GAZETTEER OF INDIA

PUNJAB

FARIDKOT

PUNJAB DISTRICT GAZETTEERS

 

 


SN

SUBJECT

1.       

GENERAL

2.       

HISTORY

3.       

PEOPLE

4.       

AGRICULTURAL AND IRRIGATION

5.       

INDUSTRIES

6.       

BANKING, TRADE AND COMMERCE

7.       

COMMUNICATION

8.       

MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

9.       

ECONOMIC TRENDS

10.   

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

11.   

REVENUE ADMINISTRATION

12.   

LAW AND ORDER AND JUSTICE

13.   

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

14.   

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

15.   

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

16.   

MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

17.   

OTHER SOCIAL SERVICE

18.   

PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTRY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

19.   

PLACES OF INTEREST

 


 

CHAPTER I

GENERAL

 

(a)

Introduction

b)

Topography

c)

River system and Water Resources

d)

Geology

e)

Flora

f)

Fauna

g)

Climate

 

(a) Introductory

 

(i) Origin of the Name of the District. – The district derives its name from the city of Faridkot, which was founded, according to local tradition, by Raja Mokalsi more than 700 years ago. It is said that he named it Mokal Har and built a fort here with forced labour (beggar). Amongst the men forced to work as labourers was Baba Farid (a saint) who possessed miraculous powers. The story goes that it was noticed that the basket full of earth which the saint was given to carry floated above his head without any visible support. This miracle brought the Raja to his knees and he begged pardon of the saint. The name of the place was changed to Faridkot after the name of baba Farid. Faridkot continued as capital during the times of Mokalsi’s sons and thereafter.

 

(ii) Location, General Boundaries, Total Area and population of the District. – Faridkot district falls in the Firozpur division. It is situated between 29o 54’ to 30o 54’ north latitude and 74o 15’ to 75o 25’ east longitude. It lies in south west, of the State and is surrounded by Firozpur District in the north west, Ludhiana district in the north east and districts of Bathinda and sangrur in the south.

           Faridkot, the headquarters of the district administration, lies on the firozpur-Bathinda- Delhi railway Line. It is also connected by road with Chandigarh (218 km), Firozpur (32 km), Muktsar (45 km) and Bathinda (65 km). Most of the towns of the district have railway stations.

According to Director of Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar, the area of Faridkot District as on 31 March 1993 was 5,765.87 sq. km. In terms of area, the district ranks 2nd in the State after Firozpur District. The tahsil-wise area of Faridkot District is given below.

 

Serial No.

           Tahsil

Area in sq. km.

1.

Faridkot

1,453.03

2.

Moga

1,785. 42

3.

Muktsar

1,509.55

4.

Malaut

1,117.87

 

Total

5,765.87

 

According to the 1991 Census, the population of the district was 17,30,876 persons (12,91,037 rural and 4,39,839 urban) comprising of 9,19,680 males and 8,11,196 females.

 

(iii) History of the District as an Administrative Unit and the Changes in its Component Parts. –After the independence, a new State named PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab States Union) was formed by merging eight Erstwhile princely states on 4 May 1948. Bathinda district alongwith seven other districts came into existence on 2o august 1948 with its headquarters at Faridkot. It remained the headquarters of the Bathinda District till 1953, when these were shifted to Bathinda. Faridkot district was created on 7 August 1972 by including Faridkot Tahsil from Bathinda District and Moga and Muktsar tahsils of Firozpur District. It had then three tahsils viz. Faridkot, Moga and Muktsar. During 1971081 period village peori of tahsil Bathinda of Bathinda district was added to the Muktsar Tahsil. During 1981-1991 period 3 villages viz. Chak Jawahrewala, Chak Kalusingwala and Chak Roranwala of Firozpure Tahsil of firozpur district were added to the Muktsar Tahsil of district. On 22 July 1992, a fourth subdivision Malaut was created. Since then, the district comprises four subdivisions viz. Faridkot Muktsar, Malaut and Moga.

 

(iv)  Subdivisions, Tahsils and Thanas. – According to the 1991 Census, the district comprises 584 villages (572 inhabited and 12 uninhabited) spread over in three tahsils viz. Moga (180 villages), faridkot (170 villages) and Muktsar (234 villages). There are 9 towns in the District.

 

Besides, there were five sub tahsils, viz. Jaito (formed on 1 April 1970) in tahsil Faridkot, Nihal Singhwala (formed on 1 January 1976) in tahsil Moga Giddarbaha (formed on 1 January 1966) in tahsil Muktsar and Lambi (formed on 28 December 1979) in tahsil Malaut.

 

The tahsil-wise list of police stations and police posts in the district is given in Chapter XII ‘Law and Order and Justice’.

 

(b) Topography

 

The Faridkot district is located on the Punjab plain which in a macro regional context forms a part of great satluj Ganga plain. It is a low lying flat area. The flatness of the topography is indicated by the fact that only one contour line is passing through the district. This contour line runs from southeast through ablu village towards north-west and near the east of Muktsar town-it runs northward and reaches the boundary of the district near Kabulwala village. It divides the district into almost two halves. In the eastern half it is below 200 m. the surface of the district is depositional plain which was formed by alluviation by the rivers in the remote past.

 

The elevation ranges from minimum from minimum of 190 m in southwest at village Shamkot to maximum of 227 m in the northeast. The general slope of the district is from northeast to southwest as indicated by spot heights.

 

Geographic Landscape

 

Although the district forms a part of flat featureless Punjab-Haryana plains, yet the geomorphic examination of the area reveals diversity of relief at micro-regional level. The monotony of the plain is broken by the presence of sand-dunes. However, during recent years many of sand-dunes have been leveled down to make use of the land for arable farming, but many erstwhile sand-dunes still provide diversity to the relief. They vary in shape and size. Some of them are the larger sand mounds and some are smaller linear ridge or crescent shaped.

 

Thus these sand-dunes provided diversity to relief in the recent part, but they are either removed or leveled down to avail the opportunities of irrigation facilities in the district. At many place where they exist exhibit an undulating topography as compared to other flat featureless parts of the district.

 

(c) River system and Water Resources

(i) Main rivers and tributaries and Canals

No river is flowing through the district, but there are some drains which flow during heavy rains and serve as natural drainage. Danda Nala, Sota Nala and Moga Nala are important among them. There is a vast network of canals which pass through the district. These are Bikaner Canal, Sirhind feeder, Rajasthan feeder, abohar and Bathinda branches of Sirhind Canal. Both Bikaner canals and Bathinda branch of Sirhind Canal pass through northwestern and southeastern margins of the district and Sirhind feeder, Rajasthan Abohar Branch of Sirhind Canal run through the entire length of district in northsouth and northeast-southwest directions respectively. Sirhind canal system has been serving the district for irrigation since long time. 

 

The other source of water is wells and more recently pumping sets/tubewells. Since the surface of plain is blessed with deep alluvium and a vast expanse of ground-water, the well irrigation has become possible and these wells have been sources of water since times immemorial. Till a few decades ago the old wells provided water for irrigation and other purposes but in recent years electric and diesel operated tube-wells have almost eliminated the system of drawing water from wells.

 

In the low lying areas of the district where waterlogging was the problem the drains were constructed to m the problem of floods. In some parts of the district rise of water table attracted the attention of government and efforts have been made since 1963 to solve it.

 

(d) Geology

 

Geology and Mineral Resources of Faridkot district. – Faridkot District, which lies in southwest part of Punjab, forms a part of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains, between the Himalayas and the deccan Peninsula. Wind blown sands also cover part of the flat land topography in southern parts of the district. The area displays a low relief with gentle slopes towards south and southwest and an average elevation of 200 m above m.s. 1. Except for few canals and their distributaries, there is no marked drainage system developed in the area.

 

Average rainfall in the area is 48 cms. Ground water occurs under unconfined conditions upto a depth of 60 metres. Most of the tube-wells in the area are shallow ranging in depth from 25 to 60 metres. A layer of fresh water, varying in thickness from 7.00 to 35.00 metres, depending upon proximity to some canals, seems to be floating over brackish water in tube-wells. Depth of water table in large part of the area ranges between 12 to 39 metres below ground level. It is shallow in northwestern portion of the district (1 to 10 metres b.g.1.) and deeper is hard and generally alkaline, with high sodium and fluorine contents. In northern and southeastern parts, specific conductivity values are high but in southwestern part, it is within permissible limits.

 

(i) Geological Formation

There are no exposures of hard rock in the district. The entire surface is occupied by loose to semi consolidated Quaternary sediments which form part of the Indo-Gengetic alluvial tract. These sediments were deposited by rivers from Himalayas in their present and ancestral forms. Some dry rivers like channels have been noticed in the area. They appear to be channels of ancient rivers which have since been abandoned. The sediments of these rivers are exposed as undisected; flat, multicyclic, alternate layers of grayish-bluesand, reddish silty sands, silt and black slays of the “older alluvium” Flat surfaces are randomly distributed low relief sand dunes/ridges, scattered all around especially in southern parts of the district.

(ii) Mineral Resources

Saltpetre is a general trade mane for all nitrates of sodium, potassium and calcium and finds use in a number of ways in explosives, fire works, matches, fertilizers and metallurgical and chemical processes. Saltpetre occurs as thin, slightly yellowish to whitish, brittle encrustations on the surface in the form of natural efforescene. In Faridkot District the economic exploitation of saltpeter is being carried out at Baghapurana, Daroli Bhai, Moga, Pipli and Sosan. Of all the areas in the district, the village janer, which is 13 km from Moga is famous for its saltpeter production, which is refined at Moga.

 

Ground-water. – A study of geohydrological conditions in the Faridkot area indicates that up to 60 metres ground-water occur under unconfined conditions. The water bearing formation mainly include medium to coarse sand with subordinate amount of Kankar.

 

There are shallow tubewells varying in depth from 25 to 60 metres. In these tubewells a layer of fresh water varying in thickness from place to place and depending upon the distance from the canals, seems to be floating over the brackish water and varies from 7.00 to 35.00 metres. The yield form these shallow tubewells varies from 21,500 to 1,38,800 LPH. In most of the cases the clay has acted as barrier between the fresh and saline waters.

 

The depth of water in a large part of the area falls between the depth range of 12 to 39 metres below ground level. The water table is shallowest in the extreme north western portion of the district and occurs at a depth of less than 1 to 10 metres b.g.I. however, it tends to deeper in the southeastern part and rests between 10 to 30 metres. Water level is also shallow near the canals and distributaries. The general direction of ground-water groundwater movement in west and southwest.

 

The ground-water is generally alkaline in reaction having high sodium content and is very hard. Having high Sodium content and is very hard. In northern and southeastern parts it is within permissible limits. The fluorine content is also high. The concentration of salts has taken place due to poor flushing. The mineralisation increases with depth.

 

(iii) Seismieity

Looking at the history of past earthquakes from the available record it is evident that Faridkot District of Punjab lies in a region which is liable to experience slight to moderate earthquakes. The prominent earthquakes which affected the region are earthquake of 4 April 1916 (Magnitude=7.5). Amongst these Kangra earthquake of 4 April 1905 (Magnitude =8.0) which claimed the lives of 20,000 was the severest and the most disastrous earthquake so far in this region. The seismic intensity to the epicenter of this earthquake was X on the Modified Mecalli (M.M.) scale. The intensity at a place for an earthquake goes of decreasing with the increasing distance of the epicenter from the place under consideration. From the records, it is seen that the maximum seismic intensity in and around Faridkot due to this earthquake was VII on M.M. scale. Recently (on 20 October 1991) an earthquake of Magnitude 6.6. On Richter Scale occurred in Garhwal (Uttarkashi) region of U.P. This earthquake was widely felt over Northern India with more severity in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh etc.

 

Although no major epicentral track is located near the proposed site, a number of earthquakes originating in the Hindukush, Himalayan Boundary fault and karakoram regions are occasionally experienced in Faridkot and its neighbourhood with slight to moderate intensity. A list of important earthquakes experienced in the region is given in Table I.

 

According to Seismic Zoning Map of India, prepared under to auspices of Bureau of Indian Standards, the area under consideration falls in zone III. This zone corresponds to a maximum seismic intensity of VII on M.M. scale. Considering all the factors viz. Past history of the geological features and on the basis of earthquake frequency studies made by I.M.D. the seismic intensity of earthquake in Faridkot District is likely to reach between VI and VII on M.M. Scale for consolidate foundation.

 

It is worth mentioning that intensity VII on M.M. Scale corresponds to horizontal acceleration of 18-140 cm/sec or an average acceleration of 5-175 cm/sec. This wide range of acceleration is due to the fact that the ground acceleration at a place is largely dependent upon the nature of the foundation existing at the site.

 

Keeping in view the above factors vis-à-vis economic constraints and type of structures, it is suggested that the structures constructed on hard rock may be designed so as to withstand seismic intensity of above VII M.M. Scale.

 

(e) Flora

The vegetation of this tract falls under the sub group “5 B Northern tropical Dry Deciduous forests”. It is mostly of man made plantations.

 

The forest wealth of the district consists of block forest and strip forest. Block forest area (seed farms) falls in Moga and Faridkot sub-division and comprises mainly of eucalyptus plantations. Some trees of popular, toot, teak are also found in the area.

 

Other wood consists of Kikar (Acacia nilotica), Shisham (Dalbergia sissco), mysore gum Eucalyptus hybrid) siris (Albizzia lebbek) toot (Morus alba), mango (mangifera indica), neem (Azadirachta indica) walaiti jand (Prosopis juliora), drek (Melia Azedarach) van van (Salvedore oleioides); Some scattered trees or dhak (Butes monosperma), lasura (cordia dichotoma mika), bohar (Ficus bengbalensie), are also found.

 

Under growth is scanty. It consists of shrubs like malah (Zizyphus Numuleria), akk (Calotropis procera), amongs the grasses, Khabal (Cynodon dactylon), is most common.

 

The trees planted along the roads and canal strips are mainly Kikar, shisham and Eucalyptus. Recent plantations of trees planted by forest department include teak, drek, neem, toot, etc.

Grasses and hedges found in the district are kana (erianthus munja), kahi (saccharum), Kabal (cynodon dactylon), and sarkanda (Saccharum bengalense). On water logged sites, dibb (typha elephatiana) occurs densely. Beisdes, a number of herbs are found in the district. There are no grass preserves in the area of Faridkot district.

 

(f) Fauna

Fauna is a gift of nature, and the different beasts and birds, forming part of wild life, need to be preserved. The wild animals and birds help in protecting crops, by preying upon worms, insects, etc. which might destroy them. The Punjab Wild life preservation Act, 1959, and the rules framed thereunder aim at the protection and preservation of wild life. The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, has been enforced in the State of Punjab with effect from 1 April 1975, which affords protection to the wild animals and birds. For this purpose, strict vigilance is maintained by the staff of the Wild life Department.

 

The different zoological type found in the district are detailed below:

 

(1) Pisces (Fishes). – No river flows in or passes through the district. Natural fish life, available in the district limiting mostly to smaller species occur in ponds, ditches, drains canals, seasonal nalas, etc. are carps, loaches, cat fishes and perches like Chela cachius, and C. laubuca, the chilwas Osteobrama cotio, the sheesha-machhli, puntius chola, P.conchonius, P. sarana, P. sophore, P. ticto and P. ticto, the Chiddu or Puthia, Ambly-pharyngodo mola, the Makhni, aspidoparias morar, the chilwa or Kenwachi, aspidoparias morar, the chilwa or kenwachi, brachydanio rerio, the zebra fish, danio devario, the parands, esomus denricus, the Childulu or Chilwa, parluciosoma daniconius the Charl, chindola or Rankali, Lepidocaphalus quantea, the Guntea loach, Nemacheilus botia, the Sundali, Mystus bleekeri, and M. vittatus, the Kangir or Kander, Amblyceps mangoia, the Bili sudal, Gagata ceinia, Nangra viridesces, the Moogi Heteropneustes fossilizes, the Nali, Chanda nama. Pseudemabassis baculis and P. Ranga, the Kangi or Sheesha-machhli, Badis badis, the Chiri or kala-potish, Nandus nandus, the Gadha or Khota, goossogobius giuria, the boula, Anabas testudineus, koi, Colisa fasciata, and c. lalia, the Kungi, Ophiocephalus gachua, the Dorah, O. punctatus, the Daula, Macrognathus oral, Mastacombelus armatus and M. pancalus, the gerchi. The commercially important fishes like catla catla, the theol, Labeo rohita, the Tapra, L. bata, the Morahs, L. calbasu, the Kalbans Cirrtinus mrigala, the Morakh, C. reba, the Bangan etc. brought from other areas are used for stocking ponds and tanks. The catifishes Wallago attu, the Mali clorias batrachus, the Kugga etc. and sometimes netted from flooded waters.

 

(2) Amphibians (Frogs and toads). – Under this group the frogs and toads are included and Rana cyanophlyctrs, the Skipping Frog, R. limnocharis, the Cricket Frog, r. tigerina, the Bull Frog, Microhyla ornate, the ornate frog, Bufo melanostictus, the Common toad, B. stomaticus, the Marbled toad occur in the area. The frogs generally inhabit ponds, ditches, roadside pools, canals, nalas etc. whereas toads mostly remain under stones, old logs and are active at night.

 

(3) Reptiles (Turtles, Lozards and Snakes). – This group is represented by turtles, snakes and lizards. Among turtles Lissemys punctatus the flapohall or pond turtle inhabiting shallow muddly ditches, ponds etc. is a well known species, Kachuga tacta, the tent or Roofed Turtle which prefers water bodies with plenty of aquatic vegetation is also sometimes seen.

 

The common snakes are Ramphotyphlops braminus, the Worm or Blind Snake, Eryx Johni, the Red Sand boa, Lycodon aulicus, the common wolf Snake, L. striatus, the Banded wolf snake, amphiesma stolata, the Striped Keelback, Xdenochrophis Piscator, the Chekered keelback, Ptyas mucosus, the Rat, snake, spalerosopis atriceps, the royal, snakes, Bungarus caeruleus, the Cummon Krait, Naja naja the common cobra, Ectis carinatus, the saw scaled viper and Vipera russelli, the russell’s Viperthe last four are venomous snakes, python molurus or Ajgar is sometimes seen with charmers but its existence in nature doubtful.

 

The important lizards of the area are hemidactylus brooki, the Spotted House Gecoko, H. flaviviridis, the yellow-ballied House Gecko, Calotks versicolor, the Garden lizard, Mabuya macularial the Bronzy Grass skink, the Riopa Punctata, the orangetailed shink and Varanus monitor, the Common Monitor Lizard or goh the population of Goh has dwindled greatly during the past due to various reasons.

 

(4). –Aves (Birds). – The common birds, both resident and visiting seasonally belong to aquatic or inhabiting in or around water bodies and terrestrial or occurring around cultivated fields orchards, gardens etc.

 

Aquatic birds belong to podicops ruficollis, the Dabchick or little Grabe; Ardeola gryii. The pond heron; Bublcus ibis The cattle Egret; Egrette garzetta, The little agret, Grus antigone, The Sarus crane; Vanellus indicus, The red wattles Lapwings; Ceryls rudis the pied Kingfisher, halcyon smyrnesis; the white-breasted Kingfisher, ducks and other aquatic birds are rare as there are no big water bodies.

 

Terrestrial birds, commonly met, are pavo cristatus, the Pea fowl; Francolinus pondicerianus, the Grey Partridge; Milvus, migrans garinda, the Parish kits; Gyps bengalensis, the white backed vulture; Neophron percnopterus the Scavanger vulture; culumbia livia, the Blue Rock Pigeon; Streptopelia decaocta, the ring Dove; s. chinesis, the spotted dova; Edudynamvs scolopaces, the Koel; Centropus sinensis, the crow pheasant; Athena brama, the spotted owlet; apus affinis, the House swift; Merops orientalis, the Green bee-eater; Upupa epops, the Hoopie; Lanius schach, the Rufous-backed shrike; dicrurus adsimilis, the black drango; sturnus pagodarm, the Brahminy Myna; s. contra, the Pide Myna; Acridotherss tristis, the common Myna; A ginginianus, the bank myna; Dendrocitta vagabunda, the Tree pie; Corvus splendens, the House Crow; C. macrorhynchus, the Jungle Crow; pycnonotus Cafer, the Red-vented Bulbul; Turdoides striatus, the Junhle Babbler; I. Caudatus, the common Babler Copsychus coularis, the Magpie robin; Sexicoloides futoiola; The common Robin, Motacilla caspica, the grey wagtail; M. alba, the Pied Wagtail; Nectarinia asiatica, the purple Sunbird; Passeer domestius the House sparrow, Ploceus philippinus, the Baya or weaver Bird, etc.

 

(5) Mammals. –The mammalian fauna of the district has depleted to a greater extent due to destruction of their habitats. However Macaca mailatta, the Rhesus Macaque, Presbytis entellus, the langur, Antelope cerricapra, the Black buck, Axiz porcinus, the Hog dear, Boselaphus tragocamelus, the Blus Bull or Sus scrofa, the wild Boar, Canis aureus, the Jackal, Vulpes bengalensis, the Indian Fox, Felis chaus, the Jungle Cat. Herpestes autopunctatus, the small mongoose, H. edwardsi, the Common Mongoose, pleropus giganteus, the flying Fox, Scotophilus heathi, the Yellow Bat, Manis crassicaudata, the Pangolin, lepus nigricollis, the Hare, Suncus murinus, the grey Muskshrew, hemiechinus autirus, the long-eared Hedge Hog, Hystrix indica, the Porcupine, funambulus pennanti, the Five-striped Palm Squirrel, Rattus rattus, the House Rat, nesokia Indica, the short-tailed Mole Rate, Tatera Indica the gerbil, merionis hurrianae, the deserta Gerbil etc. still occur in the area.

 

(g) Climate

 

(i) Climatic Divisions and seasons and Their Duration

The climate of Faridkot District is mainly dry, characterized by a very hot summer, a short rainy season and a bracing winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from November to March. This is followed by the summer season which lasts up to about the end of June. The period from July to the middle of September constitutes the southwest monsoon season. The later half of September and October is the post monsoon or transition period.

 

(ii) Temperature and Humidity

 

Temperature. – There is no meteorological observatory in the district. The description which similar conditions prevail, Temperatures increase rapidly beginning with the end of March till June, which is generally the hottest month, with the mean daily maximum temperature about 41o C and the mean daily minimum about 26.5o C. It is intensely hot during the summer, and the dustladen winds which below. Especially in the sandy parts, are very trying. The maximum temperatures may go beyond 47o C on individual days. With the onset of the monsoon by about the end of June or early July, there is an appreciable drop in the day temperature. However, during breaks in the monsoon during latter part of July and in August the weather becomes oppressive due to increase in day temperatures. By about the second week of September, when the monsoon withdraws from the district, both day and night temperatures begin to decrease. The fall in the night temperatures. Even in October is much more than that in the day temperatures. After October both the day and night temperatures decrease rapidly till January which is the coldest month. The mean daily maximum temperature in January is about 20o C and the mean daily minimum about 4.50 C. In the cold season the district is affected by cold waves in the wake of passing western disturbances and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down to about a degree or two below the freezing point of water.

Humidity. -- Except in the brief southwest monsoon season, when the air is fairly humid, the atmosphere is generally dry. The driest part of the year is the summer season when the relative humidities in the afternoons are about 35 per cent or less.

 

(iii) Rainfall

Records of rainfall in the district are available for only three stations. The details of rainfall at these three stations and for the district as a whole are given in tables 2 and 3. The average annual rainfall in the district is 433 mm. About 71 per cent of the annual rainfall in the district is received during the monsoon months July to September, July/august being the rainiest months. Some rainfall occurs during the premonsoon months mostly in the form of thundershowers and in the cold season, in association with passing western disturbances. The variation in the annual rainfall from year to year is large. In the 80 year period 1901 to 1980, the highest annual rainfall, 212 per cent of the normal, was recorded in 1917. The lowest annual rainfall only 44 per cent of the normal, was recorded in 1968. During the period annual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 22 years. Two and three consecutive years of rainfall less than 80 per cent of the normal occurred thrice and twice respectively in this period. It will be seen from table 2 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 201 mm to 700 mm in 66 years out of 72.

 

On an average there are 24 rainy days (days with a rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in that district. This number varies from 22 at Muktsar to 27 at Moga.

 

(iv) Atmospheric Pressure and Winds

 

Cloudiness. – Skies are moderately clouded during the monsoon season and for short spells of a day or two during cold season in association with the passing western disturbances. During the rest of the year the skies are mostly clear or lightly clouded.

 

Winds. – Winds are generally light in the district, and are northerly to northwesterly, at times southeasterly, throughout the year. But, during the summer and monsoon seasons winds from directions between north-west and south-east blow or many days.

 

Special Weather Phenomena. – In the cold season western disturbances affect the district causing thunderstorms occasionally, accompanied by hail and squall. Thunderstorms and more frequently duststorms occur during the hot season. Rain during the monsoon season is also sometimes accompanied with thunder. Fog occurs occasionally in the cold season.

Table – 1

List of Earthquakes from IMD catalogue Occurring between Latitude 28. 40 to 32.40 Degree North and Longitude 73.00 to 77.00 degree East for the period 1851 to 1990.

Date

O-time

Latitude

Longitude

Depth

Magnitude

1851      1      21

     000.0

32.0

74.0

0.

5.0

1856      4        7

     000.0

31.0

77.0

0.

5.0

1875      12    12

     000.0

31.6

74.4

0.

5.5

1905      4        4

   0500.0

32.3

76.2

0.

8.0

1905      9      26

   1269.0

29.0

74.0

0.

7.1

1906      2      28

     000.0

32.0

77.0

0.

7.0

1930      5      11

113036.0

31.7

77.0

0.

5.5

1934      4      14

     000.0

29.0

75.50.

   0.

5.0

1952      12     27

184537.0

31.2

74.8

   0.

5.5

1962      9       15

  12358.0

31.9

76.2

   0.

5.5

1963      4       22

    0519.0

31.5

74.0

   0.

5.5

1966      6       20

134257.0

28.5

77.0

 53.

4.7

1968      11       5

    2244.7

32.3

76.5

 33.

4.8

1970       3        5

183421.2

32.3

76.6

 33.

4.7

1972      10      26

  14555.5

32.0

76.3

82.

4.4

1973      12      16

  91612.4

32.4

76.2

18.

4.8

1974      6        25

  44740.8

31.7

73.6

86.

4.2

1975      9        16

  42026.0

32.3

76.2

59.

4.6

1978      6        14

  16124.8

32.2

76.6

 6.

5.9

1980      9          4

  14841.7

31.3

75.7

121.

4.5

1981      3          3

  84329.1

31.4

73.2

 47.

5.0

1981      7         31

    5491.3

31.0

75.1

   0.

4.1

1981      9         25

  25041.3

30.9

74.7

 33.

4.5

1984     10          6

  10358.6

30.3

73.6

 10.

4.5

1985      3          22

    0485.0

31.0

76.6

 33.

0.0

1985      3          27

141644.6

31.0

73.2

33.

0.0

1986      1          28

  18244.1

30.8

76.3

33.

0.0

1986      4          22

  92952.0

31.9

76.9

32.

4.6

1986      4          26

      73516.2

32.2

76.4

33.

5.5

1986     11         21

    17311.0

32.3

76.6

40.

0.0

1987     10           6

  163316.6

32.1

76.4

51.

4.7

1987     12         26

        131.0

32.2

76.9

33.

4.4

1988      4             2

    22490.1

31.6

73.8

33.

4.0

1988      7             1

   163721.1

31.2

74.1

33.

4.2

1988      8           16

   104217.2

31.6

73.5

10.

0.0

1988      9           20

       6566.0

28.9

76.9

  9.

0.0

1989      2           19

       4356.0

30.6

73.3

33.

0.0

1989     7            27

      52526.0

30.9

75.6

33.

0.0

 

Total number of earthquake= 38

 

TABLE

Normals and Extremes of Rainfall in the Faridkot District

Stati-on

No. of years of data

Jan-uary

Febr-uary

March

April

May

June

July

Aug-ust

Moga

73  a

22.5

20.0

17.2

11.5

12.4

27.8

132.9

131.7

 

       B

1.8

1.7

  1.8

 1.0

  1.2

2.1

  6.3

  6.4

Muk-tsar

73   a

16.8

13.0

17.6

  7.8

  8.0

27.3

109.3

95.9

 

       B

  1.4

  1.3

  1.5

  0.8

  0.9

  1.7

  5.3 

  5.0

Far-idkot

23  a

14.4

11.8

18.8

  3.6

11.9

36.8

120.7

108.5

 

      B

  1.1

  1.2

  1.4

  0.4

 1.1

  1.8

  5.5

  5.9

Fari-dkot

      A

17.9

14.9

17.9

  7.6

10.8

30.6

119.0

112.0

Distr-ict

      B

  1.4

  1.4

  1.6

  0.7

  1.1

  1.9

  5.7

  5.8

 

 

 

September

October

November

December

Annual

Highest annual rail fall as % of normal & year

Lowest Annual rain fall as % of normal & year

 

 

 

 

Amount

(mm)

 

 

 

 

Date

80.6

16.7

3.1

9.7

486.1

231

(1962)

23

(1968)

335.0

1955    oct   05

  3.1

  0.6

0.3

0.8

   27.1

 

 

 

 

61.0

  8.0

2.2

7.9

368.8

254

(1950)

32

(1947)

207.0

1916      July 14

  2.7

  0.4

 0.2

 0.7

  21.9

 

 

 

 

90.1

14.3

  3.9

 9.4

444.2

174

56

182.2

 1964    Aug 18

  3.6

  0.7

  0.3

 0.8

  23.8

 

 

 

 

77.2

13.0

  3.1

 9.0

433.0

212

(1917)

44

(1968)

 

 

  3.1

  0.6

  0.3

 0.8

  24.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE-3

Frequency of Annual Rainfall in the District

(Data 1901-80)

Range in mm

No. of years

Range in mm

No. of years

101-200

 2

601-700

7

201-300

14

701-800

2

301-400

20

801-900

1

401-500

17

901-1000

1

501-600

  8

 

 

 

Data available for 72 years only

 

 

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