GAZETTEER GURDASPUR

 

CONTENTS

(First Edition 1979)

SN

Subject

1.       

GENERAL

2.       

HISTORY

3.       

PEOPLE

4.       

AGRICULTURAL AND IRRIGATION

5.       

INDUSTRIES

6.       

BANKING, TRADE AND COMMERCE

7.       

COMMUNICATION

8.       

MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

9.       

ECONOMIC TRENDS

10.   

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

11.   

REVENUE ADMINISTRATION

12.   

LAW AND ORDER AND JUSTICE

13.   

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

14.   

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

15.   

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

16.   

MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

17.   

OTHER SOCIAL SERVICE

18.   

PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTRY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

19.   

PLACES OF INTEREST

 

 

 

CHAPTER  1

 

GENERAL

(a)

Introductory

(b)

Topography

©

The River System and Water Resources

(d)

Geology

(e)

Flora

(f)

Fauna

(g)

Climate

 

(a)    Introductory

 

(i)           Origin of the name of the district. - The district takes its name form the headquarters town which was only a village until it became the administrative canter of the district in 1852. The name is said to be derived from Mahant Gurjaji who bought the village, settled here and called it after himself. The family came from a village, named Gurdaspur Bhaian, in the Pathankot Tahsil, and it still mostly owns the estate.

 

(ii)         Location, general boundaries, total area and population of the district.- Included in the Jullundhur Division of the Punjab, the Gurdaspur District lies in the north-west corner of the State on the India-Pakistan frontier along the Indian side of the River Ravi. A Portion of the district is also situated beyond the River Ravi. It is somewhat like a gun in shape as if its two tahsils of batala and Gurdaspur are the board rear part and the third tahsil of Pathankot is the barel, the trigger and striker.

 

      The district lies between north latitude 310-36`and 320-34`and east longitude 740-56`and 750-24`. It is bounded by Kathua District of Jammu & Kashmir in the north, Chamba and Kangra districts of Himachal Pradesh in the north-east and east, respectively, Hoshiarpur District in the south-east, Kapurthala District in the south, Amritsar District in the south-west, and Pakistan in the north-west. The Chakki stream separates the Gurdaspur District from the Kangar District (Himachal Pradesh) on the east. The Beas River separates it from the Hosiarpur District in the south-east and Kapurthala district in the south.

 

Of the three tahsils ( Batala, Gurdaspur and Pathankot) which com-prise the district, the two southern Batala and Gurdaspur, area situated in the Bari Doab between the Beas and Ravi rivers, and present the ordinary features of the Punjab plains. Tahsil Pathankot,which is to the north of Gurdaspur, lies mostly between the Chakki stream (an affluent of the Beas) on the east and the Ravi on the west but includes Chak Andhar (formed into the sub-tahsil of the Narot Jaimalsingh in 1973), a small tract beyond the Ravi and between that river and its tributary the Ujh, which is copiously irrigated by a network of canals. The Chak Andhar and the rest of the lower portion of Pathankot Tahsil is in a modified degree a terai country , with very little vegatation. The land has now been reclaimed to a considerable extent and is arable.

   Gurdaspur, the headquarters of the district administration, is directly connected, both by rail and road, with Pathankot in the north east and Amritsar in the south west, from which places it is 36 KM and 72 KM, respectievely. It falls on the Amritsar-Batala-Pathankot Section of the Ferozepur Division of the Northern Railway and also the Amritsar-Batala-Pathankot Road, both of which run all through side by side. Gurdaspur is also connected by road with Jullundur in the south, from which place it is 113 KM. Pathankot is also directly connected with Jullundur, both by raidl and road, from which place it is 116 KM. It falls on the Pathankot-Mukerian-Jullundur City Section of the Ferozepur Division of the Northern Railway and the Pathankot Road, both of which run all through side by side.

               According to the Surveyor General of India, the area of the Gurdaspur District, as in 1976, was 3,579.42 sq. KM. In area, the district ranks 9th among the 12 districts of the State. The tahsil wise area is given below:

               Tahsil                                                  Area (Sq. KM)

   Tahsil Gurdaspur                                              1358.28

   Tahsil Batala                                                     1250.07

   Tahsil Pathankot                                               971.07

                                                                           ____________

               District Gurdaspur                                3579.42

                                                                           ____________

 

        (Source : Surveyor General of India, Dehra Dun)

 

According to the 1971 Census, the population of the district is 12,29,249 and    ranks 4th in the State.

 

(iii)       History of the district as an administrative unit and the changes in its component parts- The district has only gradually assumed its present form. After the first Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46), by the treaty of Lahoe, concluded on march 8,1846, the Jallundur Doab, including the Kangra District (now in Himachal Pradesh), was ceded by the Lahore Darbar to the British as war indemnity. The boundry of the Kangra District was demarcated by a commission, and ran from just below the head of the Beri Doab Canal in an almost straight line to the old bed of the Chakki Khad near Dhangu, when it followed the course of the eastern branch of that stream in its junction with theBeas. After the annexation of the Punjab in April 1849, C.B. sunders was directed to form a new district of Dinananagar then called Adina Nagar) which should include two thirds of the Beri Doab north of Amritsar. Dinanager was selected as the headquarters as Batala was considered to be too for south. The administration was to be based on the regulations in force in the North-West Province. The Dinanagar Districtwas setted by H.Davies and included the whole of the present Gurdaspur tahsil, the greater part of the Batala Tehsil, and the 181 villages in the Pathankot Tahsil south of the boundary between the British and the Lahore Darbar defined in 1846. In july 1849,the civil officers and military escort were transferred to Batala and established in Maharaja Sher Singh`s house at Anarkali, as Dinanagar was thought to be unhealthy.in the autumn, Batalas considered to be too much exposed to floods, and so Gurdaspur was selected as a suitable site for the station; and after some further doubts as to its healthiness, the name of the treasury and district was finally altered from that of Dinanagar to Gurdaspur on May  1,1852.

 

In the meantime, work had been commened on the Bari Doab Canal, and, in 1850, it was demed desirable to place the whole course of the canal within one district, so, with effect from March 1, 1852, 83 village south of a line runnig from the Ravi at Shahpur to the Chakki Khad above Pathankot were transferred to the Gurdaspur Tashil. The Revenue Survey was then well advanced, and, at the revision of the boundaries of tahsils and districts in 1853, the Shakargarh Tashil (transferred to Pakistan at the partition of the country in 1947) was transferred from the Sialkot district (now in Pakistan); the boundaries of Gurdaspur and Batala tahsils were fixed much on their present lines, some 107 village in the south-east being added to the latter from Amritsar Tahsil and the delta between the Ravi and Ujh, containing 99 village, was cut of Shakargarh Tahsil and with 181 villages from Gurdaspur Tahsil and the Kangra villages formed into a separate tahsil with headquarter at Pathankot.

 

    The Gurdaspur District was then formed as fellow: -

 

Tahsil Pathankot in the north-east.

 

Tahsil Shakargarh-trans-ravi, except Chak Andhar.

 

Tahsil Gurdaspur-the central portion of the Bari Doab.

 

Tahsil Batala-the southern portion of the Bari Doab.

 

In August 1860, the hills upon which lies the Dalhousie sanitorium, having been acquired in 1853 from the them Chamba State, were transferred from the Kangra to the Gurdaspur District, and in April 1862, this transfer was supplemented by the further transfer to the district of the strip of hill country already described as lying between the Ravi and Chakki Khad intervening between Dalhousie and the plains. In 1861, Raja Teja Singh’s Jagir was consolidated in the south-west of the Batala Tahsil and his headquarter were fixed at that town and a considerable jurisdiction over the jagir villages was conferred on him with the title of Raja of Batala. A new tahsil was formed at Qadian, but, on the death of the Raja on December 2, 1862, the jagir was resumed and on the former tahsil reconstituted. In April 1867, the Batala Tahsil was transferred to the Amritsar District, but was re-transferred to the Gurdaspur District on April 1, 1869, as the arrangement did not work satisfactorily.

 

On the partition of the country on August 15, 1947, the whole of the Shakargarh Tahsil, situated generally on the west of the River Ravi, was transferred to Paksitan.

 

On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab Re-organisation Act, 1966, the pockets of Dalhousie Balun (Dalhousie Cantt.) and Bakloh  of Tahsil Pathankot were transferred to Himachal Pradesh.

 

In 1970, 29 village1 of Tahsil Dasuya of District Hoshiarpur were transferred to District Gurdaspur. Of these, one village was included in Tahsil Pathankot, 26 villages in Tahsil Batala2 .

 

(iv)       Sub-Division, Tahsils and Thanas.- The district comprises three Tahsils/sub-divisions,viz., Gurdaspur (725 villages), Batala (497 villages) and Pathankot (421 villages). All these three Tahsils were made sub-divisions in 1955. Besides, there are three sub-tahsils, viz., Dera Baba Nanak (in Tahsil Gurdaspur), Dhar Kalan and Narot Jaimalsingh (both in Tahsil Pathankot). Sub-tahsils Dera Baba Nanak3 and Dhar Kalan4 were formed in 1970, and sub-tahsil Narot Jaimalsingh in 19735.

 

The Tahsil- wise list of police stations and police posts in the district is given in chapter X, ‘General administration`.

 

(b)    Topography

 

Situated in the north-west of Punjab, a large part of the district of Gurdaspur is plain and is similar to the rest of the Punjab plain in structure, genesis, lithology and surface configuration.  Only its northernmost part in Pathankot tahsil is in the Shiwalik Hills. When examined in detail, the physiography of the district permits a four-fold division a under:

(i)            The Hilly Tract ;

(ii)          The Dissected Undulating Plain ;

(iii)         The Floodplains of the Ravi and the Beas ; and

(iv)        The Upland Plain.

               

1.             Out of these 29 villages, one was re-transferred from Tahsil Gurdaspur, District Gurdaspur, to Tahsil Dasuya, District Hoshiarpur, in 1973.

 

         (Punjab Government Notification No. 2202-Rg-I-73/2959, dated the 24th August, 1973)

 

2.             Punjab Government Notification No. 564-Rg-I-70/727, dated the 17th March, 1970

 

3.             Punjab Government Notification No. 564-Rg-I-70/722, dated the 17th March, 1970, published in the Punjab Government Gazetted, Extraordinary, dated the 20th March, 1970.

 

Sub-tashil Dera Baba Nanak was formed w.e.f. the 1st April, 1970.

 

4.             Punjab Government Notification No. 312-Rg-I-70/488, dated the 25th February, 1970, published in the Punjab Government Gazette, Extraordinary, dated the 26th February, 1970.

 

Sub-tahsil Dhar Kalan was formed with immediate effect, i.e., w.e.f. the 25th February, 1970.

 

5.             Punjab Government Notification No. 2291-Rg-I-73/3075, dated the 4th September, 1973, published in the Punjab Government Gazette, Extraordinary, dated the 5th September, 1973.

 

        Sub-tahsil Narot Jaimalsingh was formed w.e.f.the 10th September, 1973.

 

(i)           The Hilly Tract.-  Covering the north-eastern parts of the Pathankot Tahsil, it is the north-west continuation of the Punjab Shiwaliks.  The tract has a typical bad land topography, ranging in the elevation from about 381 to 930 metres above sea level.  From north to south, the hilly tract consists of three small but distinct parallel ranges running in north-west to south-east direction : the Siali Dhar- Dangahri Dhar range, the Dhaula Dhar-Nag Dhar range, and the Rata Dhar range.  The Siali Dhar – Dangahri Dhar range, the watershed of which forms the boundary between Gurdaspur District and Chamba District (Himachal Pardesh) lies to the extreme north. Its northern slopes are sleeper than those to the south.  In its western part, the Siali Dgar is about 931 metres above sea level at its highest point, and in the eastern part about 959 metres above sea level.  The drainage of the Siali Dhar falls into the Ravi and that of the Dangahri Dhar in the Chakki Khad.  To the south of this range lies a low area lying area of about 6 to 10 km width an elevation ranging from 457 to 610 metres above sea level.  It is highly dissected by numerous streams.  South of this is situated he Dhaula Dhar – Nag Dhar range which also runs in north – west to south – east direction.  It is about 13 km long, and at places about 2.5 km wide, and has an elevation varying form about 610 to 844 metres above sea level.  In its western part, which is known a Dhaula Dhar, the highest point is about 844 metres above sea level and, in its eastern part, the maximum height is about 729 metres.  To the south of this range again there is a narrow belt about 3 to 5 km wide, of lowlying dissected tract.  Then comes the third parallel range – the Rata Dhar which is the southernmost range marking the boundary between the hilly tract and the dissected undulating plain.  It forms an are having convex edge towards north  and has elevation of about 665 metres above sea level.

 

(ii)         The Dissected Undulating Plain.-  To its south lies area of about 128 sq. km. which is highly dissected and it is an undulating plain.  This forms a transitional zone between the Shiwalik Hills to the north and the Upland Plain to the south.  The lies joining Madhopur, the Upper Bari Doab canal Headworks, in the north with a point near village Dango in the south (where the stream Chakki Khad takes its southward turn) marks the southern boundary of the dissected undulating plain.  It is traversed by a number of chos (small seasonal streams) and has an undulating topography.  These chos traverse the tract in north – east to south – west direction and, at places, the intervening distance between the chos is even less rthan 1.5 km.

 

(iii)        The Floodplains of the Ravi and the Beas. – These are separated from the upland plain by sharp river–cut bluffs.  They are lowlying, with slightly uneven topography.  Sand dominates in the soil structure of the floodplain, but it diminishes in both quantity and coarseness in the upland plain,

 

The floodplain of the Ravi is separated from the upland plain by a low scarp of less than 6 metres in height.  The floodplain is widest in the upper section, about 9.5 to 13 km, and narrows down in the lower section to about 3 km.  The floodplain of the Beas is separated from upland plain by a steep cliff, varying in height from about 6 to 31 metres.  The scarp is highest in Batala Tahsil and hence the floodplain is narrowest in that tahsil.  The origin of this bluff can be attributed partly to a tectonic uplift which affected the whole of the Indus – Yamuna divide during the Pleistocene age and partly to steep cutting of the river side as a consequence of climatic amelioration at the end of Pleistocene.  In the northern section, the stream Chakki makes a floodplain of about 9 to 13 km width which merges with the floodplain of the Beas.       

 

(iv)       The Upland Plain. – It covers a large part of a district, particularly of Batala and Gurdaspur tahsils.  Its elevation ranges from about 305 metres above sea level in the north–east to about 213 metres above sea level in the south – west, with a gentle gradient of about 1 meter in 1.6 km.  It is, in general, a flat, featureless plain, with a local relief about 2 to 6 metres.  From the human and economic view points, this is the most important physiographic in the district.

 

It may be seen that physiography of the Gurdaspur district partakes some of the topographic characteristics of the districts of Ropar and Hoshiarpur.

 

(c) River System and Water Recourses

 

(i)     Main Rivers Tributaries and Canals :

 

The Beas and the Ravi are the two rivers of the district, both of which originate near the Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pardesh. 

 

River Beas – Rising from the southern face of the Rohtang Pass in Kulu at an altitude of about 4,062 metres, traversing the districts of Kulu, Mandi and Kangra in Himachal Pardesh, the Beas strikes the boarder of the Gurdaspur district at Mirthal, a place about 19.2 km south of Pathankot.  Thenceforth, it marks the boundary between Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts.  It performs a total journey of about 68.8 km along the south – eastern boarder of the district.  All through its course, a strip of shallow alluvial soil fringes its banks which is subject to inundation during the rainy season.  The main channel of the river is broad, dotted with islands and wide pools.  The depth of water varies from about 1.5 metres during the dry seasons to about 4.5 metres during the rainy seasons. 

 

The Chakki Khad is the chief tributary of the Beas in Gurdaspur district.  This stream rises in the hills surrounding Dalhousie and for some distance forms the boundary of the district with Kangra.  After collecting the draninage of the Chamba Hills, it joins the Beas near Mirthal. 

 

River Ravi. – After traversing the montaneous areas of Himachal Pardesh, it enters the district at a place opposite Basoli.  With its general south – western course, it forms the boundary between the Punjab and the Jammu and Kashmir State for about 40 km. Further, it traverse well within the territory of the district for about 26 km till reaches Mirzapur, from where it again marks roughly the western boundary of the district and the international boundary between India and Pakistan for a distance of about 58 km.  A number of tributaries join it from both sides.  On its right bank it is joined by the Ujh, the Jalalia, the Shingarwan and the Masto, all of which rise in the Jammu hills.  The Kiran and the Naumuni streams, which take their origin from local depression in the district, are its left bank tributaries.

 

Like other rivers of the Punjab, the discharge of the Beas and the Ravi fluctuactes from season to season and year to year. The drive winters have only a trickle of water in these rivers.  As summer approaches, the melting of snow in their forces in their source areas releases more water.  The rivers are swollen into floods during the rainy seasons.  The fluctuating discharge of the rivers does not permit their navigational use. 

 

Chhambs. -  Mention must also be made of a number of local swampy depressions, properly none as chhambs.  The largest of these is the Kahnuwan Chham which stretches along the Beas River in the Gurdaspur Tahsil.  Triangular in shape with its base in the south, this Chhamb receives inundated waters from the Beas, rain water from the surrounding area and percolated water from near-by canals.  Frequent attempts were made to reclaim it construction of embankment along the Beas and by draining out water from here.  Its present reduced area is only 165 acres (66.77 hectares) which is nearly one-tenth of its former size. The newly reclaimed land has been brought under cultivation.  The Kahnuwan marsh abounds in fish, sanghara and lotus flower and attracts large number of water-fowl.

 

Another prominent swampy depression is the Keshopur chhamb which is located 5kms north of the Gurdaspur town.  The Kiran Stream takes its origin from here.  This chhamb has practically been reclaimed now.  The same is the case with regard to the other erstwhile chhambs of dhamrai, Narad, Badi-ul-Zaman, Paniar, Bucha Nangal and Naranwali.  Though reclaimed, these chhambs have left clearly visible scars of their former existence on the landscape.  Magar Mudian (125acres=50.58hectares) near the Gurdaspur town and Bhopar (25 acres=10.12 hectares) by the side of the Gurdaspur-Dera Baba Nanak road are the only two small chhambs which still await reclamation. 

 

Canals. – Apart from these natural drainage lines, the district possesses a fairly dense net work of canals of the Upper Bari Doab Canal System which irrigates most of the upland plain of the Gurdaspur District.   Its main branches traversing through the upland plain of the district are the Lahore branch, the Kaure branch and the Sabraon branch.  Through about a 19 km long canal, the Ravi-Beas link, completed around 1954 diverts part of the Ravi water into the Chakki Khad which is tributary of the Beas.  Some drains have also been constructed to drain flood water.

 

(ii)   Underground Water Resources  :

 

Physiographically and geohydrologically,the district is divided into three distinct units, viz., (i) Hills on the north-eastern side ; (ii) Kandi Region-immediately to the south-west of the hills, formed by detrital deposits; and (iii) Sirowal and adjoining Indo-Ganga Plains-south-west of the Kandi Region.

 

Kandi Region. – Kandi belt extends from the foothills of the Shiwalik Hills on the east to Phungtori Khad on the west and generally ranges in width from 6 to 10 km.  The sediments in the Kandi belt comprise boulders, pebbles, gravel and sand with occasional clay.  Textural variation in grain size are observed laterally in the coarser materials predominating towards the foothills.

 

Ground-water occurs under unconfined conditions.  Depth to water generally varies between 10 and 40 metres below land surface.

 

Ground-water is fresh and potable and suitable for irrigational and domestic uses.

 

Sirowal and Adjoining Indo-Ganga Plains. – The Kandi and Sirowal deposits being contemporaneous, it is difficult to demarcate precisely the line between two belts. However, the ‘spring line` broadly marks the boundary of Kandi and Sirowal. Sediments of Sirowal comprise clay, silt and sand whereas in the Indo-Ganga Plains occasional occurrence of thin lenticular beds of gravel and kankar is met with besides clay, silt and sand of various grades.

 

Ground-water occurs both under confined and unconfined conditions. Depth to water varies between one and 22 metres below land surface. The piezometric surface generally coincides with the water table but, at time, it rises to about two metres above land surface.

 

Tube-wells in Sirowal belt range in depth from 8 to 76 whereas in the Indo-Ganga. Plains they go down to a maximum depth of about 100 metres. The depths of shallow tube-wells generally range between 8 to 27 metres and these tap about 5 metres of saturated material in the water table zone. The deep tubwells generall tap about 15 to 20 metres of saturated granular material. The yields of tubewells in the Sirowal belt range from 39600 to 70200 litres per hour for grawdowns of 0.8 to 1.85 metres.

A number of artesian wells also exist in the area. They are observed at Vadala, Garhmal, Nala Jandi, Ghaunta, Jharauli, Pachhowal, Sudhana, and Bianpur. The tube wells are about 75 metres deep and tap fine to coarse sand with gravel between the depths of 60 and 75 metres. Free flow from these tube-wells are generally around 22,500 litres per hour.

 

The area west of Pathankot-Amritsar State Highway in the vicinity of Gurdaspur and Dinanagar is prominently occupied by swamps. These swamps lie in the discharge zone of the alluvial fans in the area between Ravi and Beas and owe their origin to the combined discharges of springs and confined waters of alluvial fan.  Abandoned channels of the rivers are also seen in northern part of the area.  One such channel of Naumuni River, extending from village Marara in north-west to Paharu Chak in the south-west may be demarcated.

 

Ground-water in the area is fresh and potable and suitable for irrigational and domestic uses.

 

Geohydrological studies reveal that utilization of ground water by means of tube-wells is possible in the area.  Artesian flowing conditions are likely to be encountered in two kilometrees wide belt lying immediately north-west of line joining Garhmal and Jangio and in the belt extending from Chanlia to Pindori and up to Beas.  Abandoned channel of Naumuni between Marara and Paharu Chak holds promise for the construction of tube-wells.

 

Water-table. – The sub-soil water depth ranges from 1.5 to 3 metres in most parts of the district.  In the upland plain, particularly its south-eastern part, there is considerable amount of waterlogging which is clear expression of the district’s alarmingly high water-table.  The chief factors responsible for this have been a century old canal irrigation and faulty construction of some new roads without providing for adequate number of siphons. The government have taken several steps to fight the increasing menace of waterlogging.  Drainage linen were laid out to drain out excessive underground water, tube-well irrigation was encouraged and eucalyptus trees were planted,  as a result, water-table has come down in some areas where it now ranges in depth from 3 to 4.5 metres.  The land reclamation measures have not only helped in regaining a lot of water-logged land lost to agriculture but also in improving the productivity of the soils.

 

(d)                           Geology

(i) Geological Formation   :

 

The area forms a part of the Indo-Ganga alluvium, with a north-west-south-east running hilly terrain of the Shiwaliks forming the foot-hills of the Himalayas.  The oldest rocks belong to the lower Shiwalik formation comprising of alternating sandstone, silt and shale horizons of grey and maroon colours.  To the south-west of the Shiwalik range are exposed gravel, sand and clay beds of the quaternary period.

 

Vertebrate fossils are noticed associated with the Shiwalik formations indicating a luxurious growth of animal life which later perished due to severe glaciation during the upper Pleistocene period.

 

(ii)   Mineral Resources  :

             

The minerals found in the district are building stones, foundary sand, gold, calc-tuffa, limestone, ochre, saltpeter, fullar’s-earth, etc. A brief account of the occurrence of these minerals is given below:

 

Building Material.- Building material including boulders, shingle, sand, brick-earth, etc. These usually occur at the same place and are found in the ephemeral streams as well as in the perennial streams and on the hill slopes. Bricks-earth is found in enormous quantity throughout the district. These are found in the vicinity of the beds of Ravi, Chakki and Beas, and in hilly terrain of the Dhar Block.

 

Foundary Sand.-  Occurrence of foundary sand (which includes moulding and core sand ) has been reported from Dharamkot near Batala. The deposits are located 6.5 km west of Batala on the Batala-dera Baba Nanak Road. The sand is exposed on both sides of the road and extends south-wards up to the village Khan Fatta, at a distance of about 3 km from Dharamkot. The Dharamkot sand is a natural moulding sand, conmtaining about 20 percent of clay. Another deposit of natural moulding sand occurs at about 6 km from the Batala on the Batala-Qadian Road. The sand gives a yellowish tinge on the surface but is reddish brown at about one more depth. The Deposit is about 4 metres thick.

 

At Bhagwanpur, a sand deposit occurs about 15 km west of Batala on the Dera Baba Nanak-Road. The sand deposit, about 10 km from Gurdaspur on the Gurdaspur-Naushehra Road, contains 20 per cent clay.

 

Calc-tuffa.- A few isolated pockets of calc-tuffa have been located in Dhar-Dunera blocks of District Gurdaspur. Calc-tuffa found in that area is suitable for lime burning and cement manufacture.

 

Limestone.- Limestone occurs as boulders and pebbles in the beds of few ephemeral streams in the Dunera area and in the bed of the Chakki Khad which flows along the border of the Gurdaspur District, south and east of Pathankot. These limestone boulders can sustain cottage-scale, lime buring industry in the area.

 

Ochre.-  Deep coloured ocherous clay is reported from the shiwaliks near Dunera.

 

Saltpetre.- Saltpetre occurs in the district at the village of Thikriwala, Lamin and Pandori in Tahsil Gurdaspur and Dhawan, Chataurgarh and Badowal in Tahsil Batala.

 

Fuller’s earth.- Its occurrences have been reported in the Dhar Block of Tahsil Pathankot.

 

(iii)  Seismicity:

 

Gurdaspur district is situated in a region which is liable to slight to moderate damage due to earthquakes. The Great Himalayan Boundary fault zone, which runs from Assam to Kashmir and has been the scene of some of the great Indian earthquakes, runs to the north of this district. It has also experienced occasionally the fringe effect of the earthquakes originating in the Karakoram and Hindukush region.

 

According to the records, maximum intensities varying between VII to VIII on the Modified Mercalli Scale-19316 were experienced in the district during the 

 


6Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 :

Scale                                                                Specifications

VII

..

Everybody runs outdoors.  Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction ; slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures ; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures ; some chimneys broken.  Noticed by persons driving motors-cars

 

VIII

..

Damage slight in specially designed structures ; considerable in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse ; great in poorly built structures. Panel walls thrown out of frame structures. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls.  Heavy furniture overturned.  Sand and mud ejected in small amounts.  Changes in well water.  Disturbs persons driving motor-cars.

(Source : Director – General of observatories, New Delhi)

Kangra earthquake of April 4, 1905.  Considering its geographical location vis-à-vis the main tectonic featured and its past seismic history, it is felt that the suitable provision of seismic factor may be made in the design of civil engineering structures to make them earthquake resistant.  The northern part of the district is comparatively more vulnerable to earthquake effects than its southern half.

 

For ordinary structures like residential building and schools, etc, provision of seismic coefficient of 7 per cent of gravity may be made in the lower half of the district while a provision of 10 per cent of gravity may be made in the upper half of the district for the structures based on consolidated foundations.

 

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