CHAPTER XV

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

(a)

Historical Background

(b)

Literacy and Educational Standards

(c)

General Education

(d)

Professional and Technical Education

(e)

Physical Education

(f)

Cultivation of Fine Arts

(g)

Adult Literancy, Social Education and Measures for the Diffusion of Culture among the Masses

(h)

Cultural and Literacy Societies and Periodicals

(i)

Libraries and Museum

 

(a)       Historical Background

 

Prior to Independence, the area of the present Bathinda District, was administered by the erstwhile princely states of Patiala, Faridkot, Jind and Nabha.  The Nathana area of the present district was under the control of the British regime.  Most of the present area of the district formed part of the Patiala princely State.  The system of education prevailing in these princely states is briefly described below :

 

Before the reign of Maharaja Narinder Singh, there was no system of State-controlled education in Patiala, though private schools were numerous in the capital, and in these Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit and Gurmukhi were taught.  The first State School was opened in Patiala itself in 1860 and in this all the three classical languages mentioned were taught.  In 1862, the scope of the school was enlarged and provisions were made for teaching English and Mathematics, but Persian remained the most popular study.  In 1870, Maharaja Mohinder Singh created a regularly organized Educational Department, under a Director assisted by an Inspector.  A Managing Committee, consisting of all the principal officials, was also appointed to promote the spread of education.  The teachers in the indigenous schools were taken into the service of the State.  New schools were opened among other places at Talwandi and Bathinda.  Similarly, untill1889, only indigenous system of education continued in Jind State. In 1889, the State adopted the Punjab educational system.  A supervising and inspecting officer was appointed called the Munsarim of schools.  In 1891, primary schools were opened among other places at Balianwali and Dialpura in present Bathinda District.

 

            There was no regular system of education in the Nabha State.  All official correspondence was conducted in Persian, which was taught in maktabs by masters (mianji) who received no fixed salaries.  Well-to-do people also had private teachers.  The first attempt to modernize education in the State dates back to 1863, when Raja Bharpur Singh established a school in Nabha itself with one teacher for English and another for Arabic and Persian and a third being added in 1864.  Urdu, Persian and Sanskirt were, however, the main subjects and were taught on the old system.  In 1885, the students first went to the Punjab University from the State.  In 1886, a Gurmukhi teacher was added to the staff of the school at Phul and in the ensuing year, Gurmukhi schools were opened among others at Jalal and Bhai Rupa in Phul Nizamat (now in Bathinda District), under a special superintending officer.  In 1899, the State opened middle schools at village Chotian (now in Bathinda District).  Primary schools were established among others at Phul, Mandi Phul and Bhai Rupa (now in Bathinda District) open to all castes, but in which fees were only levied from non-agriculturists, the sons of cultivators being exempt.  The middle school at Chotian three miles (about 5 km) from the town of Phul, was a zimindari school opened in 1898.  Only the sons of agriculturists were admitted in this school with the Raja’s sanction.  No fees were levied and boys were entirely supported and lodged in a boarding-house attached to the school, which was maintained from the school cess levied with the revenue.  This school ranked as an anglo-vernacular middle school, but Gurmukhi was also taught in it.’

 

          On the eve of the formation of PEPSU in 1948, the above mentioned system of education continued.  In 1956, the PEPSU was merged in the Punjab and the educational pattern of Punjab became applicable to the Bathinda District too.

 

            After Independence, the national government gave priority to the expansion of education with an avowed policy of arranging fee and compulsory education.  The number of educational institutions increased rapidly and the Punjab took a bold step of provincializing the schools maintained by the local bodies on 1 October 1957.  This step was a landmark in the post Independence history of education.  Education has been made free in all the government schools up to the middle standard.  Similarly to provide facilities of higher education, even  small  town  such  as   Budhlada,  Rampura   Phul,

________________________________________________________________________

 

Phulkian State Gazetter, 1904 (Lahore, 1909), p. 177

 

Damdama Sahib, Mansa, etc. have been given the privilege of starting degree colleges.  The number of educational institutions in the district as on 30 September 1988 included, 9 colleges, 24 higher secondary schools (old pattern)/senior secondary schools (10+2 pattern), 167 high schools, 100 middle schools and 661 primary schools.

 

(b)       Literacy and Educational Standards

 

            In the field of education, Bathinda is one of the most backward districts of the State.  The literacy rate of the district as per 1981 Census was 27.73 per cent (34.16 for males and 20.29 for females), as compared to 40.86 per cent (47.16 for males and 33.69 for females) of the Punjab State.  According to 1971 Census, it was 22.38 per cent (29.0 for males and 14.6 for females) as compared to 33.67 per cent (40.4 for males and 25.9 for females) of the Punjab State.  The literacy rate of the Bathinda District is the lowest among all the districts of the State according to 1981 and 1971 Censuses.  The literacy rate, however, has shown an increase of 5.35 per cent during 1971-1981 decade.  This has been on account of opening of more educational institutions especially in the rural areas within short distances from one another.  Efforts have also been made for universalization of primary education by enrolment of students in schools.  As a result of the State’s initiative, the number of educational institutions is rapidly increasing in the district.

 

            Educational Societies Rendering Service in the Field of Education

 

            Though the main responsibility for providing the people with educational facilities rests on the state, yet the various educational societies, missions and philanthropic endowments are also rendering valuable service to the people in the field of education in the district.  Those important among such societies are mentioned below :

 

            Shri Sanatan Dharam Sabha. – This society is rendering useful service to the people in the field of education in the district.  It is a registered body and is running a number of educational institutions in the district.

 

            Arya Samaj. – The Arya Samaj has been playing a vital role in the educational, social and religious spheres.  D.A.V. Mata Gunawanti College, Bathinda was opened in July 1969 by the Arya Samaj.  All the D.A.V. institutions are rendering commendable service to the nation in dispelling ignorance and superstition, spreading knowledge, service and renunciation.  The Arya Samaj Sabha runs four high/higher secondary schools, two at Bathinda proper and one each at Rama Mandi and Rampura in the district.

 

            Dev Samaj. – This society has also done excellent work in the spread of education and social uplift of women in the district.  It is running Dev Samaj Girls High School at Rampura in the district.

 

            Singh Sabhas and other Sikh Societies. – These societies have played a vital role in the promotion of education in the district.  A large number of educational institutions right from the middle to the degree level are being run at various places in the district.  These societies are running five high/higher secondary schools, two at Bathinda and one each at Talwandi Sabo, Maur Mandi and Mansa, and a middle school at Goniana.

 

            Christian Mission. – The Christian missionaries have done a pioneer work in the field of education in the district.  The Christian mission is running Saint Joseph Convent High School at Bathinda.  It is an English medium school.

 

            Jain Sabha. – This society is also rendering useful service to the people in the sphere of education in the district.  Jain Girls High School, Mansa is being run by the society in the district.

 

            Besides the above bodies, a number of other societies and philanthropic and religious associations are also running educational institutions at various places in the district.

 

Women’s Education

 

            Spread of female education did not make much headway during the princely rule, because the parents did not favour sending their female wards to the school.  The girls used to learn cooking, sewing and embroidery from other women.  They learnt reading and writing from the indigenous institutions according to their religion.  With the dawn of Independence, the outlook of the parents has changed in favour of female education.  The parents have become conscious of the importance of education so much so that they have begun to consider the education of their daughters as important as that of their sons to get them settled in life.  The Compulsory Elementary Education Act, 1960 has also contributed towards the increase in female education, as it has made obligatory on the parents to send their wards of the age group of 6 and above to schools.  The changing social order and the efforts of various religious societies and voluntary organizations have brought about much progress in the sphere of women’s education.  As on 30 September 1988, there were 3 colleges, 3 senior secondary schools, 20 high schools and 2 middle schools for girls in the district.  To make good deficiency in the number of schools for girls, all the primary schools for boys were thrown open to girls.  The middle, high/higher secondary schools and colleges at places having no separate schools/colleges for girls also became co-educational.

 

            According to the 1981 Census, the literacy rate among females, as a percentage of the total population in the district, is 20.29 as against 33.69 for the State, which is the lowest in the State.  As on 30 September 1988, there were as many as 96,912 girls studying in I to senior secondary classes in the district.

 

            Education of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes. – According to 1981 Census, Scheduled Castes formed 27.02 per cent of the total population of the district, as against 26.87 per cent for the state.  Before 1947, no special attention was paid to the spread of education among the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.  There was a tendency to employ young children on odd jobs to supplement the family income.  After Independence, the government has been vigorously directing its policy towards raising the general level o literacy among these classes.  In deference to the special provisions laid down in the Constitution, a number of facilities were extended by reserving seats in professional and technical institutions, exempting Harijans and others from tuition fees, reimbursing the examination fees and giving financial assistance to deserving students.  The Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes students, whose parents’ income does not exceed Rs. 6,000 are provided free education up to M.A. level.  Besides, the following schemes are run by the Education Department for the benefit of students belonging to these classes for their studies at college level :-

 

(1)              Government of India Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme

(2)              State Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme

(3)              State Harijan Welfare Scheme

(4)              Special Grant to Scheduled Castes Girl students

(5)              Scholarship to Vimukt Jatis

(6)              Special Grant to the Scheduled Caste Students studying in engineering/ medial colleges

(7)              Lower Income Group Scholarship Scheme

 

To prepare them for I.A.S., I.P.S. and other allied examinations, a Coaching Centre is functioning in the Punjabi University, Patiala, where free board and lodging are provided.

 

            The financial assistance given to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in the district, during 1977-78 to 1988-89 is given below :

 

________________________________________________________________________

Year                                       Stipends                                        Number of students

                                                                                                           benefited

                                                 (Rs)                                                     

________________________________________________________________________

 

1977-78                                    8,87,830                                            11,110

1978-79                                    9,55,884                                            11,187

1979-80                                  12,34,792                                            10,532  

1980-81                                  12,56,604                                            12,361  

1981-82                                   12,20,806                                            12,678

1982-83                                   14,40,022                                            12,923             

1983-84                                   13,83,514                                           11,854  

1984-85                                   13,73,733                                           11,588

1985-86                                   12,39,547                                            11,860 

1986-87                                   20,33,083                                           19,711

1987-88                                  16,45,995                                            16,030  

1988-89                                   17,10,362                                           15,885

________________________________________________________________________

 

(Source :  District Education Officer, Bathinda)

 

 

The financial assistance given to the students belonging to the Vimukt Jatis in the district, during 1977-78 to 1988-89 is given below :

 

 

 

________________________________________________________________________

Year                                       Stipends                                    Number of students

                                                                                                    benefited

                                                 (Rs)                                        

________________________________________________________________________

 

1977-78                                  3,239                                                  151  

1978-79                                  3,888                                                  155

1979-80                                     900                                                   38

1980-81                                  3,960                                                  165  

1981-82                                  3,000                                                    93                 

1982-83                                   2,000                                                   32     

1983-84                                   2,000                                                    29  

1984-85                                   2,000                                                    34

1985-86                                   1,944                                                     81 

1986-87                                   1,992                                                    83

1987-88                                  2,556                                                     94  

1988-89                                     950                                                     29

________________________________________________________________________

 

(Source :  District Education Officer, Bathinda)

 

            The following table shows the number of students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes studying in different schools in Bathinda District as on 31 March, 1989 :-

 

________________________________________________________________________

                                                                                        Number

Type of                                   ________________________________________________

Institutions                                         Scheduled castes                     Backward Classes

                                                                 Students                                   Students

                                              _______________________            _______________________

                                   Boys       Girls         Total           Boys        Girls         Total

________________________________________________________________________

 

Primary Schools                      23,063     14,555     37,618           10,720      8,547        19,267

Middle Schools              1,261         647       1,908               926         575         1,501

High Schools                             5,736      2,352       8,090             4,146      2,780          6,926

Higher Secondary Schools         1,758         890       2,648            1,271         980          2,251

                                              ________________________________________________

Grand Total                             31,818      18,444    50,264              17,063    12,882     29,945

________________________________________________________________________

 

        (Source : District Education Officer, Bathinda)

 

Role of Local Bodies in the field of Education

 

            Since October 1957, all schemes maintained hitherto by the local bodies have been provincialized in the State.  There was no educational institution controlled by any Municipal Committee/District Board in the Bathinda District before provincialization.

 

Medium of Instructions

 

            With a view to solving the language problem in the State, the government worked out the Three Language Formula to satisfy all sections of the people, replacing the Sachar Formula of 1949.  Under the Three Language Formula, Punjabi has been made the first language and the medium of instruction in government schools at all levels, while Hindi has been made compulsory from the third class.  The English Language has been made compulsory from the sixth class onward.  The privately managed schools have been given option to retain Punjabi or Hindi as medium of instruction.  The schools which adopt Hindi as the medium of instruction in Punjabi in all the schools and has enabled the Hindi medium and, as such, the entire school-going population in the State has become conversant with both the languages.  The status of English has also been recognized as an international language.

 

(c)       General Education

 

            Educational Set-up. – With the reorganization of educational set-up in 1963, the District Education Officer was made the overall in charge of educational activities upto the high and higher secondary level in the district.  But with effect from 1 April 1978, the primary wing has been separated.  Now the District Education Officer is controlling and supervising all middle, high and higher secondary schools in the district.  He functions under the control of the Director of Public Instructions (Secondary schools), Punjab, through circle Education Officer, Nabha (district Patiala).  He is assisted by 2 Deputy District Education Officers, 1 District Science Supervisor, 1 Administrative Officer, One Section Officer, 2 Superintendents, 8 Assistants, 14 Clerks and other Class IV staff.  The primary schools are looked after by the District Education Officer (Primary), who is assisted by 2 Deputy District Education Officers, 12 Block Education Officers, 1 Superintendent, 6 Assistants, 5 Junior Assistants, 13 Clerks and other miscellaneous staff.  He functions under the administrative control of the Director of Public Instructions (Primary Schools), Punjab.  Both the District Education Officers are also assisted by 1 District Science Supervisor, 1 Assistant Education Officer (Sports) and 1 Vocational Guidance Councellor.

 

Pre-Primary Schools

 

            In these days, public is becoming more and more conscious of its value for little children, and, thereof, pre-primary education has gained a tempo.  Previously, pre-primary education in the district was not organized.  Only few schools were started by some retired teachers, educationists and voluntary organizations.  Systematic pre-primary education is of recent origin.  This education is highly desirable for the physical intellectual, emotional mental and social growth of the children in the age-group of 3-6 years.  Education is imparted through playway activities of kindergarten and montessory methods.

 

Primary and Basic Schools

 

            The course of primary education covers a period of five years.  Primary education was made compulsory during the Third Five-Year Plan (1961-66), starting with the age group of 6-7 in 1961-62, extended one higher class in each subsequent year, so that by 1965-66 the age group 10-11 was also covered by it.  Since then, education at the primary stage is imparted free.   Each village in the district has got atleast a primary school.  Special incentives such as supply of free text books and mid-day meals are provided to the children belonging to weaker sections of the society.

 

            The total number of primary/basic primary schools, both government and private, in the district, as on 30 September 1988, was 661 with 1,37,325 (76,926 boys and 60,399 girls) students.  Most of the primary school teachers are basic trained.  The number of teacher in the primary schools in the district, as on 30 September 1988, was 3,078 (1,709 males and 1,369 females).

 

Secondary Schools

 

            There is an alround expansion in the field of education in the district.  The increase in the number of children/scholars in primary schools due to the introduction of free and compulsory education has encouraged the enrolment drive in the middle and high schools.  To attract more children of the age group of schools.  To attract more children of the age group of 11-14 and 14-17 years to these schools, middle and high schools have been opened within short distances.  Besides, some new subjects such as music and dancing have been introduced in some of the government girls high schools.  The teaching of domestic sciences and agriculture has also been started in various government high schools in rural areas of  the district.

            At the secondary stage, there were 100 middle schools, 167 high/post basic schools and 24 senior secondary schools in the district as on 30 September 1988.  The total number of scholars studying in these schools was 92,500 (55,987 boys and 36,513 girls) and from IX to XI Classes 16,000 (10,000 boys and 6,000 girls) as on 30 September 1988.  The number of teachers on the same date in these schools was 3,726 (2,076 males and 1,650 females) and 1,339 (895 males and 444 females) respectively.

 

Higher Education

 

            In 1950, there was only one college in the district.  Another college was opened in 1964.  During these years, the pace of higher education remained very slow.  However, the number of colleges swelled to 9 by 1988.  Of these, 3 colleges are meant for women, whereas remaining 6 are co-educational.  All these institutions are affiliated to Punjabi University, Patiala.  The colleges functioning in the district, as on31 March 1989 are briefly described as under :

 

(1)       Government Rajindra College, Bathinda. – It is an old and famous educational center south of Malwa.  It is mentioned in Encyclopedia Brittanica on page 564.  The institution was started in 1904 as a primary school.  It was raised to an intermediate college in 1940 and to the level of a degree college in1950.  The college provides instruction in 10+1 and 10+2 (Arts, Science and Commerce Groups), Three Year Degree Course (Arts, Science and Commerce) and M.A. (Political Science).  The College is housed in a grand building with a well equipped library, reading rooms, laboratories, hostel and extensive playgrounds.  It is a co-educational institution.  A number of societies, clubs and associations function in the college.  There is a provision for training in the National Cadet Corps and National Service Scheme.  Scholarships/Stipends are awarded by the Central and State governments to the students belonging the Scheduled Castes, economically poor and other backward classes.  The college brings out a magazine entitled ‘Rajindra’ annually.  The college has outstanding achievements in university examinations and extra-curricular activities.  A number of shields and trophies are won by the students in cultural fields every year.

 

            A regional Centre of the Punjabi University, Patiala has been functioning in this college since 1984.  The number of students on the rolls of the college during 1988-89 was 2,395 (1,750 boys and 645 girls).

 

            (2)       Guru Kashi College, Damdama Sahib (Talwandi Sabo). – The college was founded in 1964 in fulfillment of the blessings of Guru Gobind Singh who spent several weeks here.  It offers instruction in10+1 and 10+2 (Arts and Science) and degree course (Arts and Science).  The college is also running diploma course in Computer Science.  The college has a library, a reading room, laboratories, hostel and extensive playgrounds.  There is provision for training in National Cadet Corps and National Service Scheme.  A number of cultural and literary societies function in the college.  The government, the university and other scholarships, including those meant for the Scheduled Castes are available at the college.  The college also brings out annually a magazine, viz. Kiran Sarot.

 

            The number of students on the rolls of the college during the year 1988-89 was 351 (314 boys and 37 girls).

 

            (3)       Nehru Memorial Post-Graduate College, Mansa. – Stated in 1965, the college is situated on Mansa-Barnala road. It offers instruction in the 10+1 and 10+2 (Arts, Commerce and Science Groups), Three Year Degree Course in Arts and Commerce and M.A. (Political Science).

 

            The College has a well stocked Library.  There is a provision for training under National Cadet Corps and National Service Scheme.  There are a number of cultural and literary societies functioning in the college.  Scholarships/stipends are awarded by the Central and State governments to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes, economically poor and other backward classes.  The college brings out a magazine entitled ‘The Ideal’ annually.

            The number of students on the rolls of the college, during 1988-89 was 1,125 (1,052 boys and 73 girls).

 

(4)       Shri Sanatan Dharam Girls College, Bathinda. – With the opening of this college in 1966, a long felt need for an exclusive girls’ college in this region was met.  The college imparts instruction in the 10+1 and 10+2 and Three-Year Degree Course in Arts.  There is a provision for training in the National Cadet Corps and National service Scheme.  A number of clubs and societies are also functioning the college.  All the scholarships and stipends from the Central and State governments are available at the college.  The college brings out a magazine entitled ‘Praja-Chakshu’ annually.  The college has a library, a reading room, hostel and playgrounds.  Honours classes in Sanskrit, Hindi and Political Science were started after 31 March 1982.

 

In 1988-89, the number of students on the rolls of the college was 770.

 

            (5)       T.P.D. Malwa College, Rampura Phul. – In response to the persistent demand of the people of the area, this college was started in July 1968 to commemorate the memory of Tapassavi Puran Dass. It offers instruction in 10+1 and 10+2 (Arts and Science) and the Three-year Degree Course in Arts.  It is a co-educational institution.  The college provides training in National Cadet Corps and National Service Scheme. It has well equipped laboratories, a library and a reading room.  A number of societies, clubs and associations function in the college.  The government, the university and other scholarships, including those meant for the Scheduled Castes, are available at the college.  The college also brings out annually a magazine, named ‘The knowledge’.

 

            In 1988-89, there were 617 students on the rolls of the college.

 

            (6)       DAV (Mata Gunawanti) College (Bathinda). – This college was founded in July 1969 and shifted to the present building on 3 January 1977.  On 20 May 1979, the college was renamed as Mata Gunawanti D.A.V. College, Bathinda.  The College prepares students for the 10+1 and 10+2 (Humanities, Commerce and Science Groups), Three-year Degree Course in Arts, Commerce and Science.  It is a co-educational college.  It has well-equipped laboratories, a library, reading room and playgrounds.  The college also provides training in National cadet Corps and National Service Scheme.  The students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are entitled to get the benefit of fee concession and stipends.  A number of cultural and literary societies are also functioning in the college.  The college brings out a magazine entitled ‘Sandeep’ annually.

 

            In 1988-89, there were 1,217 students on the rolls of the college.

 

            (7)       S.D. Kanya Mahavidyala, Mansa. – Owning to the need for a college for girls in this backward area, S.D. Kanya Mahavidyala, Mansa was started in November 1969.  The College offers instruction in 10+1 and 10+2 and Three-Year Degree Course in Arts.  Besides, there is a provision for training in National Cadet Corps and National Service Scheme.  A number of societies, associations and clubs function in the college. The students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are entitled to get the benefit of fee concessions and stipends.  It publishes its magazine named ‘Sudhansha’ once a year.

 

            The number of students on the rolls of the college, during 1988-89 was 330.

 

            (8)       Guru Nanak College, Budhlada. –  This college was established in 1970.  It prepares students in Science and Arts for 10+1 and 10+2 classes and in Arts up to the degree level.  A number of societies, clubs and associations function in the college.  The National service scheme was introduced in the college during 1973-74.  Besides, Physical Education was introduced as a compulsory subject during 1978-79. Scholarships/stipends are awarded by the government to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.

 

            The number of students on the rolls of the college, during 1988-89 was 491.

 

            (9)       Bhai Assa Singh Girls College, Goniana Mandi. –  The college was founded in 1973 by late Mahant Assa Singh with a view to serving the needs of women folk of the area of higher education.  The college provides instruction in 10+1 and 10+2 (Humanities Group) and Three-Year Degree Course in Arts.  It has a library, a reading room, hostel and playgrounds.  Besides, there is a provision for training in National Service Scheme.  A number of cultural and literary societies function in the college.  The government awards Scholarship/stipends to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.  The college brings out a magazine entitled ‘Ass Kiraan’ annually.

 

            The number of students on the rolls of the college, during 1988-89 was 149.

 

(d)       Professional and Technical Education

 

            Technical education plays an important role in the industrial development of the country.  Keeping in view the important of the technical education, the Directorate of Industrial Training and Technical Education, Punjab, runs a number of Technical Institutes and Industrial Training Institutes/Centers (both for boys and girls) in the State.  During 1988-89, there were two industrial Training Institutes at Bathinda and Budhlada in the district, one Industrial Teachers Training Institute for women at Bathinda and one Industrial school for Women at Rampura Phul.  Besides, there is a Government Polytechnic Institute functioning at Bathinda.  It prepares students for 3-year diploma courses in Electronics, Industrial/Production Engineering, Architecture Assistantship and 2 year courses in Pharmacy.  Every year, it takes 210 trainees who are awarded diplomas.

 

            The detailed particulars of these Industrial Training Institutes/Centres in the Bathinda District have been given in Chapter V on ‘Industries’.

 

(e)       Physical Education

 

            The main object of imparting physical education is to make the child physically fit, mentally alert and morally sound.  In order to improve physical efficiency of the youth, the Punjab Government has introduced Physical Education Scheme in the entire district.  To create ambition among the students to attain physical fitness right from the early schooling, physical education has been made a compulsory subject in the middle and high/higher secondary schools since 1974.  Physical education and games are included in the school curriculum as a subject for examination.  Under this system, one Physical Training Instructor is attached to each of the middle ad high/higher secondary schools.  In the colleges also, physical education is directed and guided by the Director of Physical Education.  The development of sports in the State 9is the responsibility of the Department of sports, the Punjab state sports Council and the Panchayati Raj Khed Parishad.  To co-ordinate the activities of the organization, an apex body, viz.  Punjab State Sports Development Board was set up in June 1982.

 

            The Assistant Education Officer for Physical Education, Bathinda helps both the District Education Officers to promote physical education in the district.  He supervises and guides physical education the schools.  Inter-school tournaments and special rallies are organized at various places in the district.  There is also a provision for medical inspection in the schools, and the students, with physical defects are given the necessary treatment.

 

            Besides, the following schemes, under separate departments, promote physical education in the district :-

 

1.                 Promotion of Sports and Games by the State Sports Department

 

2.                 National Cadet Corps

 

3.                 Bharat Scouts and Guides

 

4.                 National Service Scheme, sponsored by Government of  India.

 

(1)       Promotion of Sports and Games. – Keeping in view the importance of sports, the Punjab Government created the Sports Department in 1961 and appointed players of national and international fame as Sports Officers.  At the district level, the department is represented by the District Sports Officer, Bathinda, represented by the District Sports Officer, Bathinda, who is assisted by 10 Sports Officers, 1 Junior Sports Officer, one Handball Coach, besides ministerial and Class IV staff. With the merger of Sports Department into the Education in November 1966, the scope of the activities of the former increased manifold.

 

The main functions of the Sports Department are to provide training facilities in sports to the students and sportsmen of colleges, schools, private institutions, etc. according to their requisitions.  The Department is making strenuous efforts to promoted sports talent in all parts of the State.  It organizes season conditioning camps and teams are put on special training before they participate in inter-university, national and international competitions.  The department also awards scholarships to the outstanding players, besides giving grant for the development of playgrounds.

 

At Bathinda, 1 Gymnastic, 1 Athletic, 1 Hockey, 1 Volleyball, 1 Kabaddi, 1 Juddo, 1 Handball and 1 Boxing, Coaching Centres are functioning at the new stadium.  Besides, there are two sub-centres functioning each at Mansa and Talwandi Sabo which provide coaching in volleyball and athletic.

 

Apart from the above, the following associations are functioning which promote games and sports in the district :-

 

1.                 The District Wrestling Association, Bathinda

2.                 The District Athletic Association, Bathinda

3.                 The Table-Tennis Association, Bathinda

4.                 The District Basketball Association, Bathinda

5.                 The District Gymnastic Association, Bathinda

6.                 The District Shooting Association, Bathinda

7.                 The District Juddo, Association, Bathinda

8.                 District Cricket Association, Bathinda

9.                 District Kabaddi Association, Bathinda

10.              District Badminton Association, Bathinda

11.              District Hockey Association, Bathinda

12.              District Handball Association, Bathinda

13.              District Boxing Association, Bathinda

14.              District Swimming Association, Bathinda

 

These associations organize tournaments in the district and select players for the inter-State and inter-district competitions.

 

There are two sports wings, i.e. Hockey and Athletics in Rajindra College, Bathinda and students of the wing are allowed free board and lodging.  During 1984-85, two athletes of this college participated in junior athletics and won three medals, viz. one gold, one silver and one bronze. Besides, a student of Guru Kashi College, Damdama Sahib participated in the World University Championship at Kobe (Japan).

 

            (2)       National Cadet Corps. – The National Cadet Corps (N.C.C.) was introduced in the educational programme in 1948 to develop the qualities of leadership, unity and discipline among the youth.  After the Chinese aggression, it was made compulsory for all able bodies under-graduate boy students at college level in July 1963.  The aims of the National Cadet Corps are to develop character, comradeship, ideal of service and capacity for leadership in youth, men and women, to give service training to young men and women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country and to build up a reserve of manpower to enable the armed Forces to expand rapidly in a national emergency.  The scheme was introduced in the Bathinda District in July 1965.  N.C.C. is now not compulsory in colleges.

 

            The motto of the National Cadet Corps is ‘Unity and Discipline’.  The cadets are imparted training military subjects, viz. rifle-firing, field-craft, foot-drill, civil defence, map-reading etc.  Girls are training in first-aid, operating telephones, telegraphs and wireless, Senior and Junior Divisions cadets are organized into units, each commanded by a regular Army Major or an Officer of equivalent rank in the Air Force.  The cadets also attend annual outdoor training in camps.

 

            The number of students of rolls in the National Cadet Corps in the district, as on31 March 1989, was as under :

 

________________________________________________________________________

                                                          Boys                Girls                            Total

________________________________________________________________________

 

Senior Division                        485                  --                               485

 

Junior Division                         800                  --                               800

________________________________________________________________________

 

            (3)       Bharat Scouts and Guides. – The Bharat Scouts and Guides is a movement of national, international and universal character.  It was a regular movement even in the erstwhile princely States under different name.  On 7 November 1950, all the associations were amalgamated at the national level and termed as Bharat Scouts and Guides.  On 15 August 1951, the all-India Girl Guides Associations also joined Bharat Scouts and Guides.  After the formation of PEPSU in 1948, this association continued till 1956 when with merger of the former with Punjab in 1956 its scope was widened.

 

            The Bharat Scouts and Guides, Punjab, has its State headquarters at Chandigarh.  There are three training centers at Tara Devi (Shimla Hills), Jalandhar and Chandigarh where training camps are organised.

 

            The District Association, Bathinda organises scouts and guides rallies, social service camps at the time of melas, and gives training to young boys and girls in cooking and handicrafts, tent-pitching, etc.  Besides, the association inculcates and develops loyalty, patriotism, and sense of service in the cause of the nation among the members.  As on 31 March 1989, the number of registered Scouts/Guides in the district was 3,500.

 

            (4)       National Service Scheme. – The National Service Scheme, originally contemplated as an alternative to the N.C.C. and NSO to cover all university students, was started during the Fourth Five-Year Plan as a pilot scheme by selecting college students on the voluntary and selective basis.  Its object is to enable the students to participate, during their studies, in various programmes of social service and national development to help the community and at the same to provide them with an opportunity to understand and appreciate the conditions, a sense of social consciousness and dignity of labour, thus leading to a fuller and more balanced development of the personality of students.  Participation in the N.S.S. enables the students to discharge at least partially their social obligations towards the community, bring the educated youth closer to the community and enable them to contribute to the national development.

 

            Under the programme, any student studying in a college or in a university, who has opted and is selected for the National Service Scheme is expected to remain under the programme for a continuous period of two years and is required to render social service for a minimum of 120 hours per annum, besides, participating in the special camps.

 

            The National Service Scheme is being implemented through the colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning.  The States are also participating financially and administratively in the operation of the scheme.  The union Ministry of Education and Culture provides policy guidance, co-ordination, and finances on a sharing basis.  Fifteen Units of National Service Scheme are functioning in various colleges of Bathinda District. As on 31 mach 1989, there were 2,650 N.S.S. volunteers in the district.

 

 

(f)        Cultivation of Fine-Arts

 

            There is no such institution in the district for imparting training in fine arts, such as music, dancing and painting, etc.  However, there is a provision for teaching these subjects in some of the high/higher secondary schools and colleges of the district as part of the curriculum.

 

(g)       Adult Literacy, Social Measures for the Diffusion of Education and Culture among the masses

 

            A Scheme of Social (Adult) Education Programme for spreading literacy and diffusing culture among the masses was introduced in the district in 1954-55.  It is organized by the Circle Social Education Officer, Patiala Circle, Patiala, who is under the overall charge of the Director of Public Instruction  (Secondary Schools), Punjab, Chandigarh.  For this purpose, the whole state of Punjab is divided into two Circles, viz. Patiala Circle and Jalandhar Circle.  Each Circle has three mobile squads which are shifted from one place to anther, from time to time.  The adult education centers are located in villages where the panchayats agree to provide facilities like accommodation, etc.  The duration of the center is for six months.  After a period of six months or one year or more, as the situation may demand, the centers are shifted to new villages.  To popularize the social education drive among the masses, each circle has a mobile cinema van, which occasionally arranges film shows in the villages where such centers are located.  Prior to 1980-81, 30 Adult Education Centres were functioning in the Bathinda District. Each Centre was required to educate atleast 30 adults per year.  In 1980-81, the Government of India sanctioned another scheme, named Rural Functional Literacy Scheme.  It was started in Punjab in the year 1981.

 

            Rural Functional Literacy Scheme. – Under this Centrally Sponsored Scheme, during 1988-89, 300 centres, 85 for men and 215 for women, of age group 15-55 were functioning in the district.  In these centers, the rural people are taught reading, writing and simple arithmetic.  In the women centres, apart from reading and writing, the women of age group of 15-31 are also provided training in knitting, sewing and embroidery.  During 1988-89, there were 12,000 adults on the rolls in these centres.

 

            Non-Formal Education Scheme. – Under this Scheme, the children between the age group of 11-14 years, who had left their studies earlier, due to one reason or the other, are taught non-formally for two hours daily from the stage where from they discontinued their studies.  At the end of the academic year, some of them take examination in the regular schools in the class for which they complete their studies in the non-formal education center.  During 1988-89, thee were 100 such centers functioning in the district with 3,403 students on rolls.

 

(h)       Cultural and Literary Societies and Periodicals

 

            All colleges/schools have different types of societies and clubs which aim at spreading cultural activities among the students. The schools and colleges also draw up cultural programmes and participate in the national functions.  The cultural and literary societies, functioning in the Bathinda District are given below :

 

            Cultural Societies. – The main activities of cultural societies include plays, dances, songs, music, etc.  During the Navratra days, Ram Lila is staged by these societies with great enthusiasm at important placed in the Bathinda District.  These societies aim at promoting Punjabi culture, create national unity through cultural programmes, and publicise development schemes, through songs, dramas, etc.  The following cultural societies are functioning in the Bathinda District :-

 

1.                 Railway Dramatic Club, Bathinda

2.                 Venus Art Theatre, Bathinda

3.                 Ajanta Art Circle, Bathinda

4.                 United Art Theatre, Bathinda

5.                 Forward Theatre, S.S.D. Higher Secondary School, Bathinda

6.                 Preet Nagar Arts Theatre, Bathinda

7.                 Lok Kala Manch, Mansa at Bathinda

8.                 Samrang Kala Manch, Mansa at Bathinda

9.                 Pandu Kala Manch, Mansa at Bathinda

10.              Ram Natak Club, Rama Mandi

11.              Ram Natak Club, Bathinda

 

Literary Societies. – Among the literary societies functioning in the district, the following deserve mention :-

 

Indian Peoples Theatre Association, Bathinda (IPTA). – It was established on 21 December 1978.  The object of this Association is to promote cultural and literary activities in the district by organizing literary and cultural programmes. It aims at publishing literary work of high merit produced by younger writers.  This Association is affiliated to the Indian People’s Theatre, Association, Punjab.

 

Sahitya Sangam (Regd.) Bathinda. – With a view to projecting the literary and cultural activities of Malwa region, Sahitya Sangam, Bathinda was established in 1979.  It is making useful contribution to the development of literature and language.  The main activities of Sahitya Sangam include encouragement to the budding writers and poets by organizing literary seminars.  It also inculcates and develops the habit of reading healthy literature and organize painting, musical shows, etc.

 

            Besides the above, the following literary societies also contribute to the promotion and encouragement of literary activities in the district :-

 

1.                 Punjabi Sahitya Sabha, Bathinda

2.                 Sahitya Sabha, Rampura Phul

3.                 Likhari Sabha, Mansa

4.                 Likhari Sahitya Sabha, Budhlada

5.                 Pandu Sahitya Sabha, Balianwali

6.                 Punjab Sahitya Sabhiachaak Manch, Bhucho Mandi

 

Periodicals

 

            For particulars regarding the periodicals, etc. published in the district, refer to Chapter XVIII, ‘Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organisations’.

 

(i)        Libraries

           

            The libraries are the temples of learning which enshrine wisdom of all ages and throw open wide vistas of knowledge to the seekers.  They help the people to develop their latent faculties and promote and spread education among themselves.  With the spread of education, more libraries have been set up.  Generally, every panchayat in the district maintains a library for the promotion of education and general knowledge among the masses in the rural areas.  All the high/higher secondary schools and colleges in the district have also their own libraries meant for the use of students and teachers.  The municipalities in the district, viz. Bhucho Mandi, Maur Mandi, Sangat, Budhlada, Goniana maintain their libraries and reading rooms for public use.  Of these, Bhucho Mandi Municipal Library is quire old and was established in 1908.  It has a good collection of books on various subject. These libraries also subscribe to a number of daily newspapers weeklies, fortnightlies and monthly magazines.

 

            In addition to above, there is a District Library at Bathinda which was set up in 1974. It is under the control of Education Department.  The library remains open for seven hours daily. It has a number of reference books to give adequate reference service to its readers.  It subscribes to 29 periodicals and 11 dailies. It contains about 11,00 printed volumes.

 

CHAPTER XVI

MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

 

(a)

Public Health and Medical Facilities in Early Times

(b)

Vital Statistics

©

Diseases Common to the Districts

(d)

Medical and Public Health Services

(e)

Sanitation

 

 

(a)       Public Health and Medical Facilities in Early Times

 

            In the ancient times, people in India mainly depended on Ayurvedic system of medicine for cure of various diseases.  This system was developed by Indian physicians who made extensive use of herbs for preparation of various medicines.  However, after the Alexander’s invasion of India in 326 B.C., the Unani system of medicine was also introduced in this country.  During the Muhammadan rule, the official patronage was given to Unani system and as a result, Ayurvedic system suffered a set back.  But the Ayurvedic system of medicine continued to be popular with the rural people, whereas the Unani system of medicine was also introduced, and in course of time it became more popular than the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine.

 

            During the British rule in India, most of the area of Bathinda District was part of the princely State of Patiala.  Hence the Allopathic system of medicine was introduced in the present Bathinda District by the rulers of Patiala.  A regular Medical Department was organized by Maharaja Mohinder Singh in 1873 and placed under Surgeon-Major C.M. Calthrop, the first Medical Adviser to the State, who also had charge of the vaccination work.  The Medical and Sanitary institutions and establishments of the Patiala State were under the direction of a Medical Adviser, who was an officer of the Indian Medical Service, lent by the officer of the Indian Medical Service, lent by the British Government. There was also a dispensary at Talwandi Sabo in charge of Hospital Assistant in connection with Irrigation Department1.

 

            In the past, people were mostly illiterate and backward, and as such they depended much on the methods of faith cure and quackery for the cure of various ailments.  But with the advancement of scientific education, people have now developed faith in scientific treatment.

 

            Of all the systems of medicine, today Allopathy is more popular on account of government patronage enjoyed by it during the past more than a century and a half. On 1 April 1989, there were 175 Allopathic Institutions in the district  comprising 18 hospitals; 5 community health centers; 35 primary health centers and 117 subsidiary health centers and clinics.

 

            The Ayurvedic and Unani systems are, however, liked by the people because of the simpler and familiar medicines prescribed.  The government is also giving due recognition to these systems.  On 31 March 1989, there were 38 Ayurvedic and 2 Unani dispensaries in the district.  Each Ayurvedic dispensary is under the charge of a Vaid, assisted by an Up-Vaid and 1 Dai, who is under the administrative control of the Director, Ayurvedic, Punjab.  During 1988-89, an expenditure of Rs. 34, 74,567 was incurred under the Ayurvedic and Unani systems.

 

            Homoeopathic system of medicine is also becoming popular and the government is encouraging this system and is setting up dispensaries at different placed in the State.  At present, 7 such dispensaries are functioning in the district, one each at Bathinda, Phul, Mansa, Goniana, Bhokhra, Jalal and Ghanda Banna.  During 1988-89, an expenditure of Rs. 5,15,636 was incurred under the Homoeopathic system in the Bathinda District.

 

(b)       Vital Statistics

 

            The satisfactory results achieved by the Health Department are reflected in reduced incidence of diseases, lower mortality both incase of infants and adults, longer expectation of life and alround better health of the community.  The birth rate, death and infantile mortality rate in the Bathinda District from 1972 to 1989, are given hereunder :

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

Phulkian   States   Gazetter,  1904 (Lahore, 1909),   p. 182

________________________________________________________________________

Year                           Birth                           Death                          Infantile mortality

(Calendar                    rate per                       rate per                       rate under one year

year)                           thousand                      thousand                      of age against per

                                   population                    population                    thousand live births

________________________________________________________________________

 

1972                                23.84                            7.41                                   49.05

1973                                23.04                            7.47                                   51.30

1974                                22.31                            7.20                                   43.68

1975                                22.73                            6.08                                   49.05

1976                                24.51                            6.81                                   37.49

1977                                21.94                            6.78                                   41.57

1978                                20.76                            6.42                                   38.55

1979                                22.32                            5.96                                   26.27

1980                                23.50                            6.20                                   23.32

1981                                23.60                            5.86                                   22.86

1982                                23.12                            6.79                                   18.82

1983                                19.99                            7.80                                   26.84

1984                                24.20                            8.10                                   22.36

1985                                29.6                             9.8                                     21.50

1986                                29.2                             9.4                                     58.5

1987                                28.9                             8.9                                     56.2

1988                                28.7                             8.7                                     56.7

1989                                28.1                             8.2                                     52.5

________________________________________________________________________

 

(Source : Director, Health and Family Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh and Civil Surgeon, Bathinda)

 

            The registration of vital statistics is compulsory. In the rural areas, the Chowkidars maintain the birth and death registers.  Similarly, these records are maintained by the municipalities in the urban areas.  In addition to many other advantages, the procedure provides a dependable record of the growth of population and, at the time helps to visualise the scope of measures to be taken to check the mortality rate and also to devise ways and means to use family-welfare measures.  The Civil Surgeon, Bathinda, compiles the data in the district.

 

            Important Causes of Mortality. – The important causes of mortality in the district are typhoid group diseases and injuries.  The statistics regarding some of the important causes of death in the Bathinda District, during 1977 to 1989, are given in Appendix I at the end of the Chapter.

 

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