(4)       Punjab Ceramics Limited, Bathinda. —It was established in 1977 to meet the demand of Electricity Boards of the northern States of India for H.T.  Insulators.  It has been established with imported technology from U.S.A. The major plant and machinery have been imported from U K and U S A.  It is the only plant in the northern States with automatic process to produce good quality product.  The main purchasers of the products are the State Electricity Boards, Railways and manufacturers of transformers.

 

            The plant came into commercial production on 1 October 1984.  It produced goods worth Rs 4.10 crores and gave employment to 437 persons during 1988-89.  The total capital employed in the unit amounted to Rs 7.82 crores during the same year.

 

            (5)       Punjab Spinning and Weaving Mills Limited, Bathinda. – Bathinda is suitable for establishing the spinning mills as it is a cotton growing belt.  The Punjab Spinning and Weaving Mills Limited Bathinda went into production in 1979 with capital investment of Rs 668.50 lakhs and has the capacity of 43,142 spindles.  During 1988-89, the total capital invested by the unit was Rs 711.12 lakhs.  The unit provided employment to 1,603 persons during the same year.

 

            (6)       Chhatar Extractions Private Limited, Bathinda. – It was establishment at Bathinda on Dabwali road in 1980 with a capital investment of Rs 82.50 lakhs.  During 1988-89, the total capital employed by the unit was Rs 168.12 lakhs.  Its capacity of utilization is 150 metric tons rice bran per day.  The main source of raw material are the rice shellers of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, etc.  The oil extracted from rice bran is sold to the vanaspati manufactures and to the soap manufactures.  The rice baran extraction is exported to Czechoslovakia, worth Rs 5.44 lakhs during 1988-89.  About 100 persons were employed by this unit.

 

            (7)       Malwa Cotton Seed Products Limited, Doomwali. –  It was established with capital investment of about Rs 109 lakhs in 1979 at village Doomwali, on Malout Bathinda bye-pass, situated at about a distance of 40 km from Bathinda and 1 km from Mandi Dabwali.  It is under the joint management of Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation and Punjab Agro industries Corporation.

 

            The main object of establishing this plant at Doomwali is to promote the economy of this backward district.  The main raw material, i.e. cotton seed and rice bran are available in plenty from the surrounding area.  The plant is centrally located in the cotton belt of Northern India.

 

            (8)       Roshan Lal Paper Mills (P) Ltd., Bathinda. – It was established on Mansa Road, Bathinda in 1980 and the unit went into production in February 1982 with the capital investment of Rs 56.58 lakh.  The installed capacity of the mill is 1,500 metric tons of paper annually.  The main product of the mill is white paper and the wheat and rice straw is utilised as raw material to manufacture the paper.  The product is mainly marketed in Haryana and Dehli.  During 1988-89, the total capital employed by the unit was Rs 165.98 lakhs and it produced 3920.3 metric tons of paper.  It provided employment to around 100 persons during the same year.

 

            (9)       Munak Chemicals Limited, Bathinda. –  It was established at Bathinda on Dabwali Road in July 1984 with a production capacity of 66,000 TPA of single super phosphate and 33,000 TPA and 56,100 TPA, respectively in 1987.  The capital investment of the company as on 31 March 1989 was Rs 956 lakhs.  During 1988-89, it produced goods worth Rs 1,281 lakhs and gave employment to 259 persons.

 

            (10)     The Bhupendra Flour Mills Limited, Bathinda. –This unit came into being in 1945.  Its authorized capital was Rs 15 lakhs.  The raw material required by the unit is wheat.  The main products are atta, maida, rawa/sooji and bran.  During 1988-89, it produced goods worth Rs 108 lakhs and gave employment to 34 persons.

 

            (11)     The Mansa Co-operative Spinnings Mills Limited, Mansa. – It was established in co-operative sector in 1982 and went into production in 1984 with the authorized capital of Rs 1,050 lakhs.  The total capital investment of this unit up to 31 March 1989 was Rs 1,005,37 lakhs.  The cotton is used as raw material, which is available in abundance in this area, as Mansa is located in cotton growing belt.  It produced goods worth Rs 663,62 lakhs and provided employment to 1,168 persons during 1988-89.  The cotton yarn produced by the mill was exported to U K and Italy worth Rs 2.93 lakhs during 1987-88.

 

 

            (12)     Markfed Cotton Ginning and Pressing Factory, Goniana. – The Punjab State Co-operative Supply and Marketing Federation Limited (MARKFED), Chandigarh established a Cotton Ginning and Pressing Factory at Goniana in November 1976, in co-operative sector.  The installed capacity of the unit is 30,000 bales per year.  The total investment as on 31 March 1989 was Rs 29.9 lakhs.  The factory is doing custom work for ginning and pressing of cotton received from Cotton Corporation of India and Markfed Cotton Cell, Bathinda.  During 1988-89, the unit did custom work worth Rs. 19.55 lakhs and gave employment to 14 persons.

 

            (13)     Punjab Mohta Polytex Limited, Bathinda. – It was established in 1983 with capital investment of Rs 11.19 lakhs.  Out of the licenced capacity of 22,608 spindles and 504 rotors, it started its commercial production on 1 November 1989 with 9,504 spindles and 504 rotors.  The utilization of its capacity was increased to 22,464 spindles in 1986.  Cotton is used as raw material and its main product is cotton yarn.  The turnover of the company during 1988-89 (for 10 months) was Rs 1600.83 lakhs and it gave employment to 700 persons.  It exported cotton yarn to Belgium Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Italy and U K worth Rs 97.79 lakhs during 1988-89.

 

(i)                Small-Scale Industries

 

The different types of registered working small-scale units in the district as on 31

March 1989 are detailed below:

 

(1)       Edible Oil. – There were 32 units engaged in the extraction of edible oil in the district.  These units employed 226 workers and produced edible oil worth Rs 155.65 lakhs during 1988-89.

 

(2)       Ice Factories. – In 1988-89, there were 30 ice factories in the district.  These employed 147persons and produced ice worth Rs 45.55 lakhs during the year.

 

(3)       Spices. – There are only 8 registered units engaged in the production of spices in the district.  These are engaged with the grinding of whole spices such as pepper, coriander seeds, red chillies, mango powder, turmeric, etc.  And market them after packing in small packets.  During 1988-89, these produced goods worth Rs 3.25 lakhs and gave employment to 31 persons.

 

(4)       Soft Drinks. – In 1988-89, there was only one unit engaged in the production of soft drinks.  It employed 6 persons and bottled soft drinks worth Rs 13 lakhs.

 

(5)       Biscuits. – In 1988-89, there were only 7 units engaged in the production of biscuits in the district which marketed their product is glucose biscuits, while other kinds of biscuits are also produced.  These units employed 27 persons and produced biscuits worth Rs 60.40 lakhs during 1988-89.

 

            (6)       Wooden Furniture and other Wooden Products. – There were 335 units engaged in the manufacture of various kinds of wooden furniture such as wooden pawas, wooden creates, etc.  in the district.  During the year 1988-89, these units manufactured furniture worth Rs 182.90 lakhs and provided employment to 930 persons.

 

(7)       Tractor Parts. – In 1988-89, there were 35 units engaged in the manufacture of tractor trollies and wheat threshers in the district.  These produced goods worth Rs 188.97 lakhs and gave employment to 128 persons during the same year.

 

            (8)       Diesel Engine Parts. – In 1988-89, there were only 3 units engaged in the manufacture of diesel engine parts in the district.  During the same year, these units employed 16 persons and produced diesel engine parts worth Rs 9.70 lakhs.

 

(9)       Desert Coolers/Room Coolers. – In 1988-89, there were 27 units engaged in the manufacture of desert coolers/room coolers in the district.  These units produced goods worth Rs 76.20 lakhs and employed 107 persons.

 

            (10)     Transformers and Electric Motors. – In 1988-89, there were 13 units engaged in the manufacture of transformers and electric motors in the district.  These units produced goods worth Rs 114.50 lakhs and gave employment to 41 persons.

 

            (11)     Enamelled Wire. – In 1988-89, there was only 1 unit engaged in the manufacture of enameled wire in the district.  It produced enamelled wire worth Rs 94.70 lakhs and employed 9 persons during the same year.

 

            (12)     Ceiling Fans, Bulbs and Electrical Household Appliances. –39 Units engaged in the manufacture of ceiling fans and electric bulbs, etc.  In the district during 198-89.  These units employed 213 persons and produced goods worth Rs 57.45 lakhs.

 

            (13)     Railway Components. – In 1988-89, there were only 2 units engaged in the manufacture of railway components and produced goods like railway trains, fitting, rail pad, cotter pin, steel ball, etc.  They produced goods worth Rs 490 lakhs and employed 20 persons during the year.

 

            (14)     Fuel Pumps/Gear Boxes. – In 1988-89, there were 2 units engaged in the manufacture of fuel pumps/gear boxes in the district which employed 10 persons and produced goods worth Rs 3.70 lakhs.

 

            (15)     Paper Bags. – Only 4 units were engaged in the manufacture of paper bags in the district.  The main raw material required for this industry is coloured paper.  These units produced goods worth Rs 7.10 lakhs and employed 13 persons during the year 1988-89.

 

            (16)     Straw Board. – In 1988-89, there was only 1 unit engaged in the manufacture of card board.  This unit produced card board worth Rs 6.65 lakhs and gave employment to 10 persons during the same year.

 

            (17)     Die Block Printing.  There was only one unit engaged in the manufacture of die blocks during 1988-89.  The die blocks are used for the printing of namdas chaddars, khes, etc.  It produced blocks worth Rs 1.10 lakh and employed only 2 persons during 1988-89.

           

            (18)     Leather Goods. – Shoe making is an important industry of the district.  During 1988-89, there were 265 units engaged in the manufacture of shoes.  These units mainly manufcture juties, chappals, gurgabies, traveling goods, purses etc.  The raw material required for this industry is calf leather, dhori, chrome, etc.  During 1988-89,these units produced goods worth Rs 48.65 lakhs and gave employment to 506 persons.

 

            (19)     Tyre Retreading. – In 1988-89, there were 13 units engaged in the tyre retreading work.  These units gave employment to 71 persons and did business worth Rs 68.00 lakhs during the same year.

 

            (20)     PVC Footwear. – There were 3 units engaged in the manufacture of PVC footwear like hawai chappals and plastic shoes.  During 1988-89, these units produced goods worth Rs 6.10 lakhs and gave employment to 64 persons.

 

            (21)     Compound Rubber. – There were 2 units engaged in the manufacture of compound rubber.  The items manufactured by these units include rubber sheets that are used for tyre retreading and as sole for shoes.  These units employed 19 persons and produced compound rubber worth Rs 43 lakhs during 1988-89.

 

            (22)     Washing Soap and Cleaning Powder. – In 1988-89, there were 75 and 3 units engaged in the manufacture of washing soap and cleaning powder respectively, in the district.  These units are mostly located in urban/suburban areas of the district.  For running these industries, not much machinery is required.  Only bhatties, karahas, tanks, moulds and patterns are required.  These units also produce pure (nirol) variety of soap in which no tallo and sodium silicate is used.  During 1988-89, these industries produced goods worth Rs 337.05 and Rs 5.05 lakhs and gave employment to 314 and 9 persons, respectively.

 

            (23)     Ink and Sodium Silicate. – Sodium silicate is one of the items of raw materials for manufacture of soap.  The machinery required for the manufacture of sodium silicate consists of tanks, furnaces, boilers and other miscellaneous equipments.  The main items of raw materials required for manufacture of sodium silicate are sods ash, silicate sand, besides other chemicals and coal. In 1988-89, there were 3 units engaged in making sodium silicate and provided employment to 5 persons and produced good worth Rs 31.25 lakhs.

 

            (24)     Cement Jalies and R.C.C. Pillars. –In 1988-89, there were 21 units engaged in the manufacture of cement jalies.  Cement jalies are fixed in the buildings for ventilation purposes. The main raw material required for this industry is cement, sand and wire.  These units produced cement jalies, etc. worth Rs 331.0 lakhs and provided employment to 854 workers.

 

            (25)     C.I. Casting. – During 1988-89, there were 22 units engaged in C.I. casting in the district.  The main products of this industry are C.I. pipes, main hole-covers, moulded  pots for different machines, etc.  During 1988-89, these units produced goods worth Rs 166.40 lakhs and gave employment to 96 persons.

 

(26)     Ammonia  Roll. – There was only one unit engaged in the production of Ammonia Roll in the district.  It provided employment to 3 persons and produced Ammonia Roll worth Rs. 8.18 lakhs during 1988-89.

 

(27)     Steel Almirah and Furniture and Allied Products. – In 1988-89, there were 117 units engaged in the manufacture of steel almirah, trunks, petties, baskets, etc.  The main material required in this industry is iron sheets of different gauges, iron rivets, welding machines, etc.  During 1988-89, these units produced goods worth Rs. 184.49 lakhs and gave employment to 397 persons.

 

(28)     Sanitary Fittings. – There was only one unit engaged in the production of sanitary cans and fittings in the district.  It produced goods worth Rs. 45.15 lakh and gave employment to 6 persons during 1988-89.

 

(29)     Agricultural Implements. – In 1988-89, there were 441 units engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements and machines in the district.  These units are mainly located at Mansa, Budhlada, Sardulgarh, Rampura Phul and Goniana.  The improved agricultural implements manufactured by these units included tractor trollies, camel carts, dis-harrows, etc.  Besides other traditional implements are also manufactured by these units.  In 1988-89, these units produced goods worth Rs. 519.09 lakhs and gave employment to 1,250 persons.

 

(30)     Breed. – In 1988-89, there were 19 bread manufacturing units in the district.  These units gave employment to 88 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 27.65 lakhs during the year.

 

(31)     Rice Shellers. – In 1988-89, there were 45 rice shellers in the district.  These employed 699 persons and produced rice worth Rs. 3320.33 lakhs during the year.

 

(32)     Ice Cream.  In 1988-89, there were 6 units engaged in the production of ice cream in the district.  These units employed 27 persons and produced ice cream worth Rs. 15.20 lakhs during the year.

 

(33)     Ready-made garments. – In 1988-89, there were 35 units engaged in the manufacture of various types of ready-made garments in the district.  These units employed 96 persons and produced ready-made garments worth Rs. 15.85 lakhs during the year.

 

(34)     Candle Manufacturing. – In 1988-89, there were 12 units engaged in the manufacture of candles in the district.  These units gave employment to 39 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 50.05 lakhs during the same year.

 

(35)     Medicines. – In 1988-89, there were 4 units engaged in the manufacture of medical syrup in the district.  It employed 157 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 181.30 lakhs during the same year.

 

(36)     Brick-kilns. – In 1988-89, there were 24 units engaged in the manufacture of bricks and tiles in the district.  It employed 657 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 224.40 lakhs during the same year.

 

(37)     Lime Manufacturing.  – In 1988-89, there were 14 units engaged in the manufacture of lime in the district. It employed 76 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 35.97 lakhs during the same year.

 

(38)     S.W. Pipes. – There were 3 units engaged in the manufacture of S.W. pipes in the district during 1988-89.  It gave employment to 56 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 50.15 lakhs during the same year.

 

(39)     M.S. Wire. – In 1988-89, there were 3 units engaged in the making of M.S. wire in the district.  These units gave employment to 14 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 49.30 lakhs during the same year.

 

(40)     Aluminium Utensils. – There were 5 units engaged in making aluminium utensils in the district during the year 1988-89.  It gave employment to 22 persons and produced goods worth Rs 56.35 lakhs during the same year.

 

(41)     Mating Wire and Electrodes. – In 1988-89, there were only 2 units in the district.  These units gave employment to 21 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 112.90 lakhs during the same year.

 

(42)     Lift Pump and Voltage Stabilizers. – In 1988-89, there were 4 units engaged in the manufacture of these items in the district.  These units gave employment to 32 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 37.90 lakhs during the same year.

 

(43)     Motor and Auto Rickshaw Parts. – In 1988-89, there were 7 units engaged in the manufacture of motor and auto rickshaw parts in the district.  These units employed 33 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 66.35 lakhs during the same year.

 

(44)     Rubber Conveyer Belt, Rubber Feeders and Nipples. – In 1988-89, there were 4 units engaged in the manufacture of rubber conveyer belt and rubber feeder and nipples in the district.  It employed 24 persons and produced goods worth Rs 26.30 lakhs during the same year.

 

(45)     Polythene Bags. – In 1988-89, there were 7 units engaged in the manufacture of polythene bags in the district.  These gave employment to 30 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 18.80 lakhs during the same year.

 

(46)     P.V.C. Pipe. – There were 3 units engaged in making P.V.C. pipes in the district during the year 1988-89.  These units gave employment to 70 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 3.40 lakhs during the same year.

 

(47)     Special and Alloy Steel Casting. – In 1988-89, there was only one unit o special and alloy steel casting in the district.  It employed 59 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 93.15 lakhs during the same year.

 

(48)     Nuts and Bolts. – In 1988-89, there were only 2 units engaged in the manufacture of nuts and bolts in the district.  It gave employment to 10 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 28.45 lakhs during the same year.

 

(49)     Ginning Parts.  In 1988-89, there were 7 units engaged in the manufacture of parts of ginning machines in the district.  It gave employment to 57 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 143.50 lakhs during the same year.

 

(iii)      Cottage and Village Industries

 

            To ameliorate the lot of weaker section of the rural society, the Government is taking deep interest in setting up village and cottage industries.  These industries serve dual purpose of  providing employment in the rural areas and bettering the economic lot of the inhabitants of the villages.  The government is laying much stress in the growth and development of cottage and village industries, particularly handloom weaving, leather and handicrafts in various parts of the State.  Those industries which are carried on in the homes of the artisans assisted by the members of their families are called cottage industries.  In the following pages are described the important cottage and village industries of Bathinda District :-

 

(1)       Fibre Industry. – In 1988-89, there were 219 units functioning in the district which produced cloth worth Rs. 20.50 lakhs and gave employment to 499 persons.  The main products of these units are khaddar, khesies, etc.

 

(2)       Leather. – In 1988-89, there were 889 units engaged in the leather industry.  These units provided employment to 1,154 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 120.64 lakhs.  These units are engaged in leather tanning and manufacture of superior leather goods.

 

(3)       Gur and Khandsari. – In 1988-89, there was only one unit engaged in gur and khandsari industry which produced gur and khandsari worth Rs. 0.55 lakhs and provided employment to 4 persons.

 

(4)       Bamboo and Cane. – About 137 units were engaged in the bamboo and cane industry in the district during the year 1988-89 which provided employment to 247 persons and produced goods worth Rs. 21.10 lakhs during the same year.

 

(5)       Pottery. – In 1988-89, 67 units were engaged in this industry which provided employment to 203 persons.  These units produced pottery worth Rs. 23,89 lakhs during the same year.

 

(6)       Soap Industry. – In 1988-89, 5 units were engaged in the manufacture of washing soap.  These units provided employment to 22 persons and sold their finished product worth Rs. 22.66 lakhs.

 

(7)       Lime.  – In 1988-89, 19 units were engaged in the production of lime and gave employment to 65 persons.  These units sold lime worth Rs. 5.40 lakhs during the same year.

 

(8)       Processing of Cereals and Pulses Industries.  – There were 73 units engaged in processing cereals and pulses in the district which provided employment to 144 persons.  These  units  processed  goods  worth  Rs. 30.97 lakhs during the year 1988-89.

 

(9)       Village Oil Industry. – In 1988-89, 6 units were engaged in this industry which produced goods worth Rs. 11.84 lakhs during the same year.

 

(10)     Cottage Match Industries. – In 1988-89, 2 units were engaged in match box industry which provided employment to 26 persons.  These units produced goods worth Rs. 2 lakhs during the same year.

 

(iv)      Jail Industries

 

            A few industries, viz. carpentry, textiles, tent making, soap making, soap making, etc. are being run in the Central Jail, Bathinda to enable the prisoners to learn different trades also proves useful after their release from the jail. The prisoners also get some remuneration for their work done in these different trades.  This remuneration is given in the form of coupons, termed as jail currency.  While in jail, the prisoners can provide meager financial help to their dependents or the frugal and hardworking prisoners can encash these at the time of their release.

 

            The average number of prisoners employed in the jail industries, total production and gross profit during 1977 to 1989 are given below :-

 

 

Year

Daily average of

Prisoners working in the factory

Production

 

(Rs)

Cross profit

 

(Rs)

 

1977

96.45

2,49,368

   22,699

1978

102.36

1,77,729

   16,156

1979

191.82

3,26,307

   35,118

1980

169.98

4,60,863

   41,893

1981

202.00

3,90,316

   35,483

1982

345.19

8,17,939

   81,794

1983

197.45

6,10,007

   61,000

1984

185.51

6,97,438

   69,743

1985

223.43

        12,38,990

1,23,899

1986

217.46

        11,71,430

1,17,143

1987

183.90

8,64,073

   86,407

1988

188.48

5,98,281

   59,828

1989

154,63

7,35,193

   73,519

 

(Source : Superintendent, Central Jail, Bathinda)

 

(h)       Role of Industrial Co-operatives

 

            Industrial co-operatives play an important role in the development of cottage and village industries.  Their main aim is to give employment to the weaker sections of the society on the basis of which industrial societies are organised.  These societies are the only source for the poor artisans through which they avail of the facilities, such as financial assistance, supply of raw material, technical guidance and marketing.  The organisation of industrial co-operative societies has changed the economic condition of the artisans and has thus enlightened them.

 

            The most encouraging feature of this movement is that the State Government in 1982 established the Mansa Co-operative Spinning Mill at Mansa which came into production in1984.  It produced yarn worth Rs. 7.95 crores during 1988-89.  The total capital employed by the unit amounted to Rs. 868.15 lakhs.  It gave employment to 14,178 persons during the same year.

 

            The following table shows the number and membership of the industrial co-operative societies alongwith value of goods produced in the district, as on 30 June 1989 :

 

Name of Industry

No. of Industrial

Co-operative

Societies

Membership

Value of goods

produced

(Rs in lakhs)

Spinning Mill

2

1,939

--

Weaver Societies

29

   350

 1.35

Small-Scale Industries

116

1,490

28.42

Handicrafts

10

   141

--

Khadi and Village

Industries

136

1,911

  8.18

 

(Source : Deputy Registrar, Co-operative Societies, Bathinda)

 

            The industrial co-operatives in the State  were under the co-operative Department up to April 1963, when the industrial co-operative wing was transferred to the Industries department. In June 1974, these were again put under the control of the Co-operative Department.  The Deputy Registrar, Co-operative Societies, Bathinda is holding the charge of the industrial co-operative societies in the Bathinda District.  He is assisted by two Assistant Registrars, Co-operative Societies one each at Bathinda and Mansa.

 

            The amount of loans and subsidies given by the Government to the Industrial co-operative societies in the Bathinda District, during 1977-78 to 1988-89, is given in the following table :-

1.      Progress made by the Industrial Co-operative in the Bathinda District during 1977-78 to 1988-89

 

(Rs in lakhs)

 

Year

No. of all kinds of Industrial Co-operative Societies

Membership

Share Capital

(Rs)

Working Capital

(Rs)

Value of goods produced

Value of goods sold

 

Total

Under

Winding

up orders

 

Spinning

Mill

Indl.

Societies

Spinning

Mill

Indl.

Societies

Spinning

Mill

Indl.

Societies

Spinning

Mill

Indl.

Societies

Spinning

Mill

Indl.

Societies

Spinning

Mill

1977-78

265

  87

--

    13,513

--

15.70

--

32.18

--

25.10

--

24.95

--

1978-79

265

  87

--

3,529

--

21.53

--

32.56

--

30.00

--

30.69

--

1979-80

274

  97

1

3,629

  450

17.53

 70.16

37.77

69.95

14.11

--

14.11

--

1980-81

280

102

1

7,737

   889

18.63

125.76

42.49

129.28

20.21

--

21.75

--

1981-82

291

103

1

3,892

1,062

21.25

231.69

37.99

239.34

27.57

--

21.66

--

1982-83

311

112

1

4,132

1,331

24.72

338.17

53.76

353.64

29.93

--

40.89

--

1983-84

328

121

1

4,319

1,663

29.70

461.40

73.08

874.84

32.67

--

43.42

--

1984-85

356

121

1

4,666

1,939

34.46

461.93

81.23

1,221.48

--

--

--

--

1985-86

366

120

1

4,772

1,939

38.00

497.31

82.40

1,221.48

40.96

269.00

39.72

244.00

1986-87

385

118

2

5,081

3,414

39.86

536.59

85.18

1,306.94

42.36

385.00

41.18

335.00

1987-88

418

121

2

5,452

3,452

42.90

569.96

96.37

1,438.12

52.08

928.54

47.68

865.97

1988-89

432

122

2

5,452

3,452

46.40

512.54

111.32

1,513.34

56.27

794.71

54.18

805.22

 

 

(Source : Deputy Registrar, Co-operative Societies, Bathinda)

 

(i)        Labour and Employers Organizations

 

            The district of Bathinda formed part of former princely States of Patiala, Nabha, Jind and Faridkot.  The exploitation of the worker had become an accepted norm in the society and anyone talking of reform of wages or working conditions for the workers was viewed with suspicion.  This exploitation was rather more in this area being rules by the princely rulers.  In the course time, exploitation of workers led to dissatisfaction which occasionally found expression in strikes.  On the whole, the life of workers in this area was worse than that of their counterparts in the former British territory.

 

            However, with the achievement of independence, the workers became more enlightened and they have formed their own unions for the redressal of their grievances.  The following is the list of registered trade unions of workers employed in different industries in the district :-

 

Sr. No.

Name of Trade Union

Year/Date of registration

 

1.

Bathinda Mazdoor Union, Bathinda

20 November 1971

2.

Milk Plant Employees’ Union, Bathinda

10 May 1973

3.

Imarti Labour Union, Bathinda

27 January 1975

4.

National Fertilizer Employees’ Union, Bathinda

31 May 1977

5.

Garhwal Mazdoor Union, Bathinda

1978

6.

National Fertilizer Official Association, Bathinda

19 January 1979

7.

Class IV Employees’ Union, Bathinda

25 May 1979

8.

Thermal Work-charged Staff Union, Bathinda

19 September 1979

9.

Shri Bhagwati Oil Mill Mazdoor Sangh, Bhucho Mandi

15 October 1979

10.

N.F.L. Labour Union, Bathinda

1980

11.

Sooti Mill Mazdoor Union, Bathinda

26 September 1980

12.

Cotton Factory Mazdoor Union, Mansa

19 July 1982

13.

Lal Jhanda N.F.L. Mazdoor Union, Bathinda

25 July 1984

14.

Punjab Ceramic Worker’s Union, Bathinda

1985

15.

Moonak Chemical Employee’s Union, Bathinda

26 July 1985

16.

Employees’ Union Jindal and Company, Bathinda

26 December 1985

17.

Punjab Spinning Karmchari Dal Head Office,

Bathinda

 

8 August 1986

18.

Punjab Ceramic Karamchari Dal, Head Office, Bathinda

 

6 September 1986

19.

Rubicon Steel Workers’ Union, Bhucho Kalan

29 December 1986

20.

Chemical and Oil Karamchari Singh, Bathinda

7 July 1987

21.

Stelco Worker’s Union, Rampura Phul

21 April 1988

22.

Ginning Factories Worker’s Union, Rampura Phul

9 May 1988

23.

Multi Melt Steel Worker’s Union, Rampura Phul

10 June 1988

 

(Source : Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

(j)        Welfare of Industrial Labour

 

Welfare of Industrial labour is mainly of two types, viz. voluntary and statutory.  In the statutory.  In the statutory type fall those concessions which are to be provided under the law.  In the voluntary type fall those concessions which are provided by the management of the industrial units on humanitarian grounds.

 

            The general economic condition of industrial workers in the district is not below the standard of their counterparts in other districts and there is hardly any variance in wage level of different categories of workmen in the district.  There is one Labour Welfare Centre functioning in the district at Bathinda.  It imparts training to the female dependents of employees and workmen of shop and commercial establishments and factories in cutting, tailoring, knitting and embroidery, etc.  Labour Officers under the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 have been appointed by Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Punjab Spinning and Weaving Mills Ltd. And National Fertilizer Ltd.  These units have also constructed housing colonies for providing accommodation to the workers.

 

 

CHAPTER VI

BANKING, TRADE AND COMMERCE

(i)

Banking and Finance

 

(a)       History of Indigenous Banking

 

(b)       General Credit Facilities

 

(c)       Insurance and Small Savings

 

(d)       Currency and Coinage

(ii)

Trade and Commerce

 

(a)       Course of Trade

 

(b)       Trade Centre

 

(c)       Co-operation in Trade

 

(d)       State Trading

 

(e)       Merchants’ and Consumers’ Associations and Organs for the Dissemination of Trade News

 

(f)        Weights and Measures

 

(g)       Storage and Warehousing

 

 

i)                  Banking and Finance

 

(a)       History of Indigenous Banking

 

Till 1763, when the Phulkian States were formed, the history of indigenous banking of the area falling under the present Bathinda District was not much different from the rest of the parts of the State.   During the period 1763-1948 (PEPSU was formed in 1948) like in other parts of the Phulkian States, this area had its traditional indigenous bankers in towns and money-lenders in villages.  The former received deposits, dealt in hundis and financed trade and industry, advanced loans after carefully ascertaining the purpose for which these were required.  The money-lenders in the villages on the other hand mainly financed for consumption purposes.  The village money-lenders in the villages on the other hand mainly financed for consumption purposes.  The village money-lenders, namely, Sahukars, Sharafs and banians constituted the main bulk of the indigenous bankers for a long time.  The wealthy agriculturists also played an important role in the rural economy and like other money-lenders were engaged in providing agriculture finance.  The rate of interest charged by these money-lenders differed from plate to place.  Sometimes, they lent money against pledge of gold or silver ornaments, land and standing crops in the fields. The crops in the fields were usually purchased by the money-lender himself during the harvest time at nominal rate and the price was adjusted against the loan including the interest.  Loans were advanced clandestinely and dubious ways of collection of arrears were adopted by the money-lenders.

 

(b)       General Credit Facilities

 

(i)        Indebtedness, Rural and Urban

 

            Indebtedness is the state or incidence of  being in debt.  Rural and urban areas are different in may ways and are different in respect of indebtedness as well.  Because of the difference in the structure of urban and rural societies, borrowing in the two areas are also resorted to for different reasons and even the behaviour of borrowers differs a lot in rural and urban areas.

 

            Rural indebtedness is the incidence of borrowing  money by the people in rural areas from various sources.  Different amounts of money are borrowed by the people generally for effecting improvement and development of agriculture, for the purchase of agricultural implements or the replacement of old implements, and for purchasing fertilizers and better seeds.  It is, however, found that the small farmers do not utilize fully the borrowed money for the purpose for which they have borrowed it; the money is used for unproductive purposes such as observance of orthodox customs, expenditure on weddings, social and religious festivals, etc.  For obvious reasons, recovery of loans in rural areas is not of very high order.

 

            Urban indebtedness refers to the incidence of borrowing of different amounts, generally higher than those by ruralities, by industrialists, and members of the business community from commercial banks and other government, semi-government and private  financial institutions.  Such loans are seldom used for the purposes for which these had been borrowed.  Because of the proper application of borrowings in urban areas, the rate of return from the loans is optimum and recovery from loans advanced is generally satisfactory.

 

            Rate of Interest. – The rate of interest charged in the district varies from place to place, from one lending agency to another and is related to the purpose for which the amount has been borrowed.  It also varies with respect to surety or security offered.

 

            The commercial banks in the district charge of rate of interest fixed by the Reserve Bank of India from time to time.  Their rates differ according to the amount advanced and for the purpose it is lent.  The co-operative societies advance loans at the rate of 11½  per cent interest upto Rs. 5,000 and 12½ per cent above Rs. 5,000 and 14½ and 15½  per cent interest, respectively is charged from the defaulters.

 

            The indigenous money-lenders charge maximum rate of interest, i.e. around 24 per cent.  The unregistered  money-lenders advance loans at a still higher rate of interest.  Sometimes, in rural areas, the interest is calculated in kind when the loan is advanced in kind.  This practice is, however, gradually disappearing because of the coming up of the institutions which extend liberal financial assistance in the rural areas.

 

            Since people have become literate and there are adequate banking facilities available to meet their requirements, the system of usury has become outdated.  However, in the remote areas where people are still backward, the money-lenders take advantage of their ignorance and helplessness and charge higher rate of interest.

 

            (ii)       Role of Private Money lenders and Financers Money-lenders. – From time immemorial, the sahukar or banian (rural money-lender) has controlled the village economy and the poor peasantry has been at his mercy for all their social and economic needs. In recent years, there has been a considerable growth in the number of co-operative credit societies and banks.  But the influence of private money-lenders charge the high rate of interest than other agencies but, still they are of interest than other agencies but, still they are popular as they are easily approachable and the borrowers have not to undergo a long procedure or red-tapism.  Besides, they sometimes advance loans without any landed security and so the borrowers have no fear of attachment of property.

 

            The co-operative credit societies meet the requirement of only short-term credit.  But for the permanent improvement in land and for introduction of modern technology, long-term heavy investment is required.  Besides, the long-term finance are provided by the Land Mortgage Banks and the commercial banks have also started evincing keen interest farm financing.  A number of scheme have been launched by various commercial banks to encourage the introduction of modern technology in agriculture.

 

            The private money-lenders and financers still supply a sizeable portion of rural credit.  Their notoriety is not very different from that of their counterparts elsewhere, but  now they operate under severe restrictions imposed by the Punjab Registration of Money-Lenders Act, 1938.  Under the Act, the money-lender is required to register himself and obtain a licence for carrying on business.  He is also required to maintain regular account books.

 

            It is very difficult to give any reliable statistics of the number and volume of business of the money-lenders.  There are many private money-lenders who carry on business without a licence.  The number of registered money-lenders in the district, as on 31 March 1989 was 186.

 

(iii)      Government and Semi-Government Credit Agencies

 

To save the loanee from the clutches of the traditional money-lender, a large number of government and semi-government agencies have been established to provide finance in rural as well as in urban areas on fair terms and reasonable rate of interest.  These agencies include the Punjab Financial Corporation, Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation, Co-operative Banks and Co-operative Societies.

 

The Punjab Financial Corporation was established in 1953 under the State Financial Corporation Act, 1951 with the object of providing medium and long-term loans to the industrial concerns located in the State of Punjab.  It was reconstituted under the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966, on 1 April 1967.  The Corporation provided loans to the medium and small-scale industries, nursing homes/small hospitals, weight bridges, hotels and transport establishments in the district.  Loans are provided by the Corporation for setting up new industrial projects as also for the expansion, diversification, renovation and modernization of existing projects.  Its upper limit of providing finances/loans to a public/private limited company or a co-operative to society is Rs. 60 lakhs, whereas it is Rs 30 lakhs in other cases. For loans to household industries, artisans, village and cottage industries, the upper limits is Rs 50,000 and the lower limit is Rs 2,000.  For loans to physically handicapped entrepreneurs, the upper limit is Rs 2 lakhs and the lower limit is Rs 2,000.  In addition, special capital upto Rs 4 lakhs at service charge of 1 per cent only is provided to technical entrepreneurs to meet the gap in their resources as compared to the minimum promoters contribution.  The Corporation also sponsors many promotional activities like entrepreneurship development programme, market studies/surveys, etc.  The Punjab state Industrial Development Corporation, Ltd, in joint participation with Punjab Financial Corporation can extend a further loan of Rs 90 lakhs, besides equity participation.  For loans above Rs 150 lakhs, joint financing in participation with PSIDC  and the commercial banks, can also be undertaken.  The rate of interest charged by the Corporation depends upon the various categories of borrowers.  It varies from 9.25 per cent to 11.5 per cent per annum.  The categories to whom loan is granted on concessional rate of interest include artisans, village and cottage industries, household industries, physically handicapped persons, ex-servicemen, Scheduled castes/Scheduled Tribes entrepreneurs, unemployed persons, etc. in industrially backward districts.  Further, loans at concessional rate of interest are also provided for modernisation and rehabilitation of sick units.  Loan is advanced against registered mortgage of fixed assets of the industrial concerns, on personal guarantee of the partner’s etc.  It is repayable in 7 to 10 years.  But its repayment period may be extended to 12 years in the case of units located in the industrially backward areas.

 

The Punjab and Village Industries Board established under the Punjab Khadi and Village Industries act, 1955 is actively engaged in the economic uplift of the rural masses of the Punjab State, particularly the village industries artisans belonging to scheduled Castes, Backward Classes, weaker sections of the society and yellow card holders, through the programme and scheme of Khadi and Village Industries Commission.  It provides financial assistance to the village industries artisans, entrepreneurs, co-operative and registered institutions for the development and promotion of village industries (including khadi, that are currently on the schedule of the village industries approved by Government of India.  Loan is granted upto Rs 10,000 to the beneficiary on furnishing the surety bond of  a person possessing moveable property, free from encumbrance worth twice or more of the amount involved.  Loan exceeding Rs. 10,000 is granted to the loanee on furnishing the security of loan by way of executing mortgage without possession, of the immovable property worth one and half time or more of the amount involved.  The tenure of loan for kachha structure and implements, etc. is five years and for building and machinery is ten years.  The loan granted for five years is repayable in 3-4 annual installment falls due at the end 2/3 years. Loan granted for 10 years is recoverable in 9 annual installments.  The installment falls due at the end of 2 years.  The rate of interest is charged only 4 per cent per annum simple on all types of loans.

 

(iv)      Joint Stock Banks

 

            There are 16 commercial banks operating in the district apart from Central Cooperative Bank and Primary Cooperative Land Mortgage Bank Ltd.  Banking facilities are available in all the towns and major villages of the district.  These banks open their  branches at places where there is a good scope of business.

 

            State Bank of Patiala is the lead bank for Bathinda District.  Besides, the following commercial banks are also functioning in the district :-

 

1.                 State Bank of India

2.                 Punjab National Bank

3.                 Union Bank of India

4.                 Central Bank of India

5.                 Indian Overseas Bank

6.                 Punjab and Sind Bank

7.                 New Bank of India

8.                 Corporation Bank

9.                 United Commercial Bank

10.              Bank of India

11.              Oriental Commercial Bank

12.              Bank of Baroda

13.              State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur

14.              Hindustan Commercial Bank

15.              Dena Bank

16.              Canara Bank

 

The number of banking offices at various places in the district, as on 31 March 1989, is given in Appendix I on pages 209-214 at the end of this chapter. 

 

            The total deposits and banking credit in the district as on 31 March 1989, amounted to Rs. 29,262 lakhs and Rs 18,589 lakhs, respectively and credit deposit ratio was 64 per cent.

 

(v)       Post Office Savings Bank Account

 

            The Post Office Savings Bank Account Scheme was started in India on 1 April 1982.  Earlier, it was known as Government Savings Bank whose foundation was laid in 1833 when the first such bank was started at Calcutta in 1833.

 

            Post Offices are the most important outlets for the savings of the people, specially in the rural areas.  The number of account holders in post office saving banks is increasing steadily from year to year.

 

            As many as 4,356 new Savings Bank accounts were opened with the post offices in the Bathinda District during 1985-86 to 1988-89.  The deposits in all the accounts in the district, during this period amounted to Rs 2,25,10,728, and the total accounts as on 31 Mach 1989, were 17,695.

 

(vi)      Co-operative Movement

 

            For a considerably long period, the usual sources of short-term finance of the farmers were the money-lenders who charged exorbitant rates of interest and resorted to many malpractices to cheat ignorant and illiterate cultivators.  In this background, the co-operative movement was launched in the country for imparting credit facilities to the farmers.

 

            The co-operative movement in India was introduced as sequel to rural indebtedness and the first legislation was the Co-operative Credit Societies  Act of 1904 which enabled the organization of credit co-operatives. The co-operative credit society represented an organization with a very selective membership advancing nominal amounts as loans to meet a limited number of contingencies, seldom related to production and with negligible local participation in its resources.  The objective of the co-operative movement during the period was not to replace the money-lender as to curb his acquisitive propensities but to introduce wholesome practices in the dealing of the private money-lending agencies.

 

            After the Independence, when Bathinda District became a part of the PEPSU, the co-operative movement made a considerable progress.  In 1956, with the merger of PEPSU with the Punjab, the area of present Bathinda District also became part of the Punjab, and the co-operative movement made further progress under the Five-Year Plans.  As on 30 June 1989, there were 1,805 co-operative societies in the district, out of which 376 were co-operative credit societies.  In addition, the Central Co-operative Bank functions at Bathinda with 47 branches at different places in the district.

 

            Co-operative Credit Societies. – The co-operative Credit Society (Bank) can be  started with ten or more persons normally belonging to a village.  The value of share is generally nominal to enable even a farmer of meagre resources to become a member of the society.  Each of the member is fully and equally (according to share) responsible for the loss of the society in the event of its failure.  During 1988-89, there were  376 co-operative credit societies (297 agricultural and 79 non-agricultural) in the district.  The primary object of the agricultural credit societies is to assist the farmers to increase agricultural production and to play a major role in the development of rural economy by providing adequate facilities for short-term credit for fertilizers improved seeds, better implements and for extension of advanced agricultural techniques.

 

            The non-agricultural co-operative credit societies comprise employees’ credit societies, craftsmen co-operative credit societies and others catering to the credit requirements of non-cultivating section in rural and urban areas.

 

            The details pertaining to membership and working of the agricultural and non-agricultural co-operative credit societies functioning in the district, during 1977-78 to 1988-89, are given in Appendices II and III at pages 215 and 216.

 

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