(ii)              Area Under Fodder Crops

 

The grazing facilities which were available in the past have considerably decreased.  The permanent pastures and grazing lands where cattle were grazed have been utilized for agriculture.  With the deterioration of  grazing facilities, fodder crops have gained much importance.  The area under such crops was 60,720 hectares in 1988-89.  The important among the fodder crops are jowar (chari), guara, berseem, Oats (javi) and other fodder crops.

 

The following table gives the area under fodder crops in the district during 1977-78 and 1981-82 to 1988-89 :-

 

 

1981-82 Area under fodder crops in the district during 1977-78 and 1981-82 to 1988-89

 

 

Fodder Crops

Year

(Area in hectares)

 

1977-78

1981-82

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1988-89

Kharif Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jowar (chari)

25,784

23,025

9,008

20,887

17,763

28,644

28,574

26,172

22,760

Guara

1,551

1,889

30,145

46,357

36,224

1,751

1,274

2,733

1,120

Other Fodders

3,223

---

56,643

12,487

16,194

3,591

3,775

4,156

10,818

 

                       Total

30,568

24,914

95,796

79,731

70,181

33,992

33,623

33,061

34,698

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rabi Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berseam

10,815

13,457

---

---

---

15,343

15,002

15,175

15,749

Oats (Javi)

591

3,141

4,910

5,048

5,427

5,963

6,823

8,706

9,574

Other Fodders

9,309

11,499

16,190

19,453

14,773

1,310

1,107

1,068

907

 

         Total

20,715

28,097

21,100

24,501

20,200

22,616

22,932

24,949

26,230

 

                  Grand Total

51,283

53,011

1,16,896

1,04,232

90,381

15,608

56,555

58,010

60,928

 

(Source : Deputy Commissioner, Bathinda)

 

(iii)      Dairy Farming

 

Dairy occupies the foremost place as a subsidiary to the agrarian economy of the district.  There is hardly a household in rural area that does not own a few milch cattle.  Dairies, small and big, are found all over the district because milk is an important dietic component for a Punjabi.   Persons engaged in dairy need assured market, guaranteed price and regular lifting of milk from their doorsteps.  The setting up of milk plant at Bathinda has led to a built-in system for collection of milk from the rural milk producers.  Buffaloes and cows constitute the main source of the supply of milk.

 

According to Livestock census of 1977, there were 2,45,400 cows and 2,73,800 buffaloes in the Bathinda District.

 

(iv)      Sheep Breeding

 

Sheep rearing is generally pricked up by the weaker sections of the society.  The district is at the top in this field because some small and marginal farmers have also adopted it as their subsidiary occupation to supplement their income.  The climate of the district is conducive for sheep rearing and certain poorer section of the people traditionally take to the occupation.

 

The number of sheep and goats in the district was 1,29,900 and 1,08,100 respectively, according to 1977 Livestock Census.

 

(v)       Poultry Farming

           

            The eating habits of the people have changed considerably from vegetarian food to non-vegetarian food over past few years.  The government is also laying great emphasis for the development of poultry.  The poultry service centres functioning at Mansa and Rampura Phul are providing extension services to the poultry farmers of the district.  According to the Livestock Census of 1977, there were 1,75,300 poultry birds in the district.

 

(vi)      Fisheries

 

The operation of fish-culture on scientific and technical lines in the Bathinda District had started with the implementation of the First Five-Year Plan.  In order to assess the potentiality of fish-culture, a village to village survey of the district was conducted during the years 1963-64 to 1980-81.

 

The District Fisheries Officer, Bathinda is in charge of the fisheries in the district and its office was established during 1974-75. He is functioning under the administrative control of the Assistant Director Fisheries, Firozpur Circle, Firozpur.  The District Fisheries Officer, Bathinda is assisted by 2 Fisheries Officers (One each posted at Mansa and Nathana), 1 Clerk and 4 Fishermen, besides Class IV staff.

 

The main activities of the department in the district are conservation of fisheries’ resources and development of fish-culture in ponds and tanks, auctioning of the notified waters, canals and stocked ponds, survey of new ponds suitable for fish-culture and stocking thereof, production of fish seed of stockable varieties by induced breeding, providing assistance for adoption fish-culture to the interested persons especially weaker sections.

 

The fisheries resources of the district are running water and impounded water.  The running water resources constitute the Ghaggar River and canal within the boundary of the hectares water area was available for fish-culture in the district.

 

During 1988-89,the area stocked with fish was 109.03 hectares and income from fisheries in the district was Rs. 25,565.  Fish ponds brought under fish culture during 1988-89 were 102 and subsidy given to the farmers for adoption of fish culture was Rs. 44,100 lakhs during the same year.

 

(vii)     Animal Diseased and Veterinary Hospitals Animal Diseases

 

Animals suffer from a number of diseases in the district.  Tick-born diseases have been responsible for heavy morbidity and death of livestock.  Exotic and cross-bred cattle are particularly susceptible to these diseases.  The most common among the sheep and goats are as under :

 

Rinderpest (mogh wah) foot and mouth diseases (muh-khur), haemorrhagic septicaemia (gal ghotu), black-quarter (phersujna) and parasite diseases.  Among the sheep and goats, goiter and liver diseases are found.  Surra among the equines and camels is found.

 

            Veterinary Hospitals. – Both curative and preventive measures are taken by the technical staff of the Veterinary Department working in different veterinary hospitals/dispensaries in the district.

 

            In 1988-89, there were 66 veterinary hospitals and 86 permanent outlying dispensaries in the district which treated 2,04,244 cases (sick animals).  To prevent the diseases, as many as 3,58,712, vaccinations were performed/inoculated to the animals.  Besides, under the artificial insemination, 40,677 cows and 14,528 buffaloes were covered.  The list of veterinary hospitals and dispensaries in the district, as on 31 March 1989, is given in the following table :-

________________________________________________________________________

 

Veterinary Hospitals                                       Permanent Outlying Dispensaries

________________________________________________________________________

 

1.         Bathinda                                             1.         Gulabgarh

2.         Behman Dewana                                2.         Dan Singh Wala

3.         Kot Shamir                                         3.         Jandan Wala

4.         Baluana                                              4.         Kili Nihal Singh

5.         Nahian Wala                                      5.         Balahar Binjoo

6.         Mehma Sarja                                      6.         Kot Fattah

7.         Teona                                                7.         Maisar Khana

8.         Virk Kalan                                         8.         Pathrala

9.         Ghudda                                              9.         Nandgarh

10.       Sangat                                                10.       Bandi

11.       Jeeda                                                 11.       Laleana

12.       Sema                                                 12.       Chathe Wala

13.       Salabat Pura                                       13.       Ganga

14.       Mehraj                                               14.       Jodhpur Pakhar

15.       Talwandi Sabo                        15.       Swaitch Kamaloo

16.       Maur                                                  16.       Bhagi Bander

17.       Raman                                               17.       Behman Jassa Singh

18.       Rajgarh Kube                                     18.       Chak Ruldu Singh Wala

19.       Siekhpura                                           19.       Naruana

20.       Siengo                                                20.       Bhaini Ghuhar

21.       Malkana                                             21.       Mandi Kalan

22.       Pacca Kalan                                       22.       Kotha Guru

23.       Raike Kalan                                       23.       Raiya

24.       Natheha                                             24.       Kaloke

25.       Phul                                                   25.       Bhaini

26.       Bhucho Mandi                                    26.       Ghanda Bana

27.       Poohla                                                27.       Karar Wala

28.       Nathana                                             28.       Rampura

29.       Kalyan Sikha                                      29.       Raiya

30.       Chak Fateh Singh Wala                       30.       Maizia

31.       Lehra Mohabat                                   31.       Raila

32.       Rampura Phul                                     32.       Hodla Kalan

33.       Balian Wali                                         33.       Saide Wala

34.       Dhade                                                34.       Sadda Singh Wala

35.       Badiala                                   35.       Jawaharke

36.       Chowke                                             36.       Hero Kalan

37.       Bhagta                                               37.       Raipur

38.       Bhai Rupa                                          38.       Bhagwanpura

39.       Alike                                                  39.       Bhaini Bagha

40.       Jalal                                                   40.       Ramgarh Shahpurian

41.       Dhapali                                              41.       Reond Kalan

42.       Malooka                                             42.       Gurraddi

43.       Mansa                                                43.       Bakhshi Wala

44.       Bhikhi                                                44.       Chak Bhaika

45.       Joga                                                   45.       Kulrian

46.       Khiala Kalan                                      46.       Sangha

47.       Phaphre Bhaike                                  47.       Kanakwal Chehlan

48.       Jhunir                                                 48.       Bhodi Pura

49.       Mirpur Kalan                                      49.       Alisher Khurd

50.       Bajewala                                            50.       Kot Lallo

51.       Behniwal                                            51.       Kishangarh

52.       Fatta Maloke                                      52.       Sardulgarh

53.       Bhame Kalan                                     53.       Multania

54.       Budhlada                                            54.       Sivian

55.       Boha                                                  55.       Bhokhra

56.       Baretta                                               56.       Deon

57.       Vareh                                                57.       Siryewala

58.       Ubha Barj Dhillwan                            58.       Poohli

59.       Bachhoana                                         59.       Datewas

60.       Gobindpura                                         60.       Borewal

61.       Sardulgarh                                          61.       Tahlian

62.       Moffer                                               62.       Rangrial

63.       Kushla                                               63.       Dodra

64.       Bangi Deepa                                      64.       Kutiwal

65.       Dalel Wala                                         65.       Kalloh

66.       Khaire Kalan                                      66.       Jassi Pau Wali

67.              Jhumba Bhaike

68.              Bahoyatri

69.              Malwala

70.              Bangi Ruldu

71.              Bibi Wala

72.              Jassi Bag Wali

73.              Tung Wali

74.              Gobindpura

75.              Aklia Jalal

76.              Kesar Singh Wala

77.              Dyalpura Mirza

78.              Gumti Kalan

79.              Jethuke

80.              Nangal Kalan

81.              Atla Kalan

82.              Kheeva Khurd

83.              Sangreri

84.              Gurne Kalan

85.              Ahmandpur

86.              Alampur Mandran

________________________________________________________________________

 

(Source : Deputy Director, Animal Husbandry, Bathinda)

 

(e)              Forestry

 

The Bathinda District falls under the jurisdiction of the Divisional Forest Officer, Bathinda, whose office was established in September 1961. The jurisdiction of the division extends to the entire area of the district.  Bathinda Division has been divided into five ranges, viz. Bathinda, Talwandi Sabo, Rampura, Mansa and Bir Talab Range.  On 31 March 1989, Divisional Forest Officer was assisted by 1 Deputy Divisional Ranger, 2 Forest Rangers, 2 Deputy Rangers, 16 Foresters, 78 Forest Guards, 1 Superintendent, 1 Assistant, 8 Clerks, and 1 Jeep Driver, besides Class IV employees.

 

(i)                Importance of the Forestry in the Economy of the District. – The district is very close to Rajasthan desert and is known for high velocity dust-storms and shifting of sand dunes.  The district has a very hot summer. Therefore, higher importance attaches to forestry in this district than any other district of the State.  The plantation of trees has manifold the wind velocity and thus lowers the capacity of wind to carry away the soil.  The Rajasthan desert is also gradually shifting towards the district. Afforestation is the only way to check this shifting.  There are also several other indirect benefits from forests, as they increase the humidity of air and stabilize the temperature.

 

In the recent energy crisis, there is a marked increase in the demand of fuel wood.  Wood is also required for furniture making, house construction, agricultural implements, wooden boxes, etc.  Tall grasses especially kana is required for thatching.  Grass and tree levels are used as cattle feed.  Thorny bushes and branches of trees are extensively used for fencing of fields.  Keeping in view these needs, it was decided to bring more Government lands under the control of Forest Department for raising fuel and economic plantation.  Therefore, railway strips and the strips of national highways were put under the charge of Forest Department.  In 1966, Government decided to transfer the areas of the strips along all P.W.D. roads and canals to the Forest Department for afforestation.

 

Plants like shisham, neem, kikar, siris, eucalyptus are raised in a number of  forest nurseries for the raising of plantation in different forest areas.  The plants from these nurseries are also supplied to the public.

 

(ii)       Area Under Forests. – Soon after the transfer of various strips to the Forest Department, the area were got demarcated as protected forests under Section 29 of the Indian Forests Act, 1927. Systematic plantation work was started under the provision of Second Five-Year Plan when a scheme for strip plantations was prepared for carrying out planting along roads, rail and canal strips in the territory of PEPSU.  It was under the provision of this plan that planting was done from 1956-57 onwards on these strips.  Later on, a plantation scheme to cover the entire Punjab State was included in subsequent Third Five-Year Plan and Fourth Five-Year Plan.  The Forest Department carried out planting work to cover most of the blanks strips by tree crop.

 

            In 1988-89, the total area under forests in this district was 10,188 hectares which was divided into five ranges.  The range wise area during 1988-89 in the division is as under :

 

SN

Name of Range

Total Area

1.       

Bathinda

2,731

2.       

Talwandi Sabo

2,620

3.       

Rampura

2,315

4.       

Mansa

2,458

5.       

Bir Talab

64.40

 

Total

10,188

 

            The forests are categorised into three classes, viz. Protected Forests, Forests under Section 38 of Indian Forests act and Unclassed Forests.  The category-wise classification of the existing forests of the district is given in the following table :-

 

  Particulars

Area

(hectares)

(A)  Protected Forests

 

 

       (a)  Demarcated Protected Forests

 

 261

       (b) Undemarcated Protected Forests

 

 

            (i)   Canal-side Forests

5,764  }

 

            (ii)  Road-side Forests

2,067  }

9,103

            (iii) Forests along the sides of

                  Railway Line

1,272  }

 

(B)  Forests Under Section 38 of Indian

       Forests Act

---

---

(C)  Unclassed Forests

 

    760

                                                       Total

 

10,124

 

            Forest Produce. – Forest produce has been classified into types, viz. major forest produce and minor forest produce. Firewood and timber fall under the classification of major forest produce, while grasses fall under minor forest produce. Some revenue is also collected from the sale of saplings, stumps, etc. It is also included under minor forest produce for convenience. The annual income obtained from the sale of forest produce from 1977-78 to 1988-89, was as under :

 

Year

Major Produce

(Rs)

Minor Produce

(Rs)

 

1977-78

13,51,645

1,30,671

1978-79

17,67,600

   97,075

1979-80

16,52,805

1,29,791

1980-81

12,63,690

1,23,791

1981-82

46,55,305

1,35,091

1982-83

37,63,700

4,78,556

1983-84

27,01,660

5,70,475

1984-85

17,61,471

5,02,972

1985-86

  5,16,658

7,31,931

1986-87

18,01,786

9,11,666

1987-88

13,24,124

4,98,995

1988-89

14,97,979

4,46,222

 

(Source : Divisional Forest Officer, Bathinda)

 

(f)                Floods

 

The area of Bathinda District is not much affected by floods.  Floods are caused by overflowing of rivers or excessive rains. There is no major river flowing in the district. However, the Ghaggar River runs through the southern strip of Mansa Tahsil. It enters Mansa Tahsil at village Hengna and leaves it near village Rorki. The main volume of water into Ghaggar comes through a depression called Sunam Cho. The volume of water in the river is considerable during the rainy season and causes damage in the low-lying areas along its banks. The general drainage of the district was towards Ghaggar and the result was that flood water flowing from the surrounding areas of Firozpur, Faridkot and Sangrur districts found its way through the district.  Floods were causing great damage either sides of the drainage.  The government provided relief to the flood affected people in the shape of compensation/gratuitous grants and taccavi loans, remission or postponement of land revenue abiana etc.  But, the flood affects have decreased considerably owing to certain corrective steps of Drainage Department.  The department has been executing various flood control and drainage schemes under the master plan on flood control.  The department has constructed some drains.  These drains are helpful in controlling floods, to lower the water table of waterlogged areas, to make the land cultivable and to clear the blockages in the natural depressions which were formed prior to the canalization of the main chos and excavation  of drains with the construction of canals/distributaries and roads without providing proper drainage work.  The following table shows the damage caused by floods and heavy rains in the district during 1978 to 1987 :-

 

Damage caused to private property and area under crops, produce and its value due to floods during rainy season in the Bathinda District, 1978 to 1987

 

Year

Number of

Villages/towns

affected

 

Area affected

(sq. km)

Human lives lost

(number)

Cattle heads lost

(number)

Houses damages

 

Area affected

(hectares)

Value

(000’Rs)

1978

80

 81

--

--

  278

8,101

12,085

1979

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1980

52

 8

--

  7

  896

  834

   417

1981

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1982

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1983

45

--

--

--

2,056

28,113

27,072

1984

33

 28

--

--

    714

  2,797

   5,356

1985

            520

608

13

109

42,500

29,896

82,791

1986

28

116

--

--

--

11,628

--

1987

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

 

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1979 to 1987)

 

APPENDIX I

 

Area under principal crops in the Bathinda District, 1977-78 and 1981-82 to 1988-89

 

(Thousand hectares)

 

Crops

1977-78

1981-82

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1988-89

 

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

    3

  11

13

25

 55

46

44

39

31

Jowar

  0.1

  0.4

0.3

(a)

 (a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

Bajra

42.6

18.6

9.7

11.6

19.4

9.1

7.2

2.1

4.1

Maize

     9

   5

  4

     3

     3

2

   2

    1

   1

Wheat

 226

263

295

  309

 296

303

325

319

329

Barley

  5.9

 23

24.4

  19.8

13.0

13.4

 9.1

8.8

12.4

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

128

122

  71

    56

59.2

60.8

58.8

34.7

39.5

Mash

0.08

0.05

  .02

   .03

 .04

0.02

0.02

--

--

Moong

0.69

2.03

1.70

  2.02

2.49

3.79

3.97

1.46

2.15

Massar

  .36

0.58

0.62

  0.42

0.26

0.24

0.24

0.22

0.19

 

 

Crops

1977-78

1981-82

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1988-89

 

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Groundnut

1.9

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.8

0.6

Rape and Mustard

42.6

26.6

17.4

20.1

33.2

36.5

26.6

30

26

Sesamum

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

Linseed

--

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane 

3

2

2

2

1.9

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.7

Dry Chillies

0.39

0.24

0.32

0.33

0.16

0.23

0.26

0.14

0.11

Tobacco

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Potatoes

0.3

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

Cotton (American)

166.7

206.2

234.4

235.2

178.8

214.4

217.2

247.8

257.6

Cotton (Desi)

27.9

20.2

20.6

21.4

19.6

27.3

22.9

16.5

14.7

 

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1978 to 1989)

 

(a) Denotes less than 50 hectares.

 

 

APPENDIX II

 

Production of principal crops in the Bathinda District,

1977-78 and 1981-82 to 1988-89

 

(Thousand metric tonnes)

 

Crops

1977-78

1981-82

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1988-89

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

9

 36

47

96

185

153

151

127

95

Jowar

0.1

0.3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Bajra

52

24

10

11

19.2

7.7

6.7

1.7

4.4

Maize

14

  8

6

2

2

  3

   4

   1

.60

Wheat

        519

         768

         826

         701

830

         948

          820

         963

      10.40

Barley

8

47

35

27

19

24

 17

17

30

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

112

62

36

30

30.6

54.8

40.2

11.8

        40.5

Mash

0.1

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Moong

0.5

06.

1.4

1.8

2.4

3.4

3.8

1.1

2.2

Massar

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

 

 (Thousand metric tonnes)

Crops

1977-78

1981-82

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1988-89

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.6

Groundnut

3

1

(c)

--

1

1

1

1

1

Rape and Mustard

24

13

11

17

36

32

18

29

25

Sesamum

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Linseed

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane 

15

11

10

12

5

10

11

9

8

Dry Chillies

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.1

Tobacco

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Potatoes

6.6

10

4.0

4.0

--

--

--

4.4

5.4

Cotton (American)

65.35

74.03

73.84

49.15

80.99

93.26

116.42

124.64

119.02

Cotton (Desi)

10.18

6.52

6.15

3.57

6.80

9.61

7.49

4.90

4.14

 

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1978 to 1989)

 

(C)  Denotes less than 500 tonnes.

* Production of sugarcane in terms of gur.

 

CHAPTER V

INDUSTRIES

(a)

Old time Industries and Industrial Development

(b)

State Aid to Industries

©

Industrial Training

(d)

Industrial Areas and Estates

(e)

Sources of Power

(f)

Growth and Development of Industries

(g)

Industries and Manugactures of the District

(h)

Role of Industrial Co-operatives

(i)

Labour and Employers Organization

(j)

Welfare of Industrial Labour Appendix

 

(a)       Old-Time Industries and Industrial Development

 

The importance of industries in the modern national economy needs no emphasis.  The truth of the slogan ‘industrialise or perish’ has been well realized in the State.  Bathinda District has also been tracking the path of industrialisation, since the recent past.

 

            Agriculture has been the main occupation of the people of the district.  Cotton, wheat, mustard, gram, barley, etc. are the main crops of the district.  Accordingly, some agro-based industries like oil ghani, flour mills and cotton-ginning factories had been in operation in past.  Besides, some traditional industries like leather-training, shoe-making, ban making, pottery and handloom weaving were also prevalent in the Bathinda District.  At present, the district has made rapid industrial progress in respect of certain agro-based industries such as cotton-ginning and pressing, oil and oil cake, dal plant, flour mills, barley ghat, mill board and straw board, bread & biscuits, etc.  Leather and pottery industries have also been very popular throughout the district.  Desi jutti of Bathinda is still considered to be a special item of the small-scale industry of the district.

 

(b)       State Aid to Industries

 

            Ever since the setting up of Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant at Bathinda, the district is making rapid industrial progress.  New units, both large/medium and small-scale are coming up.  The availability of incentives/facilities extended by the State/Central Government for the development of industries units.  Bathinda is rapidly emerging as an industrial town.  One Urban Industrial Estate at Bathinda has already been set up by the Government.  There are two Industrial Focal Points developed by the government for the development of industries.  Plots in these focal points are allotted on 99 years lease-hold basis.  Mansa and Rampura Phul towns are also on the path of progress in the field of industrial development.

 

            Ever since the declaration of Bathinda District as a backward district in 1972, the liberalized industrial policy and incentives provided by the State/Central Government have been encouraging the development of new industries in the district.  Central subsidy at the rate of 15 per cent is given to the entrepreneurs who set up new industries subject to the maximum limit of Rs. 15 lakhs.  Moreover, interest free loan is also granted to the new industries for 8 years from the date of production of the unit.  As per policy of the Government, refund of octroi paid for the purchase of building material, machinery and raw materials is also allowed to these industrial units.  Exemption from the payment of electricity duty is also given to these units for 8 years from the date of commencement of production.  The District Industries Centre, Bathinda also sponsors the loan applications of new entrepreneurs to various financial institutions.

 

            The State Industries Department has several attractive schemes to encourage the industrialists for setting up new industrial units.  These include concessions regarding land, finance and capital, power, taxation and in the procurement of raw material, etc.  The department also provides technical guidance for starting new industries and imparts industrial training at various institutions.  The following table shows the amount of financial assistance given under the Punjab State Aid to Industries Act, 1935 for the development  of  small-scale  industries in  the  Bathinda  District,  during  1977-78  to 1988-89 :-

 

 

Year

Loans

Grants-in-aid and subsidy

 

 

No. of Units

Amount

(Rs)

No. of Parties

Amount

(Rs)

 

1977-78

43

2,50,000

10

    7,000

1978-79

51

2,50,000

21

    10,000

Year

Loans

Grants-in-aid and subsidy

 

 

No. of Units

Amount

(Rs)

No. of Parties

Amount

(Rs)

 

1980-81

16

   65,000

49

11,23,000

1981-82

14

  65,000

59

27,78,000

1982-83

--

  65,000

14

  6,10,000

1983-84

--

--

37

  7,97,000

1984-85

--

--

29

  5,45,000

1985-86

--

--

27

12,23,000

1986-87

--

--

35

12,47,000

1987-88

--

--

16

  6,34,000

1988-89

--

--

68

43,74,000

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1978 to 1989)

 

            Besides the above, other measures taken for the promotion of industries in the district are discussed below :

 

            (1)       Role of Quality Marking Industrial Development Centres. – The Department of Industries, Punjab, has also set up Quality Marking Industrial Development Centres in the district for providing facilities of testing, marking and all types of services to the manufacturers.  Quality control helps to secure uniformity of products.  These Centres facilitate constant improvement of processing in manufacturing.  The uniformity in specifications also facilitates the inter-changeability in the products.  Moreover, production cost can be reduced through continuous processing.

 

            (2)       Common Facility Workshops. – The Industries Department has set up four Common Facility Workshops at Bhikhi, Talwandi Sabo, Sangat and Gill Kalan in the rural area of the district.  These workshops provide common facility service at nominal charges to the artisans and farmers.  Training is also imparted to the rural artisans and educated unemployed persons in these workshops in different engineering trades under the Rural Industries Programme/Rural Artisans Programme.

 

            (3)       Other Organisations for the Development of Industries. – Besides the above mentioned facilities, there exist the following Organisations for the promotion of industries in the district :-

 

            (i)        The Punjab Small Industries & Export Corporation, Ltd., Chandigarh. – Established in March 1962, the Punjab Small Industries and Export Corporation has gradually matured into a multi-service agency designed to provide a variety of services and assistance to small-scale industries.  The main functions of the Corporation comprise procurement, storage, distribution of industrial raw materials, whether imported or indigenous and boosting the exports from the State.  It renders the needed help and guidance to exporters of the State in the small-scale sector.  The raw materials are distributed to those industrial units whose names are recommended by the Director of Industries, Punjab, Chandigarh through offices of the Department opened in various towns.  Iron and steel items are provided to the concerned units at the controlled price.  During 1988-89, the Corporation supplied 362 metric tons of iron and steel to 200 units and 130 metric tons of pig iron to 16 units in the district.

 

(ii)              The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation, Ltd., Chandigarh. – The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation was set up in 1966 under the Companies Act, 1956, in order to promote the industrial development.  It has played a significant role towards the development of industries in Bathinda District.  This district has been notified as a Centrally declared backward area and as a result, a lot of concessions are available to the industries to be set up in this district.  The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation, prefers to set up industries in backward areas declared as such by the Central and State Governments and hence, Bathinda District too has got this privilege.  It has also been designated as a second State level financial institution for disbursement of terms loans under the industrial development Bank of Inida’s Refinance Scheme since 1976.  The Corporation offers the facility of direct subscription/underwriting upto 15 per cent of the equity capital for projects in private sector.  Besides, the Corporation administers the Seed Capital Assistance Scheme of Industrial Development Bank of India, wherein eligible entrepreneurs can get upto 10 to 15 lakhs to fill up the gap, if any, in their contribution to the project cost.  The Corporation also acts as a disbursing agency under the Central subsidy to its promoted and assisted projects in centrally declared backward areas.

 

The Corporation has set up Punjab Spinning & Weaving Mills, Malwa Cottonseed Products Ltd., Punjab Ceramics Limited and Punjab Mohta Polytex Limited in the Bathinda District which are already in production.

 

The Corporation, besides setting-up of its own units in Bathinda District has also extended liberal financial assistance to the private sector units in this district.  Upto 31 March 1989, term loans amounting to Rs 390.30 lakhs were sanctioned by Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation to various private sector units in Bathinda District.

 

(iii)      The Punjab Financial Corporation, Chandigarh. – It was established in 1953 under the State Financial Corporation Act, 1951, with the object of providing medium and long-term loans for setting up new industries in the State.  A branch of the Corporation is also functioning at Bathinda for the convenience of the entrepreneurs.

 

The Punjab Financial Corporation advances loans from Rs 20 to Rs 30 lakhs under the various schemes to the small-scale and medium-scale units.  It provides finance to new units for creation of fixed assets and to existing units for expansion or modernization. The rate of interest varies from 10.25 per cent to 16 per cent per annum depending on the size and location of the unit.

 

The Corporation lays special emphasis on the development of small-scale industries and to foster the growth of industry in backward areas of the State.  The benefit of concessional rate of interest on loans is granted to industrial units after availment of refinance from the Industrial development Bank of India.  The corporation also disburses Central subsidy to the units located in notified backward areas.

 

The amount of loans sanctioned and disbursed by the Corporation in Bathinda District during 1977-78 to 1988-89 is given below :

 

(Rs in lakhs)

 

Year

Sanctions

Disbursement

 

1977-78

  88.67

78.08

1978-79

  86.73

42.04

1979-80

  75.24

63.57

1980-81

105.24

94.71

1981-82

141.06

87.12

1982-83

201.42

                178.36

1983-84

  99.73

                138.42

1984-85

  27.05

72.04

1985-86

  47.89

46.27

1986-87

297.42

83.47

1987-88

535.39

                323.87

1988-89

326.98

                255.70

 

(Source :  Punjab Financial Corporation, Chandigarh)

 

            (iv)      The Small Industries Service Institute, Ludhiana.  – Set up in 1956 by the Government of India, the Small Industries Service Institute, Ludhiana, has its regional office at Ludhiana, with jurisdiction over the States of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Union Territory of Chandigarh.  The Institute provides technical counseling, training, preparation and distribution of technical literature in the form of technical bulletins, drawing and designs and economic information service.  The industrial management advice, marketing and rendering common facilities in the workshop and laboratories of the Institute and its extension centres are also included in the scope of its activities.

 

            This Institute has promoted the growth and development of industries in Bathinda District in a number of ways.  Action Plan was prepared in 1978-79 on the basis of a techno-economic survey of the district.  The Action Plan, besides giving background information on the district, brought out a list of industries having scope for development, demand and ancillary potential.

 

            On the basis of above survey, an industrial campaign was held in March 1979 in collaboration with the District Industries Centre, Bathinda to provide entrepreneurs.  Registration of new industries was done after on the spot scrutiny of the projects which were approved by the banks there and then.  This gave a big fillip to the growth of industries in the district.

 

            In addition to above, the Institute is continuously extending technical and economic assistance to the existing industries of the district to resolve their problems including industrial sickness and modernization.

 

(c)       Industrial Training Institutes

 

            The industrial training programme in the Punjab received an impetus under the Government of India’s programme. The Department of Technical Education and Industrial Training, Punjab imparts industrial, technical and vocational training to boys and girls through its various industrial training schools/institutes/centres.

 

            There are two Government Industrial Training Institutes in the district, one each at Bathinda and Budhlada, where training in engineering and non-engineering trades is given to trainees.  Besides, there is one Government Industrial School for women at Rampura Phul where training in cutting and tailoring and embroidery is imparted Teacher’s Training Institute for women at Bathinda.

 

            The detailed particulars regarding the different Government Industrial Training Institutes in the district are given in the following statement :-

 

Government Industrial Training Institutes in the Bathinda District

Number of Seats Sanctioned Trade-wise, during 1988-89

 

Sr. No.

Name  of    the  Institute

Year of establishment

Duration

Name of Trade/Course

Number of  Seats

1.

Industrial Training

1963-64

Two Years

1  Fitter

32

 

Institute Bathinda

 

Do

2  Turner

36

 

 

 

Do

3  Machinist

24

 

 

 

Do

4  Mechanic Radio &  Television

32

 

 

 

Do

5  Mechanic Motor  Vehicle

32

 

 

 

Do

6  Electrician

48

 

 

 

Do

7  Wireman

32

 

 

 

Do

8  Machinist (Grinder)

24

 

 

 

Do

9  Mechanic Instrument

32

 

 

 

Do

10 Mechanic  Refrigerator & Air Conditioning

16

 

 

 

Do

11 Draftsman (Civil)

16

 

 

 

Do

12 Draftsman (Mechanical)

16

 

 

 

Do

13 Surveyor

16

 

 

 

One Year

14 Forger & Heat Treatment

16

 

 

 

Do

15 Carpenter

32

 

 

 

Do

16 Moulder

16

 

 

 

Do

17 Sheet Metal Worker

16

 

 

 

Do

18 Welder (g)

12

 

 

 

Do

19 Tractor Mechanic

32

 

 

 

Do

20 Stenography (English)

32

 

 

 

Do

21 Stenography (Punjabi)

16

 

 

 

 

                     Total

528

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Industrial Training

1963-64

Two Years

1  Fitter

16

 

Institute, Budhlada

 

Do

2  Turner

24

 

 

 

Do

3  Machinist (Domp)

24

 

 

 

Do

4 Machinist (Grinder)

12

 

 

 

Do

5 Wireman

32

 

 

 

Do

6 Electrician

48

 

 

 

Do

7 Motor Vehicle Mechanic

32

 

 

 

Do

8  Mechanic Radio & Television

16

 

 

 

Do

9  Mechanic Refrigerator Air Conditioning

16

 

 

 

Do

10 Draftsman (Civil)

16

 

 

 

One Year

11 Welder (Gas &  Electric)

12

 

 

 

Do

12 Moulder

16

 

 

 

Do

13 Tractor Mechanic

16

 

 

 

Do

14 Book binder

16

 

 

 

Do

15 Stenography (English)

32

 

 

 

Do

16 Stenography (Punjabi)

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Total   :

360

 

(Source :   Director of Technical Education and Industrial Training, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

(d)       Industrial Areas and Estates

 

            The scheme for the establishment of industrial estates was lunched in the State with the object of dispersing industries to economically backward areas and creating conditions for planned industrial growth.

 

            Industrial Estate, Bathinda. –There is one industrial estate at Bathinda, which has industrial sheds of ‘A’ type (550 square yards each) and ‘B’ type (2,916 square yards each) for various type of industrial activities.

 

            Industrial Focal Points. –There are two industrial focal points developed by the Government for the development of industries.  Thirty-six plots of 1,000 square yards each have been allotted to new entrepreneurs on 99 years lease hold basis in the old focal points situated near Industrial Training Institute, Bathinda.  Similarly, at Industrial Focal Point, Dabwali Road, Bathinda, 89 out of 102 plots of different sizes have been allotted to new entrepreneurs.  The remaining 13 plots have been reserved for non-Indian residents/Scheduled Castes for priority industries.

 

(e) Source of Power

 

            The various sources of power used in the district were wood-fuel, coal and water.  But in modern times, the main source of power is electricity.  The Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Bathinda is a very significant source of power in the district.  Besides providing employment potentials to thousand of workers, it has converted the backward industrial township because of enough supply of power from it.  Besides, some more areas have been chosen for tapping additional renewable energy, viz. solar energy for cooking and heating purposes, bio-gas for home and agriculture, briquetting for replacing coal windmills (wind power) and photo-voltaic cells (solar energy).

 

            Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Bathinda. – Ever widening gap between power demand and its availability was one of the basic reasons for envisaging the Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant for the State of Punjab.  The other factors favoring the installation of the thermal power station were low initial cost and comparatively less gestation period as compared hydro-electric generating stations.  The foundation stone of Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant at Bathinda was laid on 19 November 1969 on the auspicious 500th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev.

 

            The historic town of Bathinda was selected for this first and prestigious thermal power project of the State due to its good railway connections for quick transportation of coal, availability of canal water and proximity to load center.

 

            The total installed capacity of the power station is 440 MW with four units of 110 MW each.  The first unit of the plant was commissioned in September 1974.  Subsequently second, third and fourth units started production in September 1975, March 1978, and January 1979, respectively.  The total power available from this plant meets as much as 40-45 per cent of total power requirement of Punjab to spin the wheels of industry and agricultural pumping-sets.

 

            Bathinda District is served by the Bathinda Circle of Punjab State Electricity Board.  All the villages/towns have been electrified since 1971.  the total number of industrial consumers, as on 31 March 1989 (category-wise), is given below :

________________________________________________________________________

            Category                                                        Number of industrial                           

                                                                                            Consumers

            Small Power                                                                   3,139                                

            Medium Supply                                                                  369

Large Supply                                                                       74

                                                                     Total                       3,582

 

(Source; Executive Engineer (Tech.) DS Circle, Punjab State Electricity Board,

   Bathinda)

 

(f) Growth and Development of Industries

 

            Though Bathinda is a backward district, yet it has a good industrial development potential.  Bathinda the headquarters town of the district, is one of the biggest railway junctions in the State connecting Punjab with the States of Haryana and Rajasthan and Union Territory of Delhi.  Seven rail lines branch out in different from here.

 

            The district has been declared industrially backward by the Government of India and is eligible for capital subsidy at the rate of 15 per cent for new units.  The area is also eligible for concessional finance from the financial institutions.  In addition, concessions like exemptions from income tax for profits earned by industries also give incentives to the growth and development of industries.  The facilities like priority in the allotment of raw material and machinery also exist.

 

            Traditional skills available in the district include shoe-making, ban and rope making, carpentry, blacksmithy, handloom weaving, etc.  Of these, shoe-making or jutti making is quite popular and famous for its quality of work.  The activity is dispersed in various towns and villages of the district, but its major concentration is at Mansa.  Cottage units make desi shoes and market them not only in the district, but also in the contiguous area of Haryana and Rajasthan.  Ban making is concentrated in Bathinda town where about 400 families are engaged in this activity.  Industrial activity in the district is fast picking up.  The number of registered factories which

 

            Ever since the setting up of Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant at bathinda, the district is making rapid industrial progress.  Prior to that, there was insignificant industrial activity.  New units, both large/medium and small-scale are coming up.  Another factor which has been helpful in the growth of industrial sector in this backward district, is the new industrial policy announced by the State Government.

 

            The availability of incentive, viz.  15 per cent central subsidy has immensely helped the industrial development in the district.  Quite a number of entrepreneurs have been attracted by the incentive/facilities extended by the State/Central Government.

 

(g)       Industries and Manufactures of the District

 

            The industries in the district may be classified under three broad heads, viz. large and medium-scale, small-scale and cottage and village industries.  A brief description of some of the important industries of the district is given below:

(i)                Large and Medium-scale Industries

 

Besides Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Bathinda, whose description has already

been given earlier large and medium-scale industries in the district: --

 

(i)                Roshan Lal Oil Mills Limited, Bathinda. – It was established at Bathinda on Mansa Road in 1974,with 40 tons per day capacity.  In a short span of 10 years, the unit has successfully carried out three expansions/modernization schemes by increasing the capacity of oilseed crushing unit to 100 tons per day in 1976-77.  In the year 1978, a Vegetable Oil Refinery of 15 tons per day capacity was further increased to 30/35 tons per day during 1985-86.  A continuous automatic Solvent Extraction Plant of 40/60 tons per day capacity was established in 1978-79 and its capacity was further increased to 100/150 tons per day during 1985-86.

 

The capital cost of the project is about Rs 327.24 lakhs.  The labour strength is

about 300 workers.  The company is recognized as an ‘Export House’.  Its products are also exported to South Korea, USSR, German Democratic Republic of Taiwan.  It produced goods worth Rs 5645.40 lakhs from 10 October 1987 to 31 March 1989 and exported goods worth Rs 94.58 lakhs.

 

            (2)       National Fertilizers Limited, Bathinda. – It came into being on 23 August 1974.  The capital cost of the project is Rs 240.46 crores with a foreign exchange component of Rs 71.85 crores.  It started its production in 1979.  Kisan urea, the main product of this plant is ideally suited to all crops grown on all types of soils.  It is a highly concentrated nitrogenous fertilizer with 46 per cent nitrogen.  It does not leave any harmful residue in soil and has a quick and lasting effect on plants.  The other products of the plant are ammonia and sulphur as by-product.  This giant project after attainting full production would increase the production of foodgrains to the tune of 2.3 million tones and will save cost on import of fertilizers.  During 1988-89, the total capital employed by the unit was Rs 19,162,18 lakhs and produced fertilizer worth Rs 16,407,29 lakhs and gave employment to 1,085 persons.

 

            (3)       Milk Plant, Bathinda. – The Milk Plant, Bathinda was commissioned in September 1974 with a capital investment of Rs 106.9 lakhs.  It functions under the Punjab State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Limited, popularly known as Milkfed.  During the past five years, the milk procurement of the plant has gone up from 60 lakhs liters in 1988-89.  Milk supply in the town has been increased from 10 lakh liters to more than 28.2 lakh liters, during the same period.  Production of ghee registered an increase from 368 metric tons in the year 1980-81 to 435.3 in the year 1988-89.  Production of skimmed milk powder decreased from 388 metric tons in 1980-81 to 45.4 metric tons in the year 1988-89.  Apart from sales network in all the important towns of the State and major cities outside the State, the plant is catering to inmates of Bathinda through four milk bars and six milk booths and 15 other retail sale milk-cake, paneer, lassi and sweetened flavoured milk through its milk bars/dealers.

 

            During 1988-89, the total capital employed by the plant was Rs 611.70 lakhs.  It produced goods worth Rs 715.30 lakhs and gave employment to 434 persons.  Moreover, around 550 villages level co-operatives which are contributing milk to this plant are giving direct employment to an equal number of employees in the villages.  The Milk Plant is also providing milk market to dairy owners of the districts who are members of the co-operative milk societies.

 

 

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