(First Edition 1992)


















































The River System and Water Resources











(a)       Introductory


            (i)        Origin of the Name of the District. – The district of Bathinda takes its name after its headquarters town Bathinda.  There are different versions about the origin of the name of the town.  According to Khalifa Mohammad Hassan’s History of Patiala, its ancient name was Bikramgarh.  Bathinda is said in the Hindu annals to have been Jaipal’s capital and place of residence.  Tabarhindu was in all probability, the old name of Bathinda1.  According to another version, it is said to have been named after Binai Pal and his Wazir (minister) Thanda Ram, i.e. from Binai B + Thanda = Bathanda or Bathinda.  It was also called Gobindgarh after the Gobind Fort, where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru of Sikhs stayed and a gurudwara was constructed by Maharaja Narinder Singh of Patiala State.  Before the change effected by the Survey of India,  the name of the district was Bathinda.


1    Phulkian States Gazetteer, 1904 (Lahore, 1909), pp 188-89


            (ii)       Location, General Boundaries, Total Area and Population of the District. – Bathinda is one of the three districts of the Firozpur Division.  It is one of the southern districts of the Punjab State and  lies between north  latitude 29º - 33’ and 30º - 50’ and between east longitude 74º - 28’ and 75º - 46’.   It is bounded by the Faridkot District in the north and west, the Sangrur District in the east and the Hisar and Sirsa districts of Haryana State in the south.


            Bathinda, the headquarters of the district administration, is a big railway junction of Northern Railway.  It is also linked by road with Chandigarh (210 km), Ludhiana (136 km), Firozpur (103 km via Kot Kapura), Faridkot (63 km), Delhi (370 km), etc.  All the municipal towns of the district have railway stations.


            According to the Director of Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar, the area of the Bathinda District in 1983-84 was 5,53,630 hectares.  In terms of area, the district occupies third place in the State after the districts of Firozpur and Fridkot.  The tahailwise area of the district, according to the Director of Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar is given below:









Talwandi Sabo


Rampura Phul





            According to the 1981 Census, the population of the district was 13,04,606 persons (10,08,729 rural, 2,95,877 urban) comprising 6,99,815 males and 6,04,791 females.


            (iii)      History of the District as an Administrative Unit and the Changes in its Component Parts. – With the formation of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) on 5 May 1948, the district of Bathinda alongwith seven other districts came into existence on 20 August 1948 with 3 tahsils, viz.  Faridkot, Bathinda and Mansa.  Mansa and Faridkot were subdivisions.  Earlier, it was a tahsil of the Barnala Nizamat of the Patiala State.  It consisted of whole of the erstwhile Faridkot Princely State, two tahsils, i.e. Bathinda and Mansa of erstwhile Patiala Princely State and the area of Jaito of erstwhile Nabha Princely State.  Though Bathinda became a district, its headquarters were at Faridkot which were shifted to Bathinda only in 1953.  In October 1954 Phul Sub-Tahsil, which was a part of Barnala District was included in the Bathinda District.  In August 1959, 37 villages of Nathana Sub-Tahsil of Firozpur District were added to the district.  In 1971, Bathinda an Phul were made separate subdivisions.  On 7 August 1972, the district underwent further of Faridkot.  Faridkot Tahsil of the Bathinda District was taken out and include Faridkot District.  On 12 April 1979, a  forth subdivision, Talwandi Sabo was created.  Since then, the district comprises four subdivisions, namely, Bathinda, Mansa, Talwandi Sabo and Rampura Phul.


            (iv)      Subdivisions, Tahsils and Thanas. – According to the 1981 Census, the district comprised 527 villages (520 inhabited and 7 uninhabited) and 11 towns constituted into four tahsils, viz.  Bathinda (116 villages), Mansa (242 villages), Rampura Phul (76 villages) and Talwandi Sabo (86 villages).  All the tahsils have been converted into subdivisions.


            The tahsilwise list of police stations and police posts in the district is given in Chapter XII ‘Law and Order and Justice’.


(b)              Topography


 The district is situated within the Satluj-Ganga plain.  The whole of  it is a low-lying flat area.  The only contour line running across the area is of 220 metres.  It runs from the south-east of Sidhani village northward through Kahangarh (Mansa Tahsil) and then north-west to Bareta (Mansa Tahsil).  From here, the line runs north-west and passes just west of Kishangarh (Mansa Tahsil).  Then it moves just south-west of Gidrene (Sirsa District, Haryana) and goes westward through Daska.  From here, the contour takes a south-west bend and goes towards Datewas (Mansa Tahsil, from where it takes a north-westerly direction and goes through Chak Niagaon and Gurney Kalan (Mansa Tahsil).  The presence of only one counter indicates the flattish nature of the surface.


            The slope of the area is from north-east to south-west as indicated by the direction of the flow of canals and spot heights.  The highest point in the area is Ratta Khera (Hisar District, Haryana) in north-eastern part with a height of 205 metres.  The lowest point is at a height (Talwandi Sabo Tahsil).  The elevation of the plain thus has a range of about 25 metres.


            During rainy season, the area is flooded.  To project themselves from floods, many settlements, particularly the big ones, are situated on relatively higher ground.


* Material supplied by Prof A.B. Mukerji, Department of Geography, Punjab University,  Chandigarh


            Geomorphic Features. – Sand dunes and sand hills are very important geomorphic features of the area.  These landform features differ in their shapes, size, and location.  A long narrow ridge of sand is known as a sand dune.  If it is much longer than its width, it is known a sand ridge.  Some of the sand ridges are very long and roughly run in a line as parallel to one another.  These may be termed as longitudinal dunes.  Some of the sand dunes are circular or irregular in shape.  These may be termed as sand mounds.  A few sand dunes are crescent shapes and are called barkhans.


            Although sand dunes and sand mounds are found scattered throughout the length and breadth of the district, on the basis of their concentration the area can be divided into four regions described below :


(i)        A very important chain of sand ridges and dunes is found in the western part of the district running parallel to Sandoha Branch of the Sirhind Canal.  These sand ridges start just south of Sandoha (Talwandi Sabo Tahsil) and go north-west along the left branch of the canal.  As these move north-west, they gin height and length and become more prominent.  A little west of village Ram Tirath Jagga (Talwandi Sabo Tahsil), there is a longitudinal sand dune more than 1½  km long and about 200 metres wide.  In the north of this village, there is also a chain of sand ridges going northwards.  The chain is broken in the middle where it is crossed by a road going to Bhagwanpura (Talwandi Sabo Tahsil).  The direction of these ridges is roughly from north-east to south-west.  To the east of village Sangat Khurd and Teona Pujarian (Talwandi Sabo Tahsil), there are few examples of crescent shaped sand dunes known as barkhans.


(ii)        Another important area of sand dunes lies between Autanwali and village Peron (Mansa Tahsil).  For a distance of more than 12 km, one finds chain of isolated sand ridges of all sizes running in north-east to south-west direction.  The ridges are arranged in three rows parallel to one another.  A few ridges may be about 1 km  in length, like the one east of Banawala (Mansa Tahsil), but most of them are only few hundred metres long.  Towards the south of Banawala village, a few ridges take a westerly direction Singho Branch of the Sirhind Canal.  Further southward, the sand hills are scattered.


(iii)       Another important area of the sand dunes lies between Uddat Branch and Boha distributary of the Sirhind Canal in the north-eastern part of the Sirhind Canal in the north-eastern part of the district.  To the west of village Barah and east of village Tahlian (Mansa Tahsil), there are a large number of sand dunes. Most of these dunes range from 100 to 200 metres in length, although a few may be one kilometer long.  These sand dunes run in different directions indicating shifts in the direction of winds.  These are shifting sand dunes.  As one goes westward from village Tahlian (Mansa Tahsil), the sand  dunes become more scattered and generally disappear.


(iv)       There is another important area of sand dunes in the western part of the district bordering Hisar District.  There are a large number of sand mounds to the north of villages, Tibbi Hari Singh, Sardulewala, Mirpur Khurd, Mirpur Kalan, Adamke, and Baran (Mansa Tahsil).  All these villages lie to the north of the Ghaggar River.  Some of the sand dunes are very big covering an area of more than three sq. km. and rising to a height of about 10 to 20 metres.  Some of the mounds are quite small.  A majority of mounds are irregular in shape.  These mounds are an extension of those found in the northern part of Fatehabad Tahsil of Hisar District of Haryana.


(c) River System and Water Resources

Main Rivers Tributaries and Canals


            The Ghagger River. – Ghaggar is the only river flowing the district.  The river rises from the Shiwalik Hills.  After flowing through the districts of Ambala, Kurukshetra, Jind, and Hisar, it enters Bathinda District about one km north of Malwala village (Fatehabad Tahsil, Haryana), at village Heerke (Mansa Tahsil) and leaves near village Rorki.  At this point, the river can be crossed by wading through its bed from November to June.  During the rainy season, however, the river is full of water and ferries have to be used to cross it.


            The Ghaggar virtually forms the boundary between the districts of Hisar and Bathinda for more than 12 kilometre.  The river leaves the boundary about one kilometer east of village Hingna (Mansa Tahsil) and flows through the Bathinda Disrict.  Just to the south-east of village Hingna, a siphon is provided on the river.  At this point, the old Dhodal Branch of Sirhind Canal crosses the river.  The river flows through the southern part of the district and finally enters the Sirsa District of Haryana.


            Water Resources. – Canals are the principal source of irrigation.  A large number of major and minor distributaries taken out from Sirhind Canal traverse the area.  The Bhakhra Main canal also runs through the southern part of the district.  Wells  also appear to be an important source of irrigation, particularly in those areas which are slightly higher and where canal water could not reach easily.  Wells also provide drinking water to the inhabitants of the villages.  Every village has at least 2 or 3 wells.


            Besides these, practically every village has a common pond where animals drink water and women folk wash their family clothes.  Big ponds or tanks covering an area of 3 or 4 sq. km. are found especially in the eastern part of the district.  Important ones are east of the settlements of Dharampura (Mansa Tahsil), north of Bareta (Mansa Tahsil) east of Juglan (Mansa Tahsil).  Some small tanks are also seen near Sherkhanwala (Mansa Tahsil).  All these big and small ponds lie mostly in the natural depressions.


(d)              Geology*


(i)        Geological Formation


The area forms a part of the Indo Gangetic Alluvial Plains.  Though a number of remnants of sand dunes are present throughout the area, they are more conspicuous towards west of Mansa and on the south eastern part of the district.  The alluvium is comprised of clay, sandy clay and sand with horizons of kankar.  In the north eastern and western parts of the district, the sand horizons are persistent and thin clay beds are encountered in the form of lenses.  But in the south-western part of the district, the sand is fine and occurs in the form of lenses of small magnitude.  The clayey and sandy soils characterize the top layers of the surface whereas pure and occurs either near the dune country or at a sub-surface level of around 8 metres and below.  Sticky clay locally known as pandoo occurs in the vicinity of dry ponds and at a level of 1.5 metre below from the surface and are usually more than a metre thick.  Kankar bearing soil zones are normally found over this pandoo zone, though sometimes pandoo also contains nodules of kankar towards the upper part.


*    Material supplied by the Director, Geological Survey of India, Punjab and Haryana Circle, Chandigarh


(ii)       Mineral Resources


            Kankar.Kankar, popularly known as Rore in the area occurs mainly in two different forms – (a) hard and compact sheet (hard pan deposit) and (b) nodular variety.  The bedded form of the hard and compact sheet of kankar occurring usually over the nodular variety ranges in thickness from 0.10 metre to about a metre below an overburden ranging from 0.30 metre to about 1.50 metre from the surface whereas the soil zones containing nodular variety of kankar rage in thickness from 0.10 metre to 2.00 metre and contain kankar varying from as low as 2 per cent to as high as about 80 per cent by volume


            The pea size fragments are generally associated with the pandoo and other clay, small size-nodules with the clayey soils medium to big size fragments with the sandy soils and large size nodules with the pure sand horizons.  It is noteworthy to note that as the size of the enclosing particles of soil containing kankar increases, size of the kankar nodules increases.  However, the frequency factor of such nodules is inversely related to the permeability of the associated soil zones.  Thus, though the sands contain normally large size nodules of kankar, these are relatively sparsely distributed in the sand.


            The occurrences of kankar in the area is controlled by the following factors :-


(a)              It normally occurs above the pandoo zone of soil.


(b)              It is mostly confined above the water table.


(c)              The brownish black soil typical of bogy lands do not contain any nodules of kankar, but above it may be found the sheet and nodular variety of kankar.


(d)              The sheet type kankar occurs practically always above the nodular variety, if present.


(e)              The sheet type  of kankar occurs normally at a shallower depth of less than a metre from surface.


(f)               The alkaline soils are normally seen over the sheet type of kankar but not the vice versa.


(g)              The size of nodular in the soil is directly proportional to the grain size of the enclosing particles of soil.


(h)              The frequency of such nodules is inversely proportional to the permeability of enclosing soil zones.


(i)                The nodular variety of kankar seldom occurs over sheet of kankar.


(j)                Occurrences of nodular kankar is very meagre in areas where water table is deep (more than 10 metres from surface).


Deviations from the above norms are also seen at times.  Thus the pandoo may contain small amounts of kankar nodules of granular size towards the upper part of the zone.  Kankars may be found to extend below the water table to some extent (but these may be explained due to change in the water table since their formation) and at times seen at far greater depths of 39 meters and below water table is indicated by tubewell sections in the area (this may further be explained due to superimposition of different horizons of kankars in the past due to the change in the water table and topography of the area).


            At places, top soils measuring about a few mm in thickness are alkaline in nature.  Prominent patches of such alkaline earths are located near Khiwa Khurd, Khiwa Kalan and Heron Kalan (Tahsil Mansa).  It has also been observed that use of groundwater for irrigation purpose has at places rendered and the otherwise fertile area into barren lands on account of the excess of alkaline salts brought along with the groundwater.


            Water table in the area shows a progressive decrease from east to west.  In the eastern part, it varies form 2-4 metre whereas towards west it goes as deep as 10 metre and below.  It is further noted that with the decrease in watertable, presence of kankar has practically vanished in the area.


            A total reserve of about 25 million tonnes  of both bedded and nodular varieties of kankar has been estimated around Biroke, Guradi, Dhalewan, Hodla Kalan, Khiwa, Gurthari, Budhlada Mandi, Sangrehri, Jalbehra Gobindpura, Ahmadpur and Mansa (all in Mansa Tahsil).  Unfortunately, the grade of the deposit is extremely poor with only about  23 per cent  CaO, 2 per cent Mgo, and 46 per cent acid insolubles.


            Though good quantity of kankar exists in the area, the chemical grade is extremely poor rendering it unsuitable for use as an alternative to limestone in any industry.  It can be best used in the manufacture of lime, if needed, and as a road metal for which no other hard rocks in the area are available.  The size factor is again an added advantage for its use in road industry.


            The sheet type kankar contains even more silicious impurities and lesser amounts of CaO content than the nodular kankar.  It is seen that with depth, the CaO content increases marginally, but never goes beyond 31 per cent.  It is also found that CaO content is higher comparatively in smaller sizes of the nodular than that the bigger ones.


            Alkaline Earth. – Alkaline soil occurs in patches in the entire area of about 1.6 sq km around Bareta, Kishangarh, Sangrehri, Juglan, Khiwa Khurd, Hiron Kalan, Khiwa Kalan, Dhaipai, Bhikhi and Bhalowan (all in Mansa Tahsil).  Out of these, Bareta, Kishangarh, Khiwa Khurd and Heron Kalan contain substantial deposits.  A rough estimate indicates about 13,600 tonnes of alkaline soils in these areas.


            Saltpetre. – Saltpetre occurrences have been located at Sangreri, Ghandu Khurd, Mandeli, Kullan, Biroke Kalan, Kishangarh, Bhikhi, Dhalewan and Barah (all in Mansa Tahsil).




(iii)      Groundwater


            In the area water bearing formations mainly include fine to medium grained sand or sand and kankar with admixture of little clay.  At shallow depths, the groundwater occurs under confined conditions.


            The shallow tube-wells are the cavity type and ranging in depth between 60-90 metres and yield 45,000 to 2,29,500 LPH.  In the north and north-eastern part of the district, the water level is shallow and rests at a dept of 5 to 10 metres b.g.1. (below ground level).  But it becomes deep in the south western part and occurs between 10 to 30 metres b.g.1.  The water level is also shallow near the canals and distributaries.  In south-western part, the shallow as well as deeper aquifers yield saline water.  The general directions of groundwater movement is west and south-west.


            The groundwater in the area is mildly alkaline in reaction with little Carbonate, Chloride content varies greatly.  In north-eastern part of the district, the groundwater is marginally fit for irrigation.  The conductivity ranges between 1000-2500 micro-mhos/cm at 25ºC.  The quality of ground water is good near the Ghaggar River.  But in the south-western and western parts, the degree of mineralisation is quite high, rendering the groundwater unfit for both irrigation and drinking purposes.


(iv)      Seismicity*


            History of the past 200 years for which records are available and the date for the last 80 years show that Bathinda area has been subjected to earthquakes which have caused slight to moderate damages in the area in the past.  A number of earthquakes originating in Hindukush, Kangra, Chamba and West Pakistan areas have been experienced there.  The prominent among these are the Kangra earthquake of the 4 April 1905, Hindukush earthquake of the 14 November 1937, the Chamba earthquake of the 22 June 1945, Kashmir earthquake of 14 March 1949, Srinagar earthquake of 6 July 1962, and the Kinnaur earthquake of 19 January 1975.  Sometimes, moderate earthquakes occurring in Aravali near Delhi are also reported to have been felt here.  The maximum  seismic intensity VII MM on the Modified Mercalli Scale-19311 was experienced during the Kangra earthquake of 4 April 1905.  This view is further corroborated by seismic Zoning Map prepared under the auspices of Indian Standards Institution, wherein Bathinda finds its place in Zone III according to which maximum seismic intensity of VII is expected.


*    Material supplied by the Director General of Meterology, New Delhi


1   Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931


            Studies made in USA and other advanced countries reveal that seismic intensity VII MM corresponds to horizontal seismic ground acceleration range of 18-140 Cms/Sec/Sec or an average of 67 Cms/Sec/Sec.  This wide range of acceleration is due to the fact that acceleration is several times more on soft filled up ground and much less on hard rock.





Everybody  runs  outdoors.  Damage negligible in buildings of good  design  and construction; slight to moderate in well-built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures; some chimneys broken.  Noticed by persons driving motor-cars.


(Source :  Director General of Observatories, New Delhi)


(e)       Flora (Botany)


            Primarily, Bathinda District has the vegetation of a semi arid tract.  With the increase of irrigation facilities, the soil conditions are fast changing and the flora is also showing variation from semi arid to semi moist type.


            Originally the vegetation of the district was of erophytic character.  It was of thorny deciduous type.  Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Kikar/babul (Acacia nilotica), Beri (Ziziphus Mauritain), Neem (Melia azedrach), Jand (Prosopis spicegera) were the principal constituents of the original over wood vegetation.  There was sprinkling of other species like Pipal (Ficus religiosa Bohar (Ficus bengalensis), Van (Salvedora oleioides), Siris (Albizzia lebbak) and Reru (Acacia leucocephala).


            The undergrowth consists of Mallah (Zizyphus nummularia, Ak (Calotropis procera), Hins (Capparia sepiaria) Khair (Capparis aphylla).  Ak is a widely distributed weed in the district.


            Due to the introduction of assured irrigation by canal system, some exotics were introduced by the Forest Department in the district.  These exotics are Mysore gum (Eucalpyptus hybrid, Walaiti Jand (Prosopis juliflora).  Recently, some more promising exotics have been introduced.  There are Sagwan (Tectonagrandis) Casuarine equisetif9olia, Ailanthus exelsa Su-babul (laucenea leucocephalla).


            Ground flora consists of considerably large number of grasses, herbs and sedges.  The moist and low lying areas bear dense growth of Kana (Erianthus muja) and kahi (Saccbarum spontansum).  On waterlogged sites Bater (Typha elephantiana) occurs densely.  In unfavourable and moderately grazed areas, Khabal (Cynodon doctylon) is found growing. The other grasses met with are Anjan (Canchrus spp.) on sandy places, Dad (Demostachya bipnnata) dry places, Ariztida supp. on saline soil and sariala (Heteropogon contortus) on heavily grazed areas.  Cyperus species is found in small patches in marshy areas.


(f)        Fauna (Zoology)


            Fauna is a gift of nature, and the different beasts and birds, forming part of wild life, need to be preserved.  The wild animal and birds help in protecting crops, by praying upon worms and insects, which might damage them.   The Punjab Wild Preservation Act, 1959 and the rules framed thereunder, aim at the protection and preservation of wild life.  The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 (Government of India) is now applicable.  In order to create interest about wild life, a deer park has been established in Bir Talab near Bathinda.


            With the spread of agriculture, wild life has been eliminated to a great extent.  Black buck and deer are not noticed anywhere and so far wild pigs.  Herds of Nilgai are seen occasionally.


            The different zoological1 types found in the Bathinda District are given below :


            (1)       Pisces (Fishes). – The commercially important fishes of the district are Notopterus notopterus (Pallas).  The Parri, Labeo bata (Hamilton) the Bata, L. calbasu (Hamilton) the kalabans, L. rohita (Hamilton the Rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) the Mrigal, C. reba (Hamilton) the Safed mrigal or Mohri, or Mohri Catla Catla (Hamilton) the Katla or Theil, Ompok pehda (Hamilton) the Pabda, Wallago attu (Schneider) the Mullce and Mystus seenghala (Sykes) the Seenghara.


            The smaller and less important species of the district are Escomus danricns (Hamilton), Puntius sophore (Hamilton), P. sarana (Hamilton) and P. Chola (Hamilton) Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton).  The Chiddu fishes, Chela cachius (Hamilton) and Salmostoma baeaila (Hamilton) the Chela fishes, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) the Singhi, Mysts vittatus (Bloch) the kanger, M. cavasius (Hamilton) the cheenger, Channa punctatus (Bloch) the Dolla, Glossogobius gutum (Hamilton) and Gobi  Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch) and Mastacem belus armatus (Lacepede) the Bam fishes, etc.


            These fishes are generally caught by using the cast nets and cross nets depending upon the collection site.


1  Supplied by the Zoological Survey of India, Northern Regional Station, Dehra Dun


            (2)       Amphibians (Frogs and Toads). – The common frogs in ponds and ditefes are Rana figrina Daudin the Bull frog,  R. Cimnocharis weigmann the Paddyfield from  and R. Cyanocphlyctis Schneider the Skipping frog.  The common toad of the aea is Bufo melanostictus Schneider.


            (3)       Reptiles. – The poisonous snakes of the area are Bugarus caerulus (Schneider) the common Krait and Naja naja (Linnaeus), the Cobra.  The nonpoisonous snakes are Typhlopes ncrrecfus stoliczka the Blind snake and Ery Johni (Rossell ), The Hon’s sand Boa.


            The common lizards Himidactylus flaviviridis (Rueppell), the House lizard, usually lives in the houses and Calofes versicolor (Daudin) the garden lizard, seen around bushes.


            Geoclamys hamiltoni (Grey) is the common Kachhua.


(4)              Mammals. – The mammals found in the district are given below :


I          Class                           Mammalies

            Order                          Insectivora


1.         Hemichinus auritus collaris (Grey) Long ered Hedgehog


2.         Suncus Murinus (Linnaeus) House Shrew


                       II         Order                          Chirotera


3.         Preropus gigantepus giganteus (Briinich) Indian Flying Fox


4.         Myotis formosus formosus (Hodgson) Hodgson’s Bat


5.         Plecotus auritus homochrous Hodgson Longeared Bat


                       III        Order                          Carnivora


6.         Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw) The Indian Fox


7.         Canis aureus Linnaeus The Asiatic Jackal


8.         Viverricula indica (Dasmaerest) The Small Indian Civet


9.         Herpestes edwardsi (Geoffray) The Common Mongoose


                       IV        Order                          Artiodactyle


10.       Sus scrofa Wilf Boar


11.       Boselaphus tragocamelus Nilgai or Blue Bull


12.       Antologa ceriscapra Black buck


                       V         Order                          Lagomorpha


13.       Lepus nigricollis Cuvier The India Hare


                       VI        Order                          Primates


14.       Macaca mulata mulata (Zimmermanji)  The Rhesus macaque


                       VII      Order                          Rodentia


15.       Funumbus Pennanti Wroughton      The Northern Palm Squirrel


16.       Hustrix indica Kerr      The Indian Crested proscuine


17.       Rattus rattus (Linnaeus)       The Common Indian Rat


18.       Mus musculus Linnaeus    The House Mouse                                   


19.       Tatero indica indica (Hardwicke)    The Indian Garbille


20.       Mus booduga booduga (Grey)   The Indian Field Mouse



            Birds.  – A list of birds found in the Bathinda district is as under :


                       Order                                                 Podicipediformes

                       Family                                                Podicipedidat


1.         Little Grebe Podicept ruficollis capensis Salvadori Resident


                       Order                                                 Pelecaniformes

                       Family                                                Phalacrocoracidae


2.         Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger (Vieillot) Resident with local movements


                       Order                                                 Ciconiiformes

                       Family                                                Ardeidae


3.         Little Green Heron Butorides straitus Chloriceps (Bonaparte) Resident


4.         Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii grayii (Sykes) Resident, Shifting locally


5.         Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis cormomandus (Boddaert) Resident


6.         Eastern large Egret :  Egretta alba modesta (Grey) Resident and shifting locally


7.         Little Egret Egretta garzetta garzetta (Linnaeus) Resident, shifting locally


8.         Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus)  Resident, and moving locally


9.         Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus minutus (Linnaeus) Resident and moving locally


                       Family                                                Ciconiidae


10.       Whitenecked Stork Ciconia episcopus episcopus (Boddaert) Found near water


11.       White Stork Ciconia ciconia ciconia (Linnaeus) Wiinter visitor


12.       Black Stork Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus) Winter visitor


                       Order                                                            Anseriformes

                       Family                                                           Anantidae


13.       Lesser whistling Teal Dendrocygna javanica (Horsefield) Resident, moving locally


14.       Large whistling Teal Dendrocygna bicolor (Viellot) Resident, moving  locally


15.       Brahminy Duck Tadorna ferryginea (Pallas) Winter visitor


16.       Common Schelduck Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus) Winter visitor


17.       Pintail Anas aculci Linnaeus Winter visitor


18.       Common Teal Anas crecca crecca Linnaeus Winter visitor


19.       Spotbill Duck Anas  poecilorhyncha poecilorhyncha Forster Resident and locally migratory


20.       Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus Winter visitor


21.       Bluewinged Test Anas Querquedula Linnaeus Winter vistor


22.       Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus) Winter visitor


23.       White-eyed Pochard Aythya nyroca (Gulden Stadt) Winter visitor


24.       Cotton Teal Nettapus coromandelionus coromandelianus (Gmelin) Resident


                       Order                                                 Falconiformes

                       Family                                                Accipitridae


25.       Crested Honeybuzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis Lesson Resident with local movements


26.       Pariah kite Milvus migrans govinda Sykes Resident


27.       Brahminy kite Haliastur indus indus (Boddaert) Resident


28.       Indian Shikra Accipiter badius dussumieri (Temminck) Resident


29.       Longlegged Buzzard Buteo rufinus rufinus (Cretzschmar) Winter visitor


30.       White-eyed buzzard Eagle Butastus teesa (Franklin) Resident


31        Bonelli Hawk-Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus fasciatus (Viellot) Resident


32.       King vulture Torgos ealvus (Scopoli) Resident


33.       Cinereous vulture Aeghpius monachus (Linnaeus) Resident


34.       Indian whitebacked vulture Gyps bengalensis (Gmelin) Resident


35.       Indian Scavenger Vulture Neophron percnopterus ginginianus Latham


36.       Pale Harrier Circus macrourus (Gmelin) Common winter visitor


37.       Short-teed Eagle Circaetus gallicus gallicus (Gmelin) Resident


                                   Family                                                Falconidae


38.       Laggar Falcon Falco biarmicus juggaro (Grey) Resident


39.       Shaheed Falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinator Sundevall


                       Order                                                 Falliformes

                       Family                                                Phasianidae


40.       North India Grey Partridge Francolious Pondicerianus inter positus Hartert Resident


41.       Indian Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus asiae Bonaparte Resident


42.       Punjab jungle Bush Quail Perdicula asiatica punjaubi Whistler Resident


                       Order                                                 Gryiformes

                       Family                                                Gruidae


43.       Eastern Common Crane Grus grus Lilfordi Sharpe Winitor visitor


44.       Indian Sarup Crane Grus antinone antigone (Linnaeus) Resident and moving according to conditions of drought and flood.


45.       Indian Moorhen Gallinula chloropus indica Blyth Resident and partly winter visitor


                       Order                                                 Charadriiformes

                       Family                                                Charadriidae


46.       Sociable Lapwing Vonellus gregarious (Pappas) Winter visitor


47.       Redwaltled lapwing Vanellus indicus indicus (Boddaer) Resident


48.       Dusky Redshank Tringa erythropus (Pallas) Winter visitor


49.       Little Green Rank Tringa stagnatilis (Bechstein) Winter visitor


50.       Green shank Tringa nebularia (Gunnerus) Winter visitor


51.       Spotted Saudpiper Tringa glareola Linnaeus Winter visitor


52.       Common Saudpiper Tringa hypoleucos Linnaeus Winter visitor


                       Family                                                Recurvirostridae


53.       Indian Blackwinged Still Himantopus himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus) Resident


                       Family                                                Laridae


54.       Indian River Tern Sterna aurantia J.E. Grey Resident


55.       Blackbellied Tern Sterna acuticauda Grey Resident


                       Order                                                 Columbiformes

                       Family                                                Pteroclidiae


56.       Blackbellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis orientalis (Linnaeus) Resident


                       Family                                                Columbidae


57.       Blue Rock Pegion Columba Livia Gmelin Resident


58.       Western turtle-dove Streptopelia orientalis meena (Sykes) Winter visitor


59.       Indian Ring-dove Streptopelia deacocto decaocto (Frivaldszky) Resident


60.       Indian Red Turtle-Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica tranquebarica (Hermann) Resident


61.       Senegal Dove Streptopelia senegalensis cambayensis (Gmelin) Mainly resident


                       Order                                                 Psittaciformes

                       Family                                                Psittacidae


62.       Large Indian Parakeet Psittacula eupatria nipa lensis (Hodgson) Resident


63.       Northern Roseringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann)


                       Order                                                 Cuculiformes

                       Family                                                Cuculidae


64.       Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus serratus (Sparrman) Monsoon visitor


65.       Common Hawk Cuckoo cuculus varius varius Vahl Resident


66.       Indian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea scolopacea (Linnaeus) Resident


67.       Common Crow Pheasant Centropus sinensis sinensis (Stephens) Resident)


                       Order                                                 Strigiformes

                       Family                                                Strigidae


68.       Indian Barn owl Tyto alba stertens Hartert Resident


69.       Indian Great Horned Qr. Eagle-Owl Bubo bubo bengalensis (Franklin) Resident


70.       Northern Spotted Owlet Atheno brama indica (Franklin) Resident


                       Order                                                 Caprimulgiformes

                       Family                                                Caprimulgidae


71.       Indian Little Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus asiaticus Latham Resident       


                       Order                                                 Apodiformes

                       Family                                                Apodidae


72.       Indian House Swift Apus affinis affinis (Grey) Resident


73.       Palm Swaft Cypsiurus parvus (Lichtenstein) Resident



                       Order                                                 Coraciiformes

                       Family                                                Alcedinidae


74.       Indian Pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis leucomelanura Reichenbach Resident    


75.       Indian Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis bengalensis Gmelin Resident


76.       Whitebreasted kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis smyrnensis (Linnaeus) Resident


                       Family                                                Meropidae


77.       Bluechecked bee-eater Merops superciliosus persicus Pallas Resident


78.       Bluetailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus philippinus Linnaeus Resident and locally migratory


79.       Indian Small Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis orientalis Latham Resident


80.       Bluebeared Bee-eater Nyctiornis athertoni athertoni (Jaudine & Selby) Resident


                       Family                                                Coraciidae

81.       Blue jay Coracias benghalensis benghalensis (Linnaeus) Resident


82.       European Hoope Upupa epops epops Linnaeus Resident


83.       Grey Hornobill Tockus birostris (Scopolia) Resident


                        Order                                                 Piciformes

                       Family                                                Capitonidae


84.       Norther Green barbet Megalaima Zeylonica Caniceps Franklin Resident


85.       Copper Smith Megalaima haemacephala (Miller) Resident


                       Family                                                Picidae


86.       Northern Goldenbacked woodpecker Dinopium benghalense benghalense (Linnaeus)


87.       Mahratta Woodpecker Picoides mahrattensis mahrattensis (Latham) Resident


                       Order                                                 Passeriformes

                       Family                                                Alaudidae


88.       Singing Bush Lark Mirafra javanica contillans Blyth Resident


89.       Blackcrowned Finch-Lark Eremopferix nigriceps affinis (Blyth) Resident and locally migratory


90.       Indian Crested lark Galerida cristata chendolla (Franklin) Resident


                       Family                                                Hirundinidae


91.       Indian Wiretailed Swallo Hirundo Smitth filifera Stephens Winter visitor


92.       Indian striated Swallow Hirundo daurica erythropygia Sykes Resident


                       Family                                                Laniidae


93.       Indian Grey Shrika Lanius excubitor lahtora (Sykes) Resident with local       movements


94.       Indian Baybacked Shrika Lanius vittatus vittatus Valenciennes Resident with seasonal movements


                       Family                                                Oriolidae


95.       Indian Golden Oriole oriolus oriolus kundoo Sykes Seasonal visitor


                       Family                                                Dicruridae


96.       Kingcrow Dicrurus adsmilis albirictus (Hodgson) Resident


                       Family                                                Stornidas


97.       Ros Paster Stornus roseus (Linnaeus) Two way passage migrant


98.       Common Indian Starling Stornus vulgaris paltara-tskhsi Fisch Winter visitor


99.       Brahminy Myna Stornus pagodarum (Gmelin) Resident


101.     Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus (Latham) Resident




102.     Northern Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus fuscus (Wagler) Resident


                       Family                                                Corvidae


103.     North-Western Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda bristoli Paynizer Resident


104.     Indian House Crow Corvus splendens splendens Vieillot Resident


105.     Indian Jugle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos Culminatus Sykes Resident


106.     Punjab Raven Corvus Cora subcorax Severtzov Resident


                       Family                                                           Camphephagidae


107.     Northern Small Minvet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus peregrinus (Linnaeus) Resident


                       Family                                                Irenidae


108.     North-Western Iroa Aegithina tiphia septentrionalis Koelz Resident


                       Family                                                Pyenodntidae


109.     Whitecheccked Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys pleucogenys (Grey) Resident


110.     Renvented Bulbul Pyccnonotus cafer Linnaeus Resident


                       Family                                                            Muscicapidae


111.     Western Yellow Eyed Babler Chrysomma sinense hypoleucum (Franklin) Resident


112.     Common Babbler Turdoidus Caudatus caudatus (Dumont) Resident


113.     Large Grey babler Turdoides malcolmi (Sykes) Resident


114.     Northern Greyheaded Flycatcher Culcicapa cellonensis calochrysea Oberholser Winter visitor


115.     Northern Whitebrowed Fantail Flycatcher Rhipidura aureola aureola Lesson Resident with movements in winter


116.     Moustached Sedge Warbler Lusciniola melanopogon mimica Madararz Winter visitor partially migrant


117.     Streaked Fantail Warbler Cisticola juncidis cursitans (Franklin) Resident subject to local movements


118.     Rufousfronted Wren-Warbler Prinia buchanani Blyth Resident, subject to seasonal movements


119.     Indian Streaked Wren-Warbler Prinia gracilis lepida Blyth Resident


120.     Northwestern Plain Wren-Warbler Prinia socialis terricolor (Home) Resident with seasonal movements     


121.     Northern Ashy Wren-Warbler Prinia socialis strwarti Blyth Resident


122.     Gangetic Jungle Wren-Warbler Prinia sylvatica gangetic (Blyth) Resident


123.     Indian Tailor Bird Orthotomus sutorius guzuratus (Latham) Resident


124.     Bristled Grass Warbler Chaetornis striatus (Jerdon) Resident subject to local movements


125.     Straited Marsh Warbler Megalurus palustris taklao (Blyth) Resident


126.     Northern Bluethroat Erithacus svencicus svecicus (Linnaeus) Winter visitor


127.     Indian Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis saularis (Linnaeus) Resident


128.     Brown Rock Chat Corcomela fusca (Blyth) Resident


129.     Northern Pied Bush Chat Saxicola caprata bicolor Sykes Partial migrant


130.     Dark-Grey Bush chat Saxicola ferra Grey Resident


131.     Pied Chat Oenanthe picata (Blyth) Winter visitor


132.     Brownbacked Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata Cambaiensis (Latham) Resident


                       Family                                                Motacillidae


133.     European Tree Pipit Apthus trivialis trivialis (Linnaeus) Winter visitor


134.     Northwestern Paddytield Pipit Anthus novaeseeelandiae waitei Whistler Resident-subject to local movements


135.     Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris campestris (Linnaeus) Passage migrant


136.     Vinacqousbreasted Pipit Anthus Resoeatus Biyth Winter visitor


137.     Central Asiam Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta Courellii Andovin Winter visitor


138.     Northern Yellowheaded Wagtail Motacilla citreola citreola Pallas Winter visitor


139.     Western Yellowheaded Wagtail Motacilla citreola weae (Buturlin) Winter visitor


140.     Blackbacked Yellowheaded Wagtail Motacilla citreola calcarat Hodgson Winter visitor


141.     Grey Wagtail Motacilla caspica caspica caspica (Gmelin) Winter visitor 


142.     Indian White Wagtail Motacilla alba dukhunensis Sykes Winter vistor


143.     Masked Wagtail Motacilla alba personata Gould Winter visitor


144.     Large Pied Wagtail Motacilla moderaspatensis Gmelin Resident


                       Family                                                Dicaeidae


145.     Indian Thickbilled Flower pecker Dicaeum agile agile (Tickell) Resident


                       Family                                    Noctariniidae


146.     Indian Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatics asiatica (Latham) Rsident, subject to local movements


                       Family                                                Zosteropidae




147.     Indian White-Eye Zosterops palpebrosa palpebrosa (Temminck) Resident


                       Family                                                Ploceidae        


148.     Indian House Sparrow Passer domesticus indicus indicus Jardine and Selby Resident


149.     Sind Jungle Sparow Passer pyrrhonotus Biyth Resident


150.     Indian Yellowthroated Sparrow Petronia Xanthocollis xanthocollis Burton Resident


151.     Indian Baya Ploceus phillipppinus philippinus (Linn.) Resident, subject to seasonal movements


152.     Blackthroated Weaver Bird Ploceus benghlensis (Limn.) Resident, subject to local movements


153.     Indian Streaked Weaver Bird Ploceus manyar flaviceps Lesson Resident


154.     Red Munia Estrilda amandava amandava (Linnaeus) Resident


155.     Whitethroated Munia Lonchura malabarica malabarica (Linnaeus) Resident


156.     Indian Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata punctulata Resident


                       Family                                                Emberizidae                                                              

157.     Striolated Bunting Emberiza srriata striolata (Linhtenstein) Resident

158.     Crested Bunting Melophus lathami (Grey) Resident



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