APPENDIX  VI

Combined Post and Telegraph Offices in the Bathinda District, as on 31 March 1989

 

1   Bathinda

29 Ghuman Kalan

2   Bathinda City

30 Kotli Kalan

3   Bareta

31 Kttiwal Kalan

4   Dharampura

32 Ram Nagar

5   Kahangarh

33 Mansa

6   Kishangarh

34 Bajewal

7   Bahadurpur

35 Nangal Kalan

8   Kulrian

36 Nathana

9   Bhagta Bhai

37 Gobindpura

10 Bhai Rupa

38 Poohla

11 Bhucho Mandi

39 Phul

12 Bhucho Kalar

40 Sailbra

13 Bhucho Khurd

41 Goniana Mandi

14 Lehra Mohabat

42 Joga

15 Tungwali

43 Aklia

16 Boha

44 Chaoke

17 Bhaini Bagha

45 Ralla

18 Khiala Kalan

46 Jhunir

19 Ubha

47 Fatta Maluka

20 Budhlada

48 Raman

21 Ahmedpur

49 Rampura Phul

22 Borewal

50 Mandi Kalan

23 Bareh

51 Mehraj

24 Bachhuana

52 Sangat

25 Phaphre Bhaike

53 Pakka Kalan

26 Bhikhi

54 Sardulgarh

27 Hamirgarh Dhaipai

55 Sirki Bazar Bathinda

28 Maur Mandi

56 Talwandi

(Source ; Superintendent, Post Offices, Bathinda Division, Bathinda)

 

CHAPTER   VIII

MISCELLANEOUS   OCCUPATIONS

 

(a)

Public Administration

(b)

Learned Professions

©

Personal and Domestic Services

(d)

Miscellaneous Services

 

            Although  the main sectors of livelihood of majority of the population of the district are agriculture, industry, trade and commerce and transport, yet these do not cover the entire field of the economic activity of the district. There are a considerable number of people who earn their livelihood by following small crafts and other occupations such as hair-cutting, tailoring, laundry work or are engaged ineducation, legal services, etc. A brief description of some important miscellaneous occupations, which have not been mentioned elsewhere in this gazetteer, is given in this chapter. The statistical data, as have been mentioned in the 1961 Census at the same pattern, is not available in the ensuing 1971 and 1981 Censuses as classificational changes were brought by the Census Department. However, latest data have been included, wherever possible.

 

            Bathinda is primarly an agricultural district and a large number of its population, being residents of the rural areas, directly or indirectly depend upon agriculture as their source of livelihood. As per 1981 Census, out of a total population of 1294957 persons, as many as 999773 persons (82.22 per cent) were residing in the rural areas. In the same Census, it was reported that there were 462818 workers including 63887 marginal workers in the district. The working force constituted 36 per cent of the total inhabitants of the district. Out of these, 275127 persons (185461 cultivators and  89.666 agricultural labourers), i.e. 59 per cent were engaged in agricultural pursuits only. The  remaining 187691 persons were engaged in other occupations, both in rural and urban areas, which comprised livestock, forestry, plantation, industries, transport, storage and communications, trade and commerce; and other service such as construction; professional activities like law, medical, education, engineering, etc. Self-employed occupations and personal and domestic services are common, besides the Central State and Local Bodies employment. A good number of people, especially form the rural areas, gifted with steadiness and good physique join the armed forces.

 

(a)                                      Public  Administration

            Central, State & Local Government Services - For the implementation of the developmental and other activities of the Central, State and Local governments, a large number of employees are working in the district. With the introduction of popular Government and increase in population, more and more offices of different departments have been opened and employees are being posted to cater to the needs of the people of the district. On 31 March 1989, there were 20235  Punjab Government employees working in various offices of State Government.
            Keeping in view the security of service and other amenities available to the employees, the government service is held in high esteem. The Central, State and Local Government provide dearness allowance, house rent, besides providing loans recoverable in easy instalments to their employees for the construction of houses and purchase of vehicles, etc. The employees are also provided residential accommodation, wherever available and to the extent possible. The regular government employees are entitled to contribute towards their provident funds and their dependents are provided with the same in case of premature death or the employees get the same on their superannuation. The government employees are also provided free medical treatment at government hospitals and dispensaries, besides getting reimbusment of the expenses incurred on it. An employee is entitled to various kinds of leave at the time of need. The female employees are also entitled to maternity leave as per prevalent rules. The state government also allows additional financial relief ot its employees so as to bring them at par with central government employees in regard to dearness allowance, interim relief, etc. The government employees are also entitled to the benefit of compassionate gratuity and pension on superannuation.
            The employees of the police department are provided with rent free accommodation, whereas those of the railway department are provided quarters on nominal rent. The railway employees and their families are provided free and privilege passes for travel. Besides, the employees of certain departments are provided with uniforms. Class IV employees under the State, Central and Local Bodies are given free liveries. The Central Government allows its employees and their family members leave travel concession once in four years.

 

            Public Employees’ Organisations.__  For the redressal of their grievances and giving a feedback of their problems to the administration, the employees of the various departments in the district have formed the following unions/associations  :-

 

1                   Workshop Union, Pepsu Road Transport Corporation, Bathinda     

2                   Pepsu Road Transport Corporation Driver’s Union, Bathinda

3                   Octroi Employees’ Union, Municipal Committee, Bathinda

4                   Municipal Sweeper’s Union, Bathinda

5                   Punjab Municipal Eemployees’ Union,  Budhlada

6                   Punjab Electricity Employees’ Sectional Officers Association, Bathinda

7                   Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant Employees’ Federation, Bathinda

8                   Thermal Technical Employees’ Union, Bathinda

9                   Class IV Employees’Union, P S E B, Thermal Plant, Bathinda

10                Thermal Work Charged Staff Union, Bathinda

11                Sweeper Employees’ Union, Thermal Plant, Bathinda

12                State Bank of Patiala Employees’ Natioal Union, Mansa

13                Bathinda Central Co-operative Bank Employees’ Union Bathinda

14                Bathinda Eastern Central Co-operative Bank Employees’ Union, Bathinda

15                Milk Plant Employees’ Union Bathinda

16                Western Command M E S Civilaian Drivers’ Association, Bathinda

17                National Fertilisers Employees’ Union Bathinda

18                National Fertilisers Employees’ Union, Bathinda

19                Warehouse corporation Workers’ Union, Bathinda

20                PUNSUB Employees’ Union, Bathinda

 

(b)   Learned Professions

            The learned professions include teaching, medical, legal, engineering services, etc.  The information available in respect of their role in the district is given below  :

           

            Educational Services.__  Bathinda district still continues to be at the lowest rung in the whole State in respect of literacy. Out of 100 persons, 27.73 were literate as against 40.86 in the State according to 1981 Census. There were 952 schools of all categories in the district as on 30 September 1988 in which 6804 (3785 males and 3019 females) teachers were employed. Besides, there were  9 colleges in the district. The pay-scales of the college teachers have since been revised by the State Government on the basis of the recommendations made by the University Grants Commisson making the same quite lucrative and attractive. Similarly, the pay-scales of school teachers are also satisfactory.

 

            Medical and Health Services.__  The medical profession has gained considerable importance during the last fifty years or so. The number of practitioners and consultants has increased considerably during this period because of increase in consciousness among the people regarding their health. There are doctors, physicians and surgeons, dentists, nurses, etc. working in various hospitals and dispensaries in the district. A number of doctors have also opened their private clinics and nursing homes.

 

            In the year 1988, there were 552 doctors, 379 midwives, 68 nurses and 2136 dais working in the 175 allopathic medical institutions in the Bathinda District. Besides, 38 vaids, 2 hakims, 40 up-vaids, and 40 dais were working in 40(38=2) Ayurvedic/Unanimedical institutions.

 

            Legal Services.__  Persons opting for legal profesion are mostly concentrated in urban areas of the district. The legal progession is manned by judges, barristers, advaoctes, and munshis. Being a paying profession, it attracts a good number of persons who render legal assistance to the people. Besides being a remunerative occupation, it commands a good social status too. There are 4 Bar Associations functioning at Bathinda, Mansa, Rampura Phul and Talwandi sabo subdivisional headquarters with a membership of 594 lawyers in the district.

 

            Engineering services.__  The engineers play an important role in the social and economic development of an area. Details of the persons employed in engineering services in various government departments have been given in Chapte XIII’ Other Departments’. Besides, a good number of persons have adopted the profession of contractors and architects or consulting engineers.

 

(c)  Personal and Domestic Services

Personal  Services

 

            These services include barbers, washermen, launderers, tailors, water-carriers, weavers, cobblers, carpenters and the like which employ a considerable number of persons as detailed below  :

 

            Barbers.__  The traditional practice of having family barber in urban areas for hair-cutting or nail-cutting of the customers on fixed monthly payment has become obsolete due to the opening of hair cutting saloons/shops in the urban areas. The charges vary from Rs 5 to Rs 7 for hair-cut and Rs 2 to  Rs 3 for shave in urban areas. The rates of barbering services in the rural areas are comparatively lower than in urban  areas. The villagers in certain remote areas do have their family barbers. They are still being paid fixed payment either in cash or in kind that too even monthly or at the time of harvest. The earlier practice of conveying and sending messages through the parber on the occasion of marriage, death, etc. has become to a large extent, outdated because other prompt means of performing these chores have become quite popular. Moreover, the new generation does not like to stick to this profession, because on one side they like to adopt some advanced professiont raise their standard of living and on the other side there is no traditional and social bar in changing profession. The other functions which were performed by the nain (barber’s wife) and barber at the time of marriage occasion, such as cleaning and knitting the hair of bride, looking after her in the marriage ceremonies in the house of parents as well as in the parents-in-laws-hous has decreased considerably mostly due to the change in marriage system and rites and customs. In some areas of the distict, where the people are still rigid to their old traditions, they make use of the services of nain as well as barber to some extent.

 

            The barbers in the towns have formed their unions to look after their interests. Tuesday is usually observed as holiday by them.

 

            Washermen.__  Washermen or dhobis form an  important occupational class. Earlier, their work wa to collect clothes from the houses of their customers and return them after washing and ironing. In lieu of it, they were paid some fixed amount monthly/half yearly or the payment was made in kind. But this practice has adversely been affected with the emergence of dry cleaning shops in urban areas. These shops provide quick and quality service on reasonable rates. Their charges ar higher than those of the washermen. In such areas, the people have to go to the shop personally to deposit their clothes with the drycleaner and again to clooect them. However in rural areas, the practice of collecting clothes from the houses of the customers and returning them after washing and pressing is still existent, though there payment of washing charges was made in kind, monthly or half-yearly but now, the washing and ironing charges are taken in cash on the basis of piece-rate.

 

            Tailors.__  The tailor is an indispensable unit of the society, as he fulfils the primary needs of  the public. The tailors in urban areas prepare clothes according to the tastes and fashions prevalent in towns and cities, while those in rural areas prepare ordinary types of clothes worn by the ordinary villagers. The stitching charges in urban areas are higher as compared to rural areas.

 

            Most of the tailors have their own sewing machines ans work independently. There are also some big tailoring concerns, which get the work done on commission basis. In rural areas, the old practice of darzi (tailor) going to different houses for stitching the clothes on the occasion of marriage is diminishing.

 

            Carpenters.__  The carpenters make and repair wooden structures like doors, windows, and other building fixtures. There are certain carpenters who make and repair sophisticated furniture also. The village carpenters make plough, carts and other agricultural and domestic wooden articales. They get their remuneration in cash as well as in kind at the time of harvest.

 

            Cobblers.__  The cobblers or mochis recondition old, wornout or defective footwears to make them serviceable. The experienced leather cutters, lasters and sewers make complete foot-wears like shoes, chappals and sandals. Some of them have small establishments. But their business in the district has been adversely affected in recent times with the availability of mechanized footweaers manufactured in bigger industrial concerns.

 

            Self Eeployed Persons.__  In this category of service are included weavers, shoe-makers, potters, sweepers, hand-cart pullers, porters at railway stations and bus stands, etc. They are spread over the whole district with varying number depending upon their requirements. In the rural areas, most of them also help their families to perform agricultural operations, social ceremonies, etc. Generally, they reside in the slums and live from hand to mouth and are almost below poverty line.

 

            Domestic Services.__  Though the practice of employing domestic servants, both in urban and rural areas, has decreased considerably, yet the domestic servants are still employed in certain houses. Some well-to-do families employ sch servants on permanent basis and some have begun the practice of engaging domestic servants on part-time basis instead of full-time. These part-time servants work as utensil cleaners washermen/washer-woman and malies (garderners), etc. The wages of domestic servants in whole-time employment vary from Rs 75 to 100 per mensem in addition to free meals and clothing.

 

            In urban areas, female domestic servants (mais) are engaged on full-time or part-time basis. Generally, women belonging to poor families adopt this profession to supplement their income. They are employed to do specified jobs, such as washing of clothes or sweeping of houses or cleaning of utensils, etc. Such part-time female servants ara paid Rs 45 to Rs 65 per mensem in addition to sundry facilities provided by their employers.

 

(d)                                      Miscellaneous Services

 

Transport Services.__  Transport has paramount importance in the economic and social life of the people. Since Independence, especially for the last two decades, transport services have considerably increased in the district as well as in the State. Every village, one way or the other, has been linked with the main road or railway station in the district. On 31 March 1989, there were 71 registered private transport companies operating in the distrit, besides the Pepsu Road Transport Corporation, Bathinda. I and II and Budhlada depots. The persons employed by the different depots of the Pepsu Road Transport Corporation and the private companies include drivers, conductors, mechanics and cleaners, etc. In addition to the bus services, the other modes of transportation like taxis, three-wheelers, tongas and cycle-rickshaws also render such services.

 

            During 1988-89, there were 1929 trucks, 144 three-wheelers, 124 taxis, 623 jeeps and 3374 cars operating in the district providing transport facilities to the public.

 

 

CHAPTER  IX

ECONOMIC  TRENDS

 

(a)

Livelihood Pattern and the General Level of Prices and Wages

(b)

Employment situation

(c)

Planning and Community Development

 

            The economic development is a process in which the real  per capita income increases alongwith the decrease in the inequalities in the distribution of the income. The economic trends reflect the economic conditions of the people. The positive trends indiacate the progressive nature of the economy, whereas negative trends that of economic depression.

 

            The population of a region plays an important role in its economic development, because the human beings are not only responsible for production but are also the final consumers of the  produced goods. Whereas the labour force makes a positive contribution in the development of the region, at the same time the rapid growth of population slows down the pace of development. Capital accumulation, which is a basis of economic development can only be promoted if output exceeds consumption.

 

(a)                                          Livelihood pattern and General Level of Prices and Wages & Standard of  Living

 

Livelihood Pattern.__  Bathinda being predominantly an agricultural district, a large chunk of its population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture for its livelihood. According to 1981 Census, 35.4 per cent of the population in the district is engaged in various economic pursuits,of which cultivators and agricultural labourers alone account for 60.1 per cent of the total working force. Other workers form 25.2 per cent followed by 1.8 per cent of the household industry. Marginal workers also account for 12.9 per cent of the total working force.

 

On the basis of the economic activity pursued, the workers are classified into nine categories as under  :

 

Classification of Workers in the Bathinda District according to the 1981 Census

 

Classification of workers according

to  their profession

Number of persons according to the 1981 Census

Rural

Urban

Total

Persons

Males

Females

Males

Females

Male

Females

1  Cultivators

177534

629

8002

50

185536

679

186215

2  Agricultural Labourers

82330

3187

5464

201

87794

3388

91182

3  House hold Industry (manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs V (a)

5788

451

2125

195

7914

646

8560

4  Other Workers (III,IV,V(b) and VI t0 IX)

40445

2321

68428

5251

108873

7572

116445

Total Main Workers (I to IX)

306097

6588

84020

5697

390117

12285

402402

Marginal Workers

5724

51855

601

1216

6325

53071

59396

Non- Workers

228573

409952

74860

129483

303373

539435

842808

Total Population

540334

468395

159481

136396

699815

604791

1304606

 

(Census of India, 1981 Series-17 Punjab, Part II-A and Part II-B, General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract, pp.226to229)

 

            The table indicates that out of a total population of 1304606 of the district, 402402 were engaged in various types of economic activities, whereas the number of non-workers was 842808. The ratio of  workers to non-workers was 35.4 : 64.6, which indicates that roughly two persons depended upon a worker for their livelihood.

 

            To accelerate the pace of development in the rural areas, especially to create better living conditions,the Model Village Scheme was introduced in the disrict alongwith the other districts of the State during 1969-70. The scheme envisaged the allround development of villages regarding pavement of streets, construction  of drains, metalling of approach roads, construction of phirnis (circular roads) and establishment of kitchen gardens.

 

            In the Bathinda District, 56 villages were selected under the scheme and work in all these villages has since been completed.

 

In order to make further improvement in the living standard of rural people, the government of India launched the integrated rural development programme with effect frim the financial year 1978-79. At the instance of government of India, the Punjab government have also started this programme in the state. Under this programme, a cluster of 5 contiguous villages increase in agricultural production. Local resources are fully developed to provide full and gainful employment within a period of five years. In due course, more and more villages will be covered under this programme. These clusters will ultimately become focal growth centers and the cluster based growth centers will encompass the whole of the rural district.

 

The farmers in the district are changing their traditional tools and methods of farming for machanised tools and modern.

 

Under the programme, 5887 persons were given loan worth Rs 137.01 lakhs, out of which Rs 61.02 lakhs was granted as subsidy during the year 1988-89 in the Bathinda district. The old wooden ploughs and bullocks have been replaced by tractors, thrashers and seed-cum-fertilizer drills, etc. Besides being regarded by the farmers as a status symbol, the modern equipments have helped in increasing farm production to a very large extent.

 

Prior to the setting up of the district industries centre at bathinda, the district did not make much headway in industry although the district was declared industrially backward and various incentives were provided to the entrepreneurs by the Government. The state government have also drawn various schemes to provide incentives in the shape of subsidies, interest-free loans and training facilities to develop industries in the district. The banking sector is also contributing to the growth of industries.

 

Prices and Wages.__   In order to assess the economic condition of the people belonging to a particular region, the comparative study of prices and wages is important. Prices affect the allocation of the economy’s resources, income and costs and production and determine the profit margin. As such, these influence the attitude of investors, determine the course of foreign trade, and lead to changes in wages. The volume and character of government expenditure also depends on the level of prevailing prices.

 

The table below indicates the fluctuating trend in the wholesale prices of the main agricultural commondities in the Bathinda District between the year 1984-85 and 1988-89  :-

 

(Per Quintal)

Year

Wheat (Rs)

Gram (Rs)

Bajra (Rs)

Barley(Rs)

1984-85

157.00

380.00

150.00

125.00

1988-89

240.00

600.00

180.00

195.00

 

(Source   :  District Statistical Officer, Bathinda)

 

            Wages are the remunerations paid to a worker in lieu of the work done by him. In the early days, wages, especially in the agricultural sector, were determined by customs and traditions. The agricultural labourers and artisans were paid either in cash or in kind or in both. But with the passage of time, the payment of wages in cash has become more and more prevalent, especially in the case of labourers.

 

            The rates of pay fixed for the Class IV government employees, working in different offices in the bathinda disrict, during 1988-89 are given in Appendix I on pages 292-295.

 

            Standard of Living.__  The study regarding the standard of living of the people in a district is necessary to know the economic prosperity of its inhabitants. An accepted method of  knowing the standard of living in any locality is to survey the income and expenditure of various people engaged in different occupations. The size and composition of the family, its tastes and preferences also determine the standard of living.

 

            The Economic and Statistical Organization, Punjab, during 1987-88 conducted a survey’ regarding family budgets of selected cultivators in the state with bullock operated holdings as well as tractor-operated holdings. During the survey, family budgets of forty-five peasant proprietors having bullock-operated holdings and forty-six tractor-operated holdings were studied. The aim of the survey was to find out the returns accruing to the cultivators and find out the extent to which the goods consumed were produced in the farm or purchased from outside. The families of four villages (bullock-operated), viz. Gulabgarh (tahsil Bathinda), Ralla Kothe (tahsil Mansa), Mandi Kalan (tahsil Rampura Phul) and Chinarthal (tahsil Talwandi Sabo) in the Bathinda District were selected for the survey.

 

            The findigs of the bullock-operated cultivators survey pertaining to income and expenditure are shown in the following table  :-

 

Name of the family/ village

Net income from all sources  (Rs)

Net expenditure (Rs)

Surplus/ deficit (Rs)

Gulabgarh

84904

75799

         +  9105

Ralla Kothe

50069

35290

+  14779

Mandi Kalan

126433

41606

+  84827

Chinarthal

58013

33449

+  24564

 

           

The above figures show that the families of the villages, Gulabgarh, Ralla Kothe, Mandi Kalan and Chinarthal had a surplus Budget. The survey also revealed that on an average, a peasant proprietor’s family in Punjab spent 50 percent of its income on food, 8 percfent on fuel, 12 per cent on clothing, 13 per cent on housing. 5 per cent on social, 2 each on lighting, medicine, traveling, education and amusement and luxuries, 1 per cent each on religion and miscellaneous.

 

The goods consumed by the families in the four villages were as under  :-

 

Name of the family/ village

Total expenditure

(Rs)

Supplied by the farm

(Rs)

Percentage

Purchased from outside

(Rs)

Percentage

 

Gulabgarh

75799

30228

40

45571

60

Ralla Kothe

35290

16163

46

19127

54

Mandi Kalan

41686

18784

45

22822

55

Chinarthal

33449

16682

50

16767

50

 

 

            During 1987-88, the families of four (tractor-operated), viz. Sema (tahsil Bathinda), Kourewala (tahsil Mansa), Raiya (tahsil Rampura Phul), Bhagwanpura (tahsil Talwnadi Sabo) in the Bathinda District were selected for the survey.

 

            The findings of the tractor-operated cultivators survey pertaining to income and expenditure are shown in the following table :-

 

Name of the family/ village

Net income from all sources  (Rs)

Net expenditure (Rs)

Surplus/ deficit (Rs)

Sema

566709

43272

+  523437

Kourewala

141846

53631

+  88215

Raiya

95789

37152

+  58637

Bhagwanpura

196299

56898

+  139401

 

           

            The above figures show that the families of surplus villages, Sema, Kourewala, Raiya and Bhagwanpura had surplus budget.

 

            The survey also revealed that on an average, a peasant proprietor’s family in Punjab spent 58 per cent of its income on food, 6 per cent on fuel, 9 per cent on clothing, 13 per cent on housing, 2 per cent each on lighting, medicine, traveling, social, amusement and luxuries and miscellaneous, 1 per cent each on education and religion.

 

            The goods consumed by the families in the four villages were as under  :

 

 

Name of the family/ village

Total expenditure

(Rs)

Supplied by the farm

(Rs)

Percentage

Purchased from outside

(Rs)

Percentage

 

Sema

43272

10799

25

32473

75

Koure Wala

53631

24497

46

29134

54

Raiya

37152

18489

50

18663

50

Bhagwanpura

56898

24565

43

32333

47

 

 

            The Economic and Statistical Organization, Punjab conducts surveys from time to time to find out thestandard of living of the people in all districts of the State. The district-wise figures regarding the per capita income for the year 1988-89 are given below

 

Serial No.

District

Income per head (Rs)

1

Gursaspur

4838

2

Amritsar

6297

3

Kapurthala

6589

4

Jalandhar

6145

5

Hohiarpur

5479

6

Rupnagar

6083

7

Ludhiana

7037

8

Firozpur

6776

9

Faridkot

6714

10

Bathinda

6275

11

Sangrur

6629

12

Patiala

6290

13

Punjab State

6274

 

 

            The above figures show that in 1988-89, the per capita income of Bathinda District at the then current prices was Rs. 6275, as compared to Rs 6274 for the Punjab State as a whole. The district ranked 8th  in comparison with other districts and its per capita income was higher to Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Rupnagar and Jalandhar districts.

 

(b)   Employment Situation

 

            The major objective of the economic planning is the optimum utilization of human resources. Allround expansion in various sectors, particularly in the agricultural one has letd to increased employment avenues. In the agricultural sector alone, employment opportunities have expanded enormously as a consequence of the increase in farm production on account of mechanisation of agricultural practices, expansion in marketing and storage and transportation of agricultural produce. Additional employment opportunities, in the secondary as well as in tertiary sectors are also becoming available in the distict.

 

            As already discussed, the inhabitants of Bathinda District are primarily engaged in agriculture. As per 1981 Census, 60.1 per cent of the total working force was engaged in agricultural pursuits. The development in agricultural practices has also contributed in the  increased avenues in agricultural sector as well, leading to a farm surplus which further contributes in the setting up of agro-based industruces. The major section of the female workers is also engaged in agriculture in the district.

 

            The number of persons waiting for employment in the distict as on 31 March 1989 was 28304 as compared to 39900 in 1984-85. A total of 9136 persons got themselves registered for employment in the employment exchanges during 1988-89, whereas 259 persons were given employment during the same year by the employment exchanges of the district. It clearly indicates that there is an increase in umemployment in the district.

 

            Employment  Exchanges.__  After the merger of Pepsu in Punjab in 1956, a District Employment  Exchange was set up at the district headuarter at Bathinda in 1957 to cater to the needs of employment seekers belonging to the whole district. Later on, a town employment exchange was set up at Mansa on 1 October 1976. After that, another town employment exchange was started at Rampura Phul on 12 January 1979 to solve the problem of employment seekers in the district. The district employment exchange, Bathinda was upgraded to that of Sub-Regional Employment Exchange w.e.f. 1 April 1979.

 

            The main functions of an employment exchange are : to register applicants and to  provide  employment assistance; to impart vocational guidance to the youth and adults to choose a better career; to elicit employment market information to assess the employment trends, impact of Government Plans on the employment situations and to collect employment statistics for the planning commission of , India.

 

            The work done by the employment exchanges  of Bathinda District has been shown in appendix II at the end of this Chapter on page 296.

 

            Employment Market Information Scheme.__  The aim of this scheme is to watch the trends of employment in the state so as to make available to the government and to the planning commission, information on the periodical expansion and contraction of employment in various industries and occupations in each district and in the state as a whole. The information thus collected is also utilized to assist the government in determining the location of crtain training institutes and the trades to be taught therein. It enables the government to assess the impact of developmental plans on employment.

 

            This scheme was introduced in the stated in 1957-58, and is operated under the guidance of the director of employment, Punjab, Chandigarh. Initially, it covered only the public sector, but from 1960-61, it was also extended to the private sector.

 

            Under the scheme, the employment  exchange is responsible for collecting regular information about the employment situation in the private as well as in the public sectors. All establishments in the public sector and selected establishments in the private sector engaged in non-agricultural activities are asked to give details regularly about the number of persons they are employing, the vacancies those have occurred and the type of persons they find to be in short supply. The information is clooected from all establishments in the pubic sector and those employing 25 or more persons in the private sector under the provision of the employment exchange (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959, which makes it obligatory on them to submit it to the local employment exchange. Information from smaller establishments in the private sector is , however, collected on voluntary basis. The information which is processed at the district level is finally tabulated at the state and National level to know precisely the employment potential at these levels.

 

            The following table clearly shows the changes in the volume of employment, both in the private and public sectors in the district, as on 31 March 1988 and 31 March 1989 :

 

Industrial Division

Number of establishments

Number of employees

31 March 1988

31 March 1989

31 March 1988

31 March 1989

1  Agriculture, horticulture, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying

7

7

614

655

2  Manufaturing

72

71

5993

6203

3  Electricity

14

14

3909

3956

4  Construction

27

29

2367

2291

5  Trade and Commerce

27

28

415

540

6  Transport Communication and storage

19

16

1984

1948

7  Public Services

376

385

22481

22779

Total

542

550

38173

38372

(Source  :  Sub-Regional Employment Officer, Bathinda)

 

            Vocational  Guidance Scheme.__  The scheme aims to  giving vocational guidance and employment counseling to school leavers and fresh entrants to the labour market and to help them to choose vaoctions in accordance with their interests,  aptitudes and abilities. It is conducted in clode collaboration with the guidance services in schools under educational authorities. The programme is jointly operated by the directorate general of employment and training, union ministry of labour and employment, and directorate of employment in the state. The ministry of labour and employment, through the director of employment exchanges is responsible for the general policies and procedure which are devised in collaboration with the state governments through the national working group of the employment services. The state directorate of employment administers the service through the employment exchanges and coordinates with  the guidance service of the education departmemt of the state government.

 

            The officer in charge of the employment exchange, Bathinda is responsible for the efficient working and general supervision of this scheme in the district. The functions of a Vocational Guidacne Unit are to provide vocational guidance and employment counseling to youth (boys and girls) and adults (men and women) in groups as well as individually; assist in the placement of youth in institutions or training centers or in entry jobs; follow up and review the progress of guided youth and adults; review the records of applicants on the live register and to give them such guidance as would lead to early and suitable place ment; assist othr sections of the exchanges in improving the quality of registrations and submissions to assist in the collection and compilation of up-to-date information on occupation, training facilities; educational sources, employment trends and employment outlook for youth and adults, scholarships and sources of financial assistance. Its other functions include maintenance of regular information for the use of applicants and visitors seeking information; maintenace of up-to-date library on occupation and vocational literature; and educating the public by undertaking publicity measures in vocational guidance principles with a view to encouraging community consciousness. The guidance procedure at an employment exchange with a vocational guidance unit, consists of group guidance comprising invitationsal taks, group discussions and invitational talk-cum-group discussions according to the needs of the groups; individual guidance; and giving information, individually.

 

            A Vocational Guidacne Unit was started in the distict in 1957. It has been steadily disseminating occupational information and vocational guidance to the deserving cases, especially to the young students community. Efforts are made to carry the facilities to all corners of the district through career talks in educational institutions.

 

            The following table shows the work done by the Vocational Guidacne Unit, Bathinda from 1979-80 to 1988-89  :

 

Year

Number of individual provided

Group guidance talks

Individuals given group guidance

Individual guidance cases

Indidivuals given occupational information

1979-80

75

350

5

25

1980-81

282

1719

314

1334

1981-82

95

423

52

112

1982-83

131

667

22

619

1983-84

125

733

20

593

1984-85

41

207

39

1624

1985-86

249

1128

88

739

1986-87

115

612

72

970

1987-88

89

336

151

520

1988-89

147

852

228

1597

  (Source  :  Sub-Regional Employment Officer, Bathinda)

 

 

            Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM).__  For the promotion of self employment opportunities in the rural area, training of rural youth for self employment (TRYSEM) scheme was initiated by the central government in July 1979. The main thrust of the scheme is equipping the rural youth with necessary skills and technology to enable them to deek self-employment. The training courses have a practical bias and the concept of learning by doing is followed. The area of training has been restricted to agriculture, animal husbandry, dairying, rural industries, small business, service establishments, etc. Only youth belonging to the families of the target groups of small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, rural artisans and others below the poverty line are eligible. Normally, persons between 18 to 35 years of age are covered and the training is imparted by existing Central and State training institutions/ organizations.

 

            The Scheme providing self-employment to educated unemployed youth is being implemented by the District Industries Centre in the Bathinda District. All educated unemployed youth in the age group of 18-35 having Matriculation qualification and above are entitled to the benefits of the scheme. The applicants are free to opt for any activity like industry, business and services. Under the scheme, the District Industries Centre provides assistance up to Rs.25,000. In the year 1988-89, 813 cases involving Rs.160.58 lakhs were financed by the District Industries Centre, Bathinda.

 

            TRYSEM Scheme was introduced in Bathinda District during 1980-81. The number of persons trained under the scheme during 1980-81. The number of persons trained under the scheme during 1980-81 to 1988-89 in the district is given in the following table:-

 

Year

No. of persons trained

No. of trained persons who set up their units

No. of persons who get employment after training

 

Total

Scheduled Castes

Women

Total

Scheduled Castes

Women

Total

Scheduled Castes

Women

1980-81

298

110

159

43

15

23

--

--

--

1981-82

579

468

540

380

305

380

--

--

--

1982-83

1480

621

969

575

316

561

147

11

--

1983-84

1241

524

762

451

199

407

146

44

--

1984-85

981

526

755

115

41

72

--

--

--

1985-86

796

477

586

796

477

586

796

477

586

1986-87

1175

705

900

1175

705

900

1175

705

900

1987-88

540

324

540

540

324

540

540

324

540

1988-89

1149

709

860

1149

709

860

1149

709

860

(Source: District Rural Development Agency, Bathinda)

 

            Short Term Relief Measures for Unemployed:- Mitigating the hardships to the educated unemployed has been the primary concern of the Government. The scheme of paying Rs.40 per mensem to matriculates and under-graduates and Rs.50 per mensem to graduates and above as unemployment allowance was initiated in 1978-79. This allowance was admissible to persons whose names had been on the live register continuously for five years. However, the period of continues unemployment for eligibility to such allowance was reduced to three years and rates of allowance were doubled and fixed at Rs.80 per mensem for matriculates and under graduates and Rs.100 per mense, for graduates and post-graduates with family income upto Rs.3600 per annum with effect from 1st April 1981. As many as 784 unemployed persons were disbursed Rs.188346 as allowance during 1981-82 as against Rs.183060 disbursed to 646 such persons in 1980-81 in the Bathinda District. During the year 1988-89, allowance of Rs.3,80,450 was disbursed to 450 unemployed persons.

 

(c)       Planning and Rural Development

 

            Planning:- Planning is an important means for achieving the economic and social advancement of the people by formulating definite schemes by setting up targets of progress in various sectors of economy and by achieving them within a stipulated period. After Independence, a comprehensive programme of planned economic development has been undertaken in the country for the social and economic uplift of the framework of National Plans, the State and District Welfare State and implemented through the district administrative machinery. For each scheme of development, there are fixed targets and estimates of expenditure have been worked out to achieve the desired social and economic goals.

 

            Rural Development:-  The Rural Development Programme, previously known as the Community Development Programme, was launched in Punjab as in the rest of the country in 2 October 1952. It was inaugurated in the district by starting the first development block at Bathinda on 2 October 1953.

 

            The main emphasis of the programme is on improvement of agriculture and ancilliary services like animal husbandry and irrigation, which employ about 70 per cent of the rural population. The development of small-scale industries also received increasing attention for creating more employment opportunities. Other features of the programme include the provision of basic amenities like those of drinking water, village primary schools, communications, adult literacy, social education and promotion of community organizations.

 

            The programme covers the entire district of Bathinda comprising 9 blocks, as per particulars given below:-

Serial No.

Subdivision

Block

Date of Starting

 

1.

Bathinda

Bathinda

2 October 1953

 

 

 

Sangat*

1 April 1956

*Out of 48 villages of Sangat Block, 29 villages fall in Bathinda and remaining 19 in Talwandi Sabo Subdivision.

 

 

Nathana

1 April 1961

 

2.

Talwandi Sabo

Talwandi Sabo

1 April 1956

 

3.

Rampura Phul

Phul

1 April 1958

 

 

 

Rampura

1 April 1957

 

4.

Mansa

Mansa

2 October 1961

 

 

 

Jhunir

1.      1 April 1955

 

 

 

Budhlada

2.      1 April 1954

 

(Source: Director, Rural Development and Panchyats Department, Punjab)

APPENDIX I

 

Rates of pay for different types of labourers/ workers/ Class IV

Government servants per day/ month fixed in the

Bathinda District during 1988-89

 

Serial No.

Category of Labourers / workers

Rates of Pay

Per day (Rs)

Per month (Rs.)

  1.  

Dak Munshi

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Dak Runner

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Waterman/ Water Carrier

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Sweeper

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Mali

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Chowkidar

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Pankha Coolie

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Boatman/ Ferry-man

25.90

675.85

  1.  

Coolie

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Bahishti

26.75

693.20

  1.  

Chainman/ Flagman

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Mazdoor / Labourer (Agricultural Labourer also)

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Khalasi

23.10

600.80

  1.  

Survery Khalasi

23.10

600.80

  1.  

Mate

23.10

600.80

  1.  

Beldar

20.80

541.10

  1.  

For drinking water, Office duty by Class IV employees

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Gangman

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Oilman

21.65

563.20

  1.  

Barber

23.85

--

  1.  

Mochi

23.85

--

  1.  

Tailor

23.80

619.40

  1.  

Dhobi/ Washerman

26.75

693.20

  1.  

Cook (without food and lodging)

--

689.05

  1.  

Cook (with free food 2 meals and 2 teas and lodging)

--

498.95

  1.  

Assistant Cook

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Man with camel

46.15

1201.60

  1.  

Man with pair of bullocks

46.15

1201.60

  1.  

Hiring charge of cart with a pair of bullocks and a man

46.15

1201.60

  1.  

Carpenter 1st class

46.15

1201.60

  1.  

Carpenter 2nd class

36.10

938.75

  1.  

Cartman

21.65

563.20

  1.  

Tinsmith

20.20

525.70

  1.  

Blacksmith 1st class

46.15

1201.60

  1.  

Blacksmith 2nd class

36.10

938.75

  1.  

Mason 1st class

41.85

1088.90

  1.  

Mason 2nd class

36.10

938.75

  1.  

Painter 1st class

41.85

1088.90

  1.  

Painter 2nd class

36.10

938.75

  1.  

Road Roller Driver

27.45

713.40

  1.  

Man without donkey

28.90 Rs.9.66 for each extra donkey

  1.  

Pipe fitter

38.90

752.00

  1.  

Polisher

26.75

693.20

  1.  

Luggage porter

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Lamp man

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Aya

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Sweeper Cattle Pound

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Fitter/ Turner

34.10

886.75

  1.  

Driver for heavy vehicles

28.90

751.00

  1.  

Driver for light vehicles

24.50

642.70

  1.  

Pump operator

23.85

619.65

  1.  

Labour unskilled

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Labour skilled

25.55

664.20

  1.  

Tent Master

23.85

--

  1.  

Halwai

46.15

--

  1.  

Welder

25.90

675.85

  1.  

Moulder

25.90

675.85

  1.  

Aligner

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Mazdoor for spray

21.65

--

  1.  

Mazdoor for Military

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Mazdoor female for Military

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Cane Weaver

23.10

675.85

  1.  

Kitchen servant

--

109.80

  1.  

Trollyman

15.85

--

  1.  

Hammerman

23.10

600.80

  1.  

Frash

--

541.10

  1.  

Retired patwari

31.75

851.75

  1.  

Sewerman

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Peon

20.80

541.10

  1.  

Plumber

34.10

886.75

  1.  

Sawyer

25.30

656.15

  1.  

Motor and Pump-Attendant

25.30

656.15

  1.  

Oil Engine Driver

25.30

656.15

  1.  

Assistant Photographer

28.00

727.90

  1.  

Pipe Fitter

34.10

886.75

(Source: Deputy Commissioner, Bathinda)

 

APPENDIX II

 

Work done by the Employment Exchanges of Bathinda District during 1977-78 to 1988-89

 

 

Year

No. of registrations during the year

No. of vacancies notified

No. of applicants placed in employment during the month

Applicants on Live Register at the end of the year

Monthly No. of employers using the Exchanges

No. of vacancies carried over the year

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1977-78

16844

4139

2083

23190

529

1236

1978-79

21223

3277

1808

23457

537

702

1979-80

17384

3425

1634

27263

538

966

1980-81

17871

2749

1576

32134

378

963

1981-82

17207

2659

1606

32958

352

978

1982-83

15601

2096

1206

32029

298

880

1983-84

17061

1554

942

36881

291

925

1984-85

16199

1849

750

39900

211

812

1985-86

11695

1037

221

30110

132

385

1986-87

9531

856

214

28675

125

456

1987-88

11316

1745

532

30151

115

671

1988-89

9136

599

259

28304

121

427

Source: Sub-Regional Employment Officer, Bathinda)

 

Contents    Next