Number of                  Percentage

                                                                                    votes polled                  

 


Congress                                                                        2,16,077                          37.3

Akali Dal (Sant Group)                                                   1,46,110                          25.3

Jan Sangh                                                                          66,204                          11.5

Praja Socialist Party                                                           16,320                            2.8

Communist Party of India                                                   30,867                            5.4

Akali Dal (Master Group)                                                       888                            0.1

Communist Party of India (Marxist)                                    32,556                            5.6

Independents                                                                     69,347                          12.0

Total                                                                               5,78,369                           100

 

 


            Mid-term Poll, 19696..—In the Fourth General Elections, no single political party had gained absolute majority in the Vidhan Sabha. The policical parties, viz. the Akali Dal (Sant Group), the Jan Sangh, the Republican Party and the Right Communists joined together to form the People's United Front which formed its ministry on 8th March, 1967, After a short period, defections started and Sardar Lachhman Singh Gill, the then Education Minister, defected along with a few other M.L.A.s of the Akali Dal and formed his ministry on November 25, 1967, with the support of Independents and the Congress. The relationship between the ministry and the Congress did not continue to be smooth and the Congress withdrew its support. Consequently, no single party or workable alliance of the parties could form a stable Government. Therefore, on the recommendation of the Governor, the President's Rule was proclaimed from 23rd August, 1968.

 

6 Report on the Mid-Term General Election to the Punjab Vidhan Sabha, 1969 (Chandigarh, 1971).

 

            The mid-term poll throughout the State was held on 9th February, 1969. The counting was started on 10th and completed on 11th February, 169.

 

            In the mid-term elections, 1969, the total number of voters in the district was 9,22,676.

 

            There were 14 Vidhan Sabha constituencies (including 3 Scheduled Castes constituencies) in the district, viz., Khadur Sahib, Patti, Valtoha, Atari (S.C.), Tarn Taran, Beas, Jandiala Guru (S.C.), Amritsar East, Amritsar South, Amritsar Central, Amritsar West, Verka (S.C.), Majitha and Ajnala. From these constituencies, 6 Akali Dal, 4 Congress, 1 Jan Sangh, 1 Communist Party of India, 1 Communist Party of India (Marxist) and 1 Praja Socialist Party candidates were elected. The votes polled by each of the contesting parties are given below :

 

 


Name of the party                                                      Number of           Percnetage

                                                                                 valid votes

                                                                                 polled

 


Congress                                                                     2,46,972                          38.1

Akali Dal                                                                     1,83,794                          28.1

Jan Sangh                                                                       57,594                            9.1

Independents                                                                  42,639                            6.5

Communist Party of India                                                40,394                            6.0

Communist Party of India (Marxist)                                 43,986                            7.0

Praja Socialist Party                                                        20,282                            3.1

Janta Party                                                                      13,983                            2.1

Swatantra Party                                                                     86                            

 


            Total                                                                6,49,730                           100

 

 


            After the partition, 8 M.L.C.s returned to the Vidhan Parishad from the areas forming party of the Amritsar District.

 


(b)        Political Parties and Organizations

 

            Indian National Congress.—The party is wedded to the ideology of democratic socialism . Being a national party, it has a secular and ntional outlook. Its economic policies of socialistic pattern of society obviously have an appeal both for the labour and the inteliigentsia. The party enjoyed popularity among the Harijans and educated Hindus and Sikhs. After the reorganization of the former Punjab State in 1966, the influence of the party considerably waned. In the Fourth General Elections (1967) and the Mit-term Elections (1969), the party failed to secure a majority of seats in the Assembly and was reduced to the largest single group among the opposition parties. However, in the Firth General Elections (1972), the Congress gained absolute majority.

 

            In the First General Elections (1952), the Congress had bagged both the Parliamentary seats. Out of the 14 Assembly seats, the party had won 11 seats. In the Second General Elections (1957), both the parliamentary seats and 8 out of 13 Assembly seats were won by the party. In the Third General Elections (1962), the party won both the Parliamentary seats and 7 out of the 13 Assembly seats. In the Fourth General Elections (1967), one Parliementry seat out of the two fell to the share of the party. Out of the 14 Assembly seats, the Congress could bag only 5 seats. In the First General Elections, the Congress got 46.2 percent of the total valid votes polled for the Lok Sabha and 36.8 per cent of the total valid votes polled for the Vidhan Sabha. In the second General Elections, the party got 45.5 per cent out of the total valid votes polled for the Lok Sabha and 49 per cent out of the total votes polled for Vidhan Sabha. In the Third General Elections, the party got 45.1 per cent votes out of the total votes polled for the Lok Sabha and 46.6. per cent out of the total valid votes polled for the Vidhan Sabha. In the two bye-elections in 1964, the party got 54 per cent votes out of the total valid votes. In the Fourth General Elections, the party got 37.8 per cent out of the total valid votes polled for the Lok Sabha and 37.3 per cent out of the total valid votes polled for the Vidhan Sabha. In the mid-term poll of 1969, the party got 38.1 per cent votes for the Vidhan Sabha out of the total valid votes polled.

 

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