APPENDIX

GHADAR (REBELLION) OF 1915

Revolutionaries belonging to the Amritsar District tried and convicted by Special Tribunals

            I. Persons tried in the First Lahore Conspirary case and sentenced to death along with the forfeiture of property. Their death penalty was, however, commuted by the Viceroy into life imprisonment :

 

No.

Name

Village

1.

Balwant Singh

Sathiala

2.

Kala Singh

Amritsar

3.

Kesar Singh

Thathgarh

4.

Khushal Singh

Paddari

5.

Sawan Singh

Chabba

6.

Sohan Singh

Bhakna

7.

Wasawa Singh

Gilwali

            II. Revolutionaries awarded life imprisonment and sent to the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. Their assets were forfeited by the Government :

No.

Name

Village

1.

Bishan Singh

Dadehar

2.

Bishan Singh

Do

3.

Hazara Singh

Do

4.

Sant Wasakha Singh

Do

5.

Jwala Singh

Thatian

6.

Kehar Singh

Marhana

7.

Mangal Singh

Lalpur

8.

Sher Singh

Vainpoin

9.

Udham Singh

Kasel

            III. Persons who received varying terms of imprisonment :

1.         Baaj Singh                   Rayya              2 years’ rigorous imprisonment and                                                                                       forfeiture of assets

            IV. Persons accused of the Second Lahore Conspirary Case Sentenced to transportation for life along with forfeiture of property :

 

No.

Name

Village

1.

Bhag Singh

Jaheer Sahib

2.

Bishan Singh

Varpal

3.

Ganda Singh

Khapaur Kheri

4.

Gujjar Singh

Bhakna

5.

Hari Singh

kakar

6.

Harnam Singh

Rasulpur

7.

Jinder Singh

Chaudhariwala

8.

Maharaj Singh

Kasel

9.

Sucha Singh

Chohla Kalan

10.

Sunder Singh

Dulo Nangal

11.

Thakar Singh

Thatian

12.

Wasakha Singh

Dadehar

            V. Persons sentenced to various terms of imprisonment in the Second Lahore Conspiracy Case :

1.         Jassa Singh                             Jhar Sahib 6 month’s rigorous imprisonment

            VI. Persons belonging to 23rd Cavalry, originally sentenced to death by a military court, but their sentences commuted later into transportation for life :

 

No.

Name

Village

1.

Bishan Singh

Sathiala

2.

Bishan Singh No.2

Do

3.

Natha Singh

Do

4.

Kehar Singh

Do

5.

Chanan Singh

Dhand Kasel

6.

Nand Singh

Rai ka Burj

            VII. Army men of the 23rd Cavalry court-martialled at Dagshai (near Simla) and sentenced to death :

 

No.

Name

Village

1.

Bhag Singh

Roorhiwala

2.

Mota Singh

Do

3.

Dafedar Tara Singh

Do

4.

Wadhawa Singh

Do

5.

Inder Singh

Jeohala

6.

Inder Singh

Sahajpur

7.

Dafedar Lachhman Singh

Chuslewar

8.

Boota Singh

Kasel

9.

Gujjar Singh

Lahoke

10.

Jetha Singh

Do

11.

Budh Singh

Dhotian

 

CHAPTER III

PEOPLE

(a)

Population

(b)

Languages

(c)

Religions and Castes

(d)

Social life

(e)

Rehabilitation

 

(a) Population

            (i) Total Population

            According to the 1961 Census, the total population of the district was 1534916, comprising 827821 males and 707095 females. Out of these, 1070892 were rural and 464024 urban.

            Growth of Population.-The population of the district increased from 893266 in 1881 to 1534916 in 1961. The increase is party because on the partition of the country in 1947, 186 villages, including Patti, were transferred from the Kasur Tahsil of the Lahore District (Pakistan) to the Amritsar District and formed into the Patti Sub Tahsil which was later on raised to a tahsil and sub-division.

            The following table gives the variation in population in the district during the sixty years from 1901 to 1961 :

Year

Persons

Decade variation

Percentage decade variation

Males

Females

1901

1187140

. .

. .

649086

538054

1911

1021225

-165915

-13.98

573353

447872

1921

1077596

+56371

+5.52

600140

477456

1931

1295270

+217674

+20.20

718391

576879

1941

1621126

+325856

+25.16

880347

740779

1951

1367040

-254086

-15.67

742421

624619

1961

1534916

+167876

+12.28

827821

707095

            (Census of India, 1961, District Census Handbook NO.13, Amritsar District, p. 201)

            During the sixty years from 1901 to 1961, the population of the district increased by 29.3 per cent. The ten-year period (1901-11) was marked by severe epidemics of plague and malaria which took a heavy toll of the population. During 1911-21, there occurred the great influenza epidemic. The decades 1921-31 and 1931-41 were comparatively free from calamities and the population increased fast. The decade 1941-51 experienced the holocaust of unprecedented communal trouble and mass migration in the wake of the partition of 1947; the Muslim population of the district migrated to Pakistan but most of the non-Muslim migrants from Pakistan did not favour to settle in Amritsar because of its proximity to the border. Consequently, the population of the district decreased by 15.67 per cent despite 186 villages from the Kasur Tahsil of the Lahore District (Pakistan) being transferred to the Amritsar District in 1947. The decennium 1951-61 was free from disease and the health measures taken by the Government considerably reduced the death-rate, whereas the birth-rate remained unchanged. The population of the district, thus, increased by 12.28 per cent.

            Emigration and Immigration.-Emigration and immigration of persons from one place/district/State/country to another is a normal process. This is caused by various factors, e.g., economic, social and political.

            Out of 1534916 persons enumerated in the district during the 1961 Census, persons born in the Punjab districts (as before the reorganization of the former Punjab State in 1966) other than Amritsar numbered 101134 or 6.6 per cent of the population. Among these, the percentage of females (7.8) was higher than that of males (5.6).

            The Punjab-born persons formed 83.5 per cent of the district’s popultion. The remaining 16.5 per cent hailed from areas shown below :

 

Place of birth

Number

Percentage to total population

Other States of India

37703

2.5

Pakistan

208751

13.6

Other countries

3911

0.3

Information not available

1706

0.1

(Census of India, 1961, District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, pp. 35, 290-91)

            Persons born in other Indian States were mostly from Jammu & Kashmir (6668), Uttar Pradesh (18188), Delhi (2461) and Himachal Pradesh (1110). Persons from Delhi were enumerated mostly in the urban areas but from other States mostly in the rural areas.

            The Pakistan-born persons, barring a few, were those who migrated in the wake of the partition of the country in 1947. The persons reported to have been born in countries other than Pakistan were mostly children of the Punjabis who in their youth went abroad and had now come back or had sent their children home.

            The particulars regarding the persons who migrated from the district to other places in the country or to foreign countries are not available.

            Density of Population.-The following table shows the density of population in the district from 1881 to 1961:

 

Year

Density of population per sq. km.

1881

219

1891

244

1901

236

1911

203

1921

214

1931

258

1941

322

1951

272

1961

302

            (Census of India, 1951, Vol. VIII, Punjab, Pepsu, Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur and Delhi, Part I-A – Report, pp. 8-9, 26-27 ;

            Census of India, 1961, Punjab District Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, p. 30)

            According to the 1961 Census, the Punjab (reorganized)1 had on an average 221 persons to a square kilometer, with the Jullundur District as the most thickly populated (353) and Bhatinda as the most sparsely populated (153). The number of persons per square kilometer in the Amritsar District was 302 and, in this respect, ranked 2nd among then 11 districts2 of the State. The reasons for higher density in the Amritsar District are not difficult to seek. With extensive irrigation facilities available everywhere in the district, Amritsar is capable of supporting a heavy population. The Amritsar Tahsil supported the maximum population (569 persons per sq. km.), mainly because of the big city of Amritsar. In the Ajnala and Patti tahsils, the density of population was 164 and 186 respectively. The main factor contributing to fewer people in these tahsils is their nearness to the Pakistan border.

            1On the reorganization of the former Punjab on November 1, 1966, the new (reorganized) Punjab State was left with only 11 districts, (viz. Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, Ropar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Bhatinda, Sangrur and Patiala) out of a total of 19 districts before the reorganization

            The tahsil-wise distribution and density of population in the district, according to the 1951 Census and 1961 Census, is given in the following table :

            2With the formation of the new District of Faridkot on August 7, 1972, the number of the districts in the Punjab State rose from 11 to 12


Distribution of population between the rural and urban areas in the Amritsar District, 1951 and 1961

            District/Tahsil

1951 Census

1961 Census

 

Persons

Density of population per sq. km.

Males

Females

Persons

Density of population per sq. km.

Males

Females

Total District

1367040

272

742421

624619

1534916

302

827821

707095

Rural

958333

 

512198

446335

1070892

 

570444

500448

Urban

408507

 

230223

178284

464024

 

257377

206647

Ajnala Tahsil

156197

144

83762

72435

178334

164

95447

82887

Rural

153151

 

82152

70999

175181

 

93806

81375

Urban

3046

 

1610

1436

3153

 

1641

1512

Amritsar Tahsil

687273

487

378087

309186

803219

569

437713

365506

Rural

326028

 

173276

152752

386284

 

205274

181010

Urban

361245

 

204811

156434

416935

 

232439

184496

Tarn Taran Tahsil

281265

229

150477

130788

353872

234

187527

16345

Rural

264921

 

141651

123270

332911

 

176546

156365

Urban

16344

 

8826

7518

20961

 

10981

9980

Patti Tahsil

242305

178

130095

112210

199491

186

107134

92357

Rural

214433

 

115119

99314

176516

 

94818

81698

Urban

27872

 

14976

12896

22975

 

12316

10659

(Census of India, 1951, District Census Handbook, Vol. 12, Amritsar District, p. xiii;

Census of India, 1951, Vol VIII, Pt. I-A-Report, pp. 26-27 ; and

Census of India, 1961, District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, p. 197)


            Sex Ratio.-According to the 1961 Census, out of the total population of 1534916 of the district, 827821 were males and 707095 were females, i.e. a ratio of 53.9 : 46.1

            In the Punjab (reorganized), there were 854 females per 1000 males, and this was the lowest figure for females among the States in India : the corresponding figure for the Indian Union was 941 females per 1000 males. Curiously, there is a belt stretching from the west to the east comprising the Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jullundur and Hoshiarpur districts where the sex ratio is conspicuously higher than that of the State average, and the number of women per thousand men increases gradually from the west to the east. According to the 1961 Census, it was 854, 886, 872 and 903 for Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jullundur and Hoshiarpur Districts respectively.

            During the fifty years from 1911 to 1961, there has been an overall improvement in favour of women as the following figures show :

 

Year

Females per thousand males in the Amritsar District

1911

781

1921

796

1931

803

1941

841

1951

841

1961

854

            Among the four tahsils, Tarn Taran leads with 887 females per 1000 males, followed by Ajnala (868), Patti (862) and Amritsar (835). The sex ratio for the rural areas of the district works out to 877 : 1000 and for the urban areas 803 : 1000, the corresponding figures in 1951 were 870 and 775 respectively.

            Age Composition.-In the following table, the population of the district, according to the 1961 Census, is distributed into various age-groups. With a view to comprehending the comparative strength of these groups, the totals have uniformly been taken as 1000 :

Distribution of 1000 persons of each sex by age-groups, according to the 1961 Census, in the Amritsar District

 

Age-Group

Total Population

Rural

Urban

Persons

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

All ages

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

0-9

305.51

300.86

310.96

317.57

316.15

263.81

298.41

10-14

122.63

122.60

122.67

128.15

123.40

110.27

120.88

15-19

93.21

93.33

93.07

90.95

90.32

98.61

99.73

20-24

81.49

79.50

83.83

69.37

77.60

101.96

98.90

25-29

73.10

71.05

75.51

64.09

71.89

86.48

84.29

30-34

60.27

59.23

61.48

53.24

59.18

72.51

67.06

35-39

48.24

47.47

49.14

42.20

48.37

59.15

51.00

40-44

46.27

47.11

45.28

44.61

45.35

52.67

45.11

45-49

36.06

35.55

36.65

33.82

37.69

39.38

34.14

50-54

38.25

41.34

34.62

42.42

35.27

38.96

33.05

55-59

20.49

20.71

20.24

21.06

21.60

19.94

16.93

60-64

29.67

32.94

25.84

36.43

27.68

25.19

21.39

65-69

12.72

13.94

11.28

15.53

12.18

10.42

9.13

70+

31.85

34.13

29.19

40.38

33.09

20.27

19.72

Age not stared

0.24

0.24

0.24

0.18

0.23

0.38

0.26

            (Census of India, 1961, Punjab District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, p. 32)

            Too much reliance cannot be placed on the inferences that may be drawn from the figures given in the above table, since a district is a small geographical area and the inflow and outflow of the population as a disturbing factor cannot be ignored. With this reservation, some broad inferences, as drawn, are given below :

            The age pyramid for the district has a broad base and tapers rather obliquely-306 persons per thousand of the population are below the age of ten and only 95 persons are of the age of 55 years and above. Roughly speaking, four out of every ten persons were below the age of 15, 5 in the age-group 15 years to below 55, and only one past the age of 55.

            The age span of the females is lower than that of the males. The males below the age of 15 years are 423 per 1000 males ; the corresponding figure for the females in 434. In ages between 15 and below 55 years, the males count 475 per 1000 males, but the women are 480. In ages 55 years and above, the males are 102 and females are only 86. The girls in the rural areas unfortunately still do not receive the same care as the boys, and after marriage, they have the extra handicap of maternity troubles and stress of domestic life.

            It is a common observation that a large number of persons shift from villages to towns for education and livelihood. The low-paid among them leave their families in their village homes and live in the towns by themselves. When past the age of useful work, some among them return to their villages. The effect of this type of movement is reflected in the statistics of rural and urban age composition. For age-groups below 15, 15 to below 55 and 55 and above, the distribution among the males in the rural areas is 446, 441 and 113 and in the urban areas, 374, 550 and 76. The corresponding figures for the females in the rural areas are 440, 446 and 94, and for the urban areas, they are 420, 513 and 67.

            Marital Status.-In the following table, persons in different age-groups in the district, according to the 1961 Census, are further classified according to their marital status. To comprehend the significance of these figures, one thousand males and one thousand females, for the district as a whole and for the rural and urban areas, are distributed according to marital status :

1000 males and females, according to the 1961 Census in the Amritsar District, classified according to marital status

 

Marital status

Total

Rural

Urban

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

All ages

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

Never married

584.46

510.29

590.19

506.75

571.75

518.87

Married

369.34

423.57

360.29

429.71

389.39

408.70

Widowed

44.01

64.62

48.22

62.64

34.69

69.42

Divorced or separated

1.00

0.73

1.04

0.75

0.93

0.66

Unspecified status

1.19

0.79

0.26

0.15

3.24

2.35

            (Census of India, 1961, Punjab District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, p. 33)

            It will be noticed that, in the district as a whole, some 58 per cent of the males and 51 per cent of the females were unmarried. A higher proportion of the unmarried males was due to the shortage of females, and this aspect has been studied earlier. Correspondingly, there was a higher proportion of the married among the females than among the males.

            The proportion of the married males was higher in towns than in villages, but the proportion of the married females was higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas.

            Marriage in India is universal and there is always an explanation for an old bachelor or spinster. Out of the unmarried males and females numbering 483827 and 360824 respectivlely in the district in the rural areas, there were only 31 bachelors per thousand males past the age of 34 years, and 5 spinsters per thousand females past the age of 25 years. The corresponding figures for the urban areas were 23 and 15.

            (ii) Distribution of population between the Rural and the Urban Areas

            The following table shows the distribution of population between the rural and the urban areas in the district in 1931, 1941, 1951 and 1961 :

Distribution of the population between the rural and urban areas in the Amritsar District in 1931, 1941, 1951 and 1961

District

 

Persons

Males

Females

Rural/Urban

 

1931 Census

 

 

 

Total District

 

1117120

621040

496080

Rural

821008

444658

376350

Urban

296112

176382

119730

 

1941 Census

 

 

 

Total District

 

1413876

776782

637094

Rural

966727

517529

449198

Urban

447149

259253

187896

 

1951 Census

 

 

 

Total District

 

1367040

742421

624619

Rural

958533

512198

446335

Urban

408507

230223

178284

 

1961 Census

 

 

 

Total District

 

1534916

827821

707095

Rural

1070892

570444

500448

Urban

464024

257377

206647

(Census of India, 1931, 1941, 1951 and 1961)

            The total population of the district rose from 11.17 lakhs in 1931 to 14.14 lakhs in 1941. Thereafter, it fell to 13.67 lakhs in 1951 but again rose to 15.35 lakhs in 1961. The decrease in the population of the district, during the decade 1941-50, was caused by a highe remigration of Muslims from the area to Pakistan than that of the non-Muslims from Pakistan. They settled in the district on the partition of the country in 1947.

            In the same way, the rural population of the district rose from 8.21 lakhs in 1931 to 9.67 lakhs in 1941. It fell to 9.59 lakhs in 1951, but again rose to 10.71 lakhs in 1961. The urban population also rose from 2.96 lakhs in 1931 to 4.47 lakhs in 1941. It fell to 4.09 lakhs in 1951 but again rose to 4.64 lakhs in 1961.

            (iii) Displaced Persons

            On the partition of the country in 1947, there was an unprecedented migration of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan to India and of Muslims from India to Pakistan. Thus, a huge number of Muslims from the Amritsar District migrated to Pakistan and settled in places from which the Hindu and Sikh refugees migrated to the district. The detailed particulars about the refugees and their rehabilitation in the district have been discussed in the section on ‘Rehabilitation’ of this chapter.

            The table given in Appendix on pages 126-27 shows the details of the refugee population by the district of origin in Pakistan settled in the Amritsar District.

(b) LANGUAGES

            Punjabi is the predominantly spoken language in the district, followed by Hindi, Nepali, Kashmir, Urdu, etc. as borne out by the following figures relating to the mother-tongue given in the 1961 Census :

 

Mother-tongue

Number

Per 1000

Punjabi

1174505

765.19

Hindi

351921

229.28

Nepali

2318

1.51

Kashmiri

1571

1.02

Urdu

1435

0.94

Others

3166

2.06

            (Census of India, 1961, District Census Handbook No.13, Amritsar District, pp. 286-87)

            Under the Punjab Official Language Act, 1967,3 Punjabi in the Gurmukhi script was introduced as the official language of the State on April 13, 1968. The Act provides that Punjabi shall be used for such official purposes of the State and from such dates as may be specified by notifications to be issued from time to time. For official work at the district level and below, Punjabi has replaced English in almost all matters, except accounts, technical matters, etc.

            For the promotion of Hindi, the Government holds seminars, Kavi Sammelans (poetic symposia), etc., from time to time.

            The Amritsar District forms the heart of Majha. If a Majha Jat is asked to define Majha in the district, he will demarcate the areas from Atari to Govindwal, wherefrom the old Badshahi road passed. According to the above assumption, Tarn Taran would be the central Majha, whereas the Ajnala and Amritsar tahsils could not be said to be part of majha. Broadly speaking, the entire district, alongwith the Gurdaspur District, is described as Majha. The areas of the Patti Subdivision, transferred from the Lahore District to the Amritsar District in 1947, have also been included in Majha.

            The language spoken in the district is the Majhi dialect of the Punjabi language. This dialect has been adopted as the standard Punjabi for general purposes. The basis of grammar has, however, not been adopted from the Majhi dialect. This is not because this dialect did not come up to the required standard. It was rather because of the inadequacy of the first Punjab dictionary and the Punjabi grammar prepared and printed at Ludhiana (Malwa) by the Christian Missionaries. The first translation of the Bible in Punjabi was also published by the missionaries at Ludhiana. The forms of grammar were, consequently, adopted on the basis of the Malwai dialect. Those were accepted by the Punjabi writers, regardless of its being written on the basis of the Malwai dialect. Another potent factor for the Majhi dialect being adopted as the standard Punjabi was that this dialect was spoken by the people residing in the central Punjab. Moreover, this dialect was well understood by the people of the Punjab as a whole, even though some persons felt some difficulty in speaking it.

            There are certain words in the Majhi dialect which sometimes enable us to recognize whether the man belongs to the Bist Doab or the Rachna Doab.

            There are certain points of difference from the Ludhiana standard that can be noticed in Majha.

            The cerebral 1 is never sounded in Amritsar. The ordinary dental 1 is always substituted for it. Thus, naal not nal. The letter a is often doubled. Thus, tuhadda, your; wadda for wada, great ; duradda for durada, far. On the other hand, letter which are doubled in the standard dialect of Ludhiana are often not doubled in Amritsar. Thus, uth-ke for utth-ke, having risen ; vich not vichch, in, but vichcho, from in; lagia, joined, but lagga, began; labh-pia, not labbh-pia, got ; aparia, for apparia, arrived.

            3The Act of 1967 repealed the Punjab Official Languages Act, 1960

            Nasalization is frequent. Thus apna dhan, his own wealth; aundi-hai, she is coming ; bharna chahunda-si, he was wishing to fill ; jawanga, I will go ; chummia, it was kissed ; manaie, let us celebrate. Some of these nasalized forms are relics of the old neuter gender.

            In the declension of nouns, the intial v of the post-position vich is often elided, and the remainder of the post-position is attached to the main words as a termination, as in gharich for ghar-vich, in the house. The post-position of the agent case is nai or nai.

            The initial v in Majhi is sometimes substituted for d used in the standard Punjabi. For instance, vekhna instead of dekhna, to see.

            Moreover, false genders are caused by attraction, in phrases, like ihdi hathi, on his own hand, hathi is used in the singular.

            In the pronouns, the nasal of asi, we, and tusi, you, is omitted, so that we have asi and tusi. Other forms not shown in the grammar are mainai, by me; saada, our ; tainai, by thee ; tuhadda, your. Tu, thou, often has its oblique singular tudh. The oblique plural of the pronoun of the third person is una not uhna.

            In the verb substantive, we have hai and han, both meaning ‘we are’ and ‘they are’. The present participle of the finite verbs often ends in na instead of da. Thus, marnaha, ‘I am striking’.

            Irregular forms noted are deu, givt thou ; deh, give ; jah, go ; jawanga, I will go ; aunda or anda, is coming ; kuna, to say, or kunda nahen, does not speak. This irregular form of verb kuna is spoken only in the Tarn Taran Tahsil.

            The people belonging to the lower strata of society pronounce sh instead of chh. For instance shittar for chhittar. When in easy mood, intending to give an expression of enjoyment, they say anand bajha oya, enjoyment is there. The word gu or gun is used instead of ga used in the standard Punjabi. For instance, men le lawun gu, I shall take, instead of men le lawun ga. A jat of Majha is popularly called Bhaoo (brother).

            The peculiar abbreviation of jhai for bhat jai is prevalent. The word also undergoes change in its meaning. The word is used for one’s mother and not for one’ sister-in-law.

            The persons belonging to the Khem Karan area still use certain Persian or Urdu words. This is so because that area before the partition was a part of the Kasur Tahsil of the Lahore District (Pakistan) and was very near the Kasur town, mostly inhabited by Muhammadans.

            After the partition, the Hindus and Sikhs of Pakistan migrated to India and a good number of them settled in the district. They speak Majhi, Pothohari and Lehnda dialects. They have some definite impact on the Majhi dialect in Amritsar but not in the entire district. The children of the migrants speak Majhi fluently. They also speak their original dialect with their parents and in families originally belonging to the areas from where their parents migrated. The word, bhapa, so often spoken by the persons belonging to the Rawalpindi side, has been adopted by others in Amritsar. The Majhi spoken in the Tarn Taran Tahsil, however, stands affected to the least extent.

            Some common English words, e.g. permit, ration, station and allot are commonly used by rural people. The literate persons so often use so many English words. They use English words when they are unable to find their equivalent in Majhi or in the standard Punjabi or just to show their literacy.

            In one important point, these specimens do not illustrate the dialect of Majha. This is the occasional use of personal terminations with the past tense of verbs. This is proberly a characteristic of the outer circle of languages and does not belong to Punjabi, as illustrated in books of grammar. On the other hand, it regularly appears in Lehnda, and, as explained in the introduction to this section, there is a Lehnda basis at the bottom of Punjabi, which is almost concealed by the language of the inner group that has established itself in the central and eastern Punjab. As one goes westwards from the old Saraswati, the Lehnda basis becomes more and more pronounced and, hence, we occasionally find these terminations in Majhi. In Majhi, they are only found in the third person of the transitive verbs, and are, for the singular, us os or osu and, for the plural, one. Thus, instead of the regular us akhia (he said), we frequently hear akhios and instead of unhe (or una) akhia (they said), we frequently hear akhios and instead of unhe (or una) akhia (they said), akhione. So dittos (he gave); kahios (he said); kitosu (he did); manneosu (he heeded); dittone (they gave) kitone (they did), etc.

 

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