(c)  Town and Country Planning and Housing

 

            The office of the Divisional Town –Planner, Jullundur Division, Jullundur ,was set up in September 1963, after upgrading the office of the  Assistant Town-Planner, Jullundur ,which was established in 1945. It is the largest division in the Department of Town and Country Planning, Punjab, and covers town-planning activities in three districts, viz. Jullundur, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala.

 

            Principally, this office is engaged in the preparation of master plans of various class 1 and class 11 towns. Besides , it prepares the  layout plans for the various schemes, such as town planning schemes for  the municipal committees, development schemes and street-paving schemes for the improvement trusts, urban  estates for the Housing and urban Development Department, Housing Board Schemes. Industrial Areas and Industrial Development  Colonies and rehabilitation colonies for the respective department .

 

            Basically, this office renders technical advice to the concerned  departments including  municipalities and improvement trusts and it  collaborates with them in the preparation and implementation of planning and developmental works. To control the haphazard growth of dwellings the controlled areas are declared around the cities under the provisions of the Punjab Scheduled Roads, and  Controlled Areas Restriction of Unregulated Development Act,1963.

 

            The various Town-planning  activities pertaining to the Hoshiarpur  District, undertaken by this office are: preparation of a draft sketch of the Master Plan for Hoshiarpur town  which had been technically approved by the Chief Town Planner, Punjab: preparation of layout  plans for all villages where more than 100 sites/ plots are to be provided for the landless workers; preparation of layout plan for a development scheme of the Improvement Trust and preparation of 26 town-planning schemes under section 192 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911. Besides, this office has been  taking up a lot of work concerning the beautification of Hoshiarpur town to provide it with a face-lift.      

           

            Hoshiarpur Improvement Trust, Hoshiarpur. - The Hoshiarpur Improvement Trust  was formed in 1974 under the Punjab Town Improvement Act,1922. An improvement trust is an  ad hoc body constituted for the development of a city. Its functions include clearance of slums, provision of water-supply. sewerage and street lighting, widening of existing roads and roundabouts, beautification of the city and to provide open spaces for parks and schools, to construct markets, and orderly expansion  of a town.

 

            In 1974-75, the Hoshiarpur Improvement Trust, had seven members including the Chairman. The term of their office is three years.

 

            The sources of the income of the Hoshiarpur Improvement Trust are: municipal contribution, Government Grants ,loans, etc. the income and expenditure of the Hoshiarpur Improvement Trust, Hoshiarpur as on March 31,1975, wereRs.2,57,500 and Rs.10,534 respectively

 

(d) Panchayati Raj

 

Panchayati Raj is a three-tier system of administration for the develoment of village with the panchayat at the village level , the panchayat samiti at the block level and the zila parishad at the district level.  It has been introduced to provide a bold and imaginative leadership for the all round development of the village community.  As the economic uplift of the community cannot be entrusted to any organization other than the one represented by the villagers themselves, the role of the Panchayati Raj in building the nation becomes more important.  The Panchayati Raj Movement was launched in the State on October 2, 1961.

 

Gram Panchayats. – Punjab can be called the cradle of the Indian Panchayat institution.  The incoming Aryans first settled in this very area and established the village panchayats.  It is in the Punjab again that the village communities lasted the longest.  The panchayat or the institution of village council is as old as India’s history and is part of her tradition.  The ancient panchayats, serving as the units of local government, discharged most of the functions that affected the life of the village communist.  These institutions flourished in relative isolation and were unaffected by the social and political changes that took place in urban India up to the eighteenth century.  With the advent of British rule, serious inroads were made into the old pattern of village life and the village communist started changing.  With the State dealing directly with the individuals in the villages, panchayats languished ; they no longer remained effective units of local government.1

 

            During the Muslim rule in India, the panchayats lost most of their importance and significance.  The Muslim rulers believed in a unitary form of Government, and as such, wide powers were vested by them in the Qazi and the Kotwal, which were prejudicial to the panchayat  institution.  The panchayats thus lost their administrative functions and were reduced to mere social bodies.  The system was, however, partially revived in the days of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the Punjab.  The institution of panchayats decayed during the early period of the British rule.  As a result of the highly centralized system of administration which the British introduced, the old quasi-democratic rural policy crumbled and what followed was not far from anarchy.  However, the British government did not take long to realize that the old panchayats must be resuscitated in some form or another to restore communal life in the rural areas.

 

1.   Community Development Panchayati Raj and Cooperation, issued by the Ministry of Community Development and Cooperation, Government of India (Delhi, 1964), p. 17 i

 

In accordance with this policy, the work of receiving the panchayats  through legislation was taken up in all the provinces of India, the first legislation being the Punjab Panchayat Act,1912, which was followed by another Act in 1921-22. These Acts aimed at restoring old authority to a panchayat where it existed and reviving it in other villages. The panchayat thus once again become the lowest unit of administration in the State.

 

 

            Under the Acts passed from time to time, the first panchayat in the Hoshiarpur District came into existence in the village of Panjor (Tahsil Garhshankar ) in 1921 and, subsequently, in many other villages of the district. The panchayats ,which were formed, existed merely on paper because they had no effective powers. The panches could not  inspire confidence or respect in the people because only those persons could find a place in the panchayats who had ingratiated themselves with the authorities. During these days, the panchayats were mainly judicial bodies, hardly connected with any developmental activity. 

 

            Another Panchayat Act was put on the stature book in 1939 by the Unionist ministry. It superseded the earlier Acts and conferred, inter alia, wide judicial powers, both civil and criminal, on the panchayats. Efforts were also made to improve the financial resources  on the panchayats.  Efforts were also made to improve the financial resources of the panchayats through Government grants equal to the judicial fees and fines credited by the Panchayats to the Government treasury.  The panchayats were also allowed to levy taxes in their respective areas with the previous sanction of the Government.  The Government awarded grant-in-aid to a panchayat equal to the amount of the tax collected by it.  the panchayats funds wee also augmented through voluntary contributions. The amounts, thus, collected were utilized by the panchayat to provide new libraries, repair school buildings and otherwise help in the welfare of the villages. A separate Panchayat Department was created to look after panchayats.

 

            After the independence, it was felt that the village panchayat must be revitalized by assigning to it important functions of local government and allocating to it the necessary resources.  Article 40, one of the Directive Principles embodied in the constitution, lays down that “the State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and to endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of Self-Government”.  In pursuance of the All-India policy, the State Government enacted the Punjab Gram Panchayats Act, 1939.Amended form time to time, this Act forms a landmark in the history of the panchayat system in the State.

 

            The Punjab Gram Panchayats Act, 1952, was amended in 1960, and that was the first step towards the establishment of Panchayati Raj in the State.  Under the Act, a gram sabha may be constituted for any village or group of contiguous villages with a population of not less than 5001 and a gram panchayat is elected for the gram sabha area not for each village.  The Government of course, has the power to relax it.  every male or female who is entered as a voter on the electoral roll of the State Vidhan Sabha is member of the gram sabha.  These members of the gram sabha elect the members of the panchayats from amongst themselves.  If no woman is elected as a Panch, the woman candidate, securing the highest number of votes amongst the women candidates in that election, is co-opted by the panchayat as a Panch, and, where no such women candidates is available, a women is co-opted as a Panch by the prescribed authority.  Similarly, it has been provided that every panchayat shall have one or two members of the Scheduled Castes, depending upon the ratio of their population in the village.  Each Panchayat consists of 5 to 9 members, including a Sarpanch, a lady Panch and a Panch from the Harijan Community.

1.  The gram Panchayat Act, 1952, has been amended to allow the constitution of a Panchayat for a village having population of 100.

 

            Under the Act, Panches elects the Sarpanch from among themselves.  The panchayat may remove the Sarpanch by a motion of non-confidence passed by at least two-thirds of the Panches.  No such motion can be sponsored without the previous permission of the Directory,  Rurual Development and Panchayats, Punjab.  Members of the panchayat may be removed by Government on specified grounds.  Their removal entails disqualification for re-election for a period up to five years.

 

            Under the Act, a gram panchayat is to meet atleast once a month at a place within its area.  Majority of the panches holding office form the quorum.

 

            All the decisions of a panchayat are taken by a majority of the members and, when the voting is equal, the Sarpanch has an additional or casting vote.

 

            At the district headquarters, the District Development and Panchayat Officer co-ordinates and supervises the working of the panchayats in the district.

 

            In 1974-75, there were 1,035 panchayats in the Hoshiarpur District, with a total membership of 6,568.

 

Functions

 

            Under the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, the panchayats have been vested with judicial and executive powers.  Besides the judicial work, the panchayats look to the requirements of their respective areas in regard to agriculture, education, animal husbandry, public health and sanitation, including water-supply, works of public utility, games and sports, industries, medical health and relief too the poor.  They are excepted to arrange 50 percent of the cost of local development works sponsored by the Development Department, either in cash, kind or labour, and with the help of the concerned departments, they have been responsible for starting a number of single-teacher primary schools, constructing new school buildings and repairing and remodeling of old ones, provisions of drinking water arrangements in schools, raising aided libraries, installing community-listening sets, constructing and repairing panchayatghars building dispensaries, planting trees, arranging playgrounds and children parks, constructing village approach roads, repairing and leveling public paths, constructing drains culverts and pavements of streets, constructing, repairing and remodeling wells for drinking-water and remodeling and repairing ponds.

 

Sources of Revenue

 

            The main sources of income of the panchayats are : grants-in-aid from the Government, a percentage of land revenue collection, donation, taxes duties, cesses and fees, income from the village common lands, sale proceeds of dust, dirt and dung, etc.  The fines and penalties which the panchayats impose are transferred to their funds.

 

The income of the panchayats in the Hoshiarpur District during 1970-71 to 1974-75, is given below:

 

 

Source of Income

 

 

Year

 

 

 

1970-71

1971-72

1972-73

1973-74

1974-75

 

 

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

1

Grants from Government

2,42,609

4,57,532

6,39,194

7,09,758

8,85,978

2

Voluntary contributions

26,758

27,369

34,287

6,318

5,04,691

3

House tax

1,46,631

1,41,063

2,44,875

2,04,927

1,25,397

 

Total

4,15,998

6,25,964

9,18,356

9,21,003

14,16,066

 

(Source : Director, Rural Development and Panchayats, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

Achievements

           

            During 1974-75, the panchayats in the district constructed 71 new school buildings and repaired and extended a good number of the existing ones, provided 8 playgrounds, 202 children parks, established 40 libraries, constructed 88 panchayatghars, constructed buildings of 3 hospitals/dispensaries, provided streets light to 62 villages, constructed 29 km of roads and 143 culverts, besides making the drains pucca, pavement of streets, disinfecting wells, etc.

 

            Panchayats Samitis :- The Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, as amended up-to-date and the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads Act, 1961, form the corner-stone of the Panchayati Raj in the State.  The structure consists of three tiers, namely, a panchayat at the village level, a panchayat samiti at the block or tahsil, level, and a zila parishad at the district level.  These three institutions are organically linked with one another through indirect elections.

 

            The Hoshiarpur District is divided into 11 community development blocks. There is one panchayat samiti for each block.  According to the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads Act, 1961, each panchayat samiti consists of 16 members elected by the market committees.  Besides, every MLA, with his constituency in the block, works on the panchayat samitis as an associate members.*  Two women interested in social work and four persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, if not elected otherwise, are co-opted as members. The Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) and the Block Development and Panchayat Officer of the block, work as ex-officio members, without the right to vote.  The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman are elected from among the elected members and their term of office is five years.

 

            The panchayat samities have the most important role to play in the development of the villages. They provide and make arrangements for the requirements of the area­­­­­­ within their jurisdiction in respect of agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries, health and rural sanitation, communications, social education, co-operation and miscellaneous items of such work, as the development of cottage and small-scale industries and other local development activities. A panchayat samiti is also the agent of the Government for the formulation and execution of Community Development Programme.

 

            The main sources of income of a panchayat samiti are ; local rate, as charged by the defunct district board, fees derived from schools and markets, fee from fairs and shows, rents and profits accruing from properties vested in it, and such money and grants as Government may place at its disposal.  Besides, a panchayats samiti can, with the permission of  the Zila Parishad, impose any tax which the State legislature has power to impose under the Constitution.

 

            Zila Parishad. – The zila parishad, which has replaced the former district board, stands at the apex of the structure of the Panchayati Raj.  The District Board, Hoshiarpur, was constituted in 1884.  It consisted of 36 members of whom 24 were delegates from local boards, 6 were nominated and 6 were ex-officio.  It was replaced on April1, 1962, by the Zila Parishad, Hoshiarpur, constituted under the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads Act, 1961.

 

            The zila parishad consists of the Chairman of every panchayat samiti ; two members elected by each panchayat samiti, MP and MLA, representing the district or any part thereof, and the Deputy Commissioner.  Two women and five members belonging to the Scheduled Castes, if not elected otherwise, are co-opted as members.  The MPs. MLAs and the Deputy Commissioner do not have the right to vote.  The Zila Parishad has a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman, elected by the primary members, chairmen of the panchayat samitis and co-opted members, from among themselves for five years.  The Secretary of the zila parishad is appointed by the Government.

 

*Prior to the abolition of the Punjab Vidhan Parishad in 1969, the membership of the Punjab Vidhan Parishad as the Government might by order specify.

 

            The Zila Parishad, Hoshiarpur, was superseded by the State Government on March 31, 1975, and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed to perform the functions till the new elections.

 

            The zila parishad consolidates and co-ordinates the plans prepared by the panchayat samitis, examines and approves the budgets of the panchayat samitis and keeps a watch over agricultural production programmes and construction works.

 

            All the roads maintained by the former district board and the present zila parishad have been transferred to the Public Works Department and, since March 31, 1975, no road is being maintained by the Zila Parishad Hoshiarpur.

 

            The Zila Parishad, Hoshiarpur, runs a veterinaty hospital at the district headquarters, 16 veterinary hospitals and five civil dispensaries in the rural areas.  The amount paid annually by the zila parishad to different institutions is : Rs 10,000 to the Punjab Panchayati Raj Khed Parishad ; Rs 4.543 to the Mental Hospital Amritsar ; and Rs. 4,900 to the Red Cross Society, Hoshiarpur.

 

            The income of the zila parishad accrues from the Central or the State Government funds allotted to it, grants from all-India bodies and institutions for the development of cottage and small-scale industries, share of the land cess, State tax or fees, income from endowments and such contributions as the zila parishad may levy on the panchayat samitis. The income and expenditure of the Zila Parishad, Hoshiarpur, during 1970-71 to 1974-75, is given below :

 

Year

 

Income

Expenditure

 

 

(Rs)

(Rs)

1970-71

..

21,54,881

19,24,464

1971-72

..

10,23,679

11,28,423

1972-73

..

11,88,918

12,53,381

1973-74

..

13,67,694

11,64,863

1974-75

..

11,67,357

  9,52,632

 

(Source: Zila Parishad, Hoshiarpur)

 

 

APPENDIX

 

Income and Expenditure of municipality in the Hoshiarpur District,

 1970-71 to 1974-75

 

Name of Municipality

Particulars

 

 

Year

 

 

1970-71

1971-72

1972-73

1973-74

1974-75

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

(Rs)

Tahsil Hoshiarpur

 

 

 

 

Hoshiarpur

Income

23,83,695

34,80,866

27,36,258

31,32,920

3,48,700

Expenditure

25,69,320

21,61,463

36,40,300

28,58,948

37,71,000

Garhdiwala

 

Income

89,948

85,438

1,68,482

84,670

2,94,000

Expenditure

85,468

1,03,435

67,290

1,41,601

1,07,000

Hariana

 

Income

84,117

69,606

1,84,306

97,799

1,78,000

Expenditure

75,283

83,159

82,276

1,49,577

1,30,000

Sham Chaurasi

 

Income

17,935

19,003

1,17,002

18,516

1,21,000

Expenditure

17,436

18,277

17,053

27,898

17,000

Tahsil Dasuya

 

 

 

 

 

Dasuya

 

Income

2,34,990

2,47,019

2,63,982

4,02,917

5,22,000

Expenditure

1,82,939

2,88,960

2,67,398

2,51,457

6,22,000

Mukerian

Income

3,00,706

2,78,125

3,91,160

5,76,990

7,27,000

Expenditure

2,69,560

2,77,032

3,18,516

5,65,791

7,65,000

Tanda Urmar

Income

2,21,813

2,36,157

2,91,649

2,84,272

5,66,000

Expenditure

2,60,185

2,52,464

2,89,958

2,92,076

5,78,000

Tahsil Garhshankar

 

 

 

 

 

Garhshankar

Income

1,19,865

1,41,145

2,55,521

3,37,364

4,29,000

Expenditure

1,08,627

1,92,821

1,28,874

3,14,259

4,20,000

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1971 to 1975)

 

 

CHAPTER XV

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

 

(a)

Historical Background

(b)

Literacy and Educational Standards

(c)

General Education

(d)

Professional and Technical Education

(e)

Physical Education

(f)

Cultivation of Fine Arts

(g)

Oriental Schools and Colleges

(h)

Adult Literacy, Social Education and Measures for the Diffusion of Culture among the Masses

(i)

Education for the Handicapped

(j)

Cultural and Literacy Societies and Periodicals

(k)

Libraries and Museum

 

(a)  Historical Background

 

            The people of the district are adventurous, and were the first to take a lead as emigrants to foreign countries in the nineteenth century. Consequently, it aroused political consciousness and the sense of patriotism in them to reserve their motherland and they brought with them new ideas about education (with sufficient finances to start a number of educational institutions).  As a result of their endeavours, educational institutions began to spring up and the number of private institutions in the district in 1901 rose to 4 high schools, 8 Anglo-vernacular middle schools and 134 primary schools.  In 1911, their number rose to 9 middle schools and 189 primary schools.

 

            The government High School, Hoshiarpur, was establiched on June 27, 1848.  It originally consisted of two sections, in which only Persian and Hindi were taught and no attention was paid to the branches of general knowledge.  The school was placed under the Education Department in 1856.  Later on in August 1859, as English class was added to it.  in 1870, the study of Arabic and Sanskrit was also introduced.

 

            The Christian missionaries had discovered long before 1901, that Hoshiarpur was a wholesome place to serve as a foothold for the spread of their mission.  They set up a number of educational institutions in the district and became pioneers for the propagation of Western type of education.

 

            The hilly part of the Hoshiarpur District abounds in temples of goddesses, old shrines and historical gurdwaras.  These places of worship, attracting millions of worshippers every year, have been a source of religious teaching and learning. They have been advancing the cause of religious education for a long time.

 

            After 1911, the local bodies, became more and more conscious of taking upon themselves the responsibility for providing educational facilities. This awakening, combined with the part played by private educational organizations, such as the Dayanad Anglo-Vedic Trust (D .A. V.), the Chief Khalsa Diwan, the Sanatan Dharam Sabha, gave a great fillip to education in the district.  With the passage of time, the number of institutions started increasing, and in December 1947, their number stood at 3 colleges, 46 high schools, 28 middle schools and 294 primary schools.

 

            After the partition of the country in 1947, the National Government gave priority to the expansion of education with an avowed policy of arranging free and compulsory education.  The educational institutions multiplied and the Punjab government took a bold step of provincialising the local bodies’ schools on October 1, 1957.  This step was a landmark in the post-independence history of education.  Education in government schools has been made free up to the middle standard. To implement the recommendations of the Higher Secondary Education Commission, most of the high schools switched over to the pattern of higher secondary school.  Similarly, to provide facilities of higher education, even small towns, such as Tanda Urmar, hariana and mahalpur have been given the privilege of starting degree colleges.  The Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are encouraged to send their children to schools.  Most of the parents have become education-minded and they are availing themselves of schemes of stipend and scholarship for their wards for which liberal grants are sanctioned every year.  The Compulsory Primary Education act, 1960, was promulgated from April 1, 1961 in the entire district and as a result of its implementation, a large number of school within a radius of about one kilometre and a half.  The number of educational institutions in the district, as on March 31, 1975, was 11 colleges, 28 higher secondary schools, 120 high schools, 113 middle schools, 1,056 primary and basic primary schools.

 

 

(b)  literacy and Educational Standards

 

            Though Hoshiarpur is an economically backward district, yet in the field of education, it is one of the most advanced districts of the State.  In 190-1, the proportion of literate persons in the district was 4 per cent (7.3 males and 0.2 females).  The number of pupils receiving instruction was 4,813 in 1880-81, 9,794 in 1890-91, 9,639 in 1900-1 and 10,772 in 1903-4.  The district stood twelfth among the twenty-eight districts of the then Punjab Province in respect of literary.1

 

            The literacy rate in the district has been going up since 1947, with the opening of a number of primary, middle, high/higher secondary schools and colleges.  According to the 1971 Census, the literacy rate of the district was above the State level.  It was 40.88 per cent (50.21 for males and 30.51) for females) of total population of the district as against 33.67 per cent (40.38 for males and 25.90 for females) of the Punjab State, as against 28.8 per cent and 24.2 per cent in 1961, respectively.  The number of educational institutions has tremendously gone up in the private sector as well as in the public sector.

 

            The following table shows the progress of school education in the district from 1951-52 onwards:-

 

Type of Institutions

 

Number of Institution

 

 

1951-52

1960-61

1967-68

1974-75

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Primary Schools

319

97

564

171

591

8

1052

4

Middle Schools

41

7

43

25

50

26

89

24

High Schools

66

3

84

15

62

16

103

17

High Secondary Schools

..

..

21

4

25

6

23

5

Total

426

107

712

215

728

56

1,267

50

                (Census of India, 1961, Punjab District Census Handbook No. 9,Hoshiarpur District, p. 84; Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1971, p. 391; District Education officer, Hoshiarpur)

 

1. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Punjab, Vol, 1, (Calcutta 1908), 403

 

            Though education, like other subjects, is planned by the State, yet various educational societies, missions and philanthropic endowments are also rendering valuable service in the field of education in the district.  Those important among such societies are briefly mentioned below:

 

Educational Societies Rendering Service in the Field of Education

 

            (i)  Christian Mission. – The Christian Mission was started in the Hoshiarpur District in 1867 by Rev. G. D. Moitra, a missionary of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A.  He was succeeded by Rev. K. C. Chatterjee in 1868.  Under his patronage, the Mission opened in 1869 two schools one each for Hindu and Muhammandan girls at Hoshiarpur.  later on in 1888, a Girls’ Orphanage and a Boarding School were opened by the Mission at Hoshiarpur to afford home and Christian training to orphan girls of all

castes and creeds and to the children of poor classes of native Christians.  These schools were supported by the Ludhiana Mission.

 

The mission is running a school for girls at Hoshiarpur.  it was opened in 1969.  It was opened in 1969.  It is a co-educational institution and caters for the needs of the students belonging to poor families.  Another schools was opened in 1970 at village Chhauni Kalan, near Hoshiarpur by the Roman Catholic Mission.  It is an English-medium school.

 

            (ii)  Santa Dharma Sabha. – It was established in the district in 1890 and is a registered body under the Registration of Societies Act.  Besides a degree college at Hoshiarpur, the Sabha is running two higher secondary schools, one each at hoshiarpur and Sham Chaurasi, in the district.

 

            (iii)  The Arya Samaj. – The Arya Samaj is running a number of educational institutions right from middle standard to the degree level in the district.  Besides two colleges at Hoshiarpur and Dasuya, the Samaj is running a large number of high/higher secondary schools at different places in the district.

 

            (iv)  Sing Sabha and other Sikh Societies. – These societies have played a vital role in the promotion of education in the district.  A large number of educational institutions right from the middle to the degree level are being run at various places in the district by these societies.

 

            Besides the above bodies, a number of other societies and philanthropic and religious associations are running educational institutions at various places in the district.

 

Women’s Education

 

            The prejudice against female education, if any, among the people has been dispelled by the changed times.  The parents have become education-minded so much so that they have begun to consider the education of their daughters as important as that of their sons to get them settled  well in life.  Some high-caste communities in the hills had misgivings which the time showed to be false.  They have shed their prejudices and are now yearning for girls schools in their villages.  The compulsory Elementary Education Act, 1960, has made it obligatory on parents to send their girls of the age-group of 6 and above to schools.

 

            According to the Census of 1971, the literacy rate of females as a percentage of the total population in the district was 30.51, as against the State’s 25.90.

 

            After the independence, female education has made rapid progress in the district.  The introduction of  compulsory primary education also helped much in this respect.  As on March 31, 1975, there were as many as 76,985 girls studying in primary and basic primary schools in the district.  Besides, there were 24 middle and 22 high and higher secondary schools for girls in the district, with 24,719 students on the rolls.  The college  education among women also got an impetus, and in 1974-75, there were 11 degree colleges in the district in which women received higher education.  However, there was no college exclusively for women in the district

 

Education of Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes

 

            The percentage of the population of Scheduled Castes in the total population in the district, according to the 1971 Census was 28.85 against 24.71 for the State.  For the students belonging to the Scheduled Cates, education is free up to the middle standard in all government schools.  They are also granted scholarships, stipends, exemptions from tuition fees and the reimbursements of examination fees liberally.  To prepare the members of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes for appearing in competitive examinations for the IAS, IPS and other allied services, free board and lodging are provided at the Zonal Coaching Centre, Patiala.  Books free of cost are given to students of Medical and Engineering classes.

 

            The financial assistance given to the students belonging  to the Scheduled Castes and other Backward Classes in the District, During 1970-71 to 1974-75, is given below:

 

Year

Stipends

Number of students benefited

 

(Rs)

 

1970-71

4,62,843

4,923

1971-72

6,45,141

11,277

1972-73

5,92,901

7,751

1973-74

5,02,446

8,017

1974-25

6,15,852

8,751

(Source: District Education Officer, Hoshiarpur)

            The number of students belonging to the Schedule Caste and Backward lasses studying in different types of schools in the district, as on March 31, 1975, was as under:

 

Type of Institutions

 

Number of

 

 

Scheduled Castes Students

Backward Castes Students

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Primary Schools

30,950

23,692

54,642

19,027

16,545

35,572

Middle Schools

9,381

2,915

12,296

7,904

3,854

11,758

High and Higher Secondary Schools

3,530

772

4,302

3,264

1,130

  4,394

Total

43,861

27,379

71,240

30,195

21,529

51,724

 

(Source: District Education Officer, Hoshiarpur)

 

Role of Local Bodies in the Field of Education

 

            The local bodies ceased to play any role in the field of education after October 1, 1957, when the schools were provincialised in the State.  Before provincialisation, these institutions, like the zila parishads (formerly known as district boards) and the various municipal committees controlled certain schools.  These bodies had played a significant role in promoting education.

 

Medium of Instruction

 

            With a view to solving the language problem in the State, the government worked out the Three-language Formula to satisfy all sections of the people, which replaced the Sachar Formula of 1949.  Under the Three-Language Formula, Punjabi has been made the first language and the medium of instruction in Government schools at all levels, and the Hindi language has been made compulsory from the sixth class.  The privately managed schools have been given option to retain Punjabi or Hindi as medium of instruction.  The schools which adopt Hindi as the medium of instruction are required to teach Punjabi as a compulsory language.  This solution evolved by the Government has gone a long way in solving the language problem in the State.  It has ensured compulsory instruction in Punjabi in all the schools and has enabled the Hindi-medium schools to continue teaching through that medium and, as such, the entire school-going population in the State has become conversant with both the languages.  The status of English language has also been recognized, as it is an international language.

 

            Educational Set-up. – At the district level, the District Education Officer is overall incharge of the educational activities up to the high and higher secondary school levels.  He functions under the Director of Public Instruction, Punjab, through the Circle Education Officer, Jullundur.  The District Education Officer is assisted by 2 Deputy District Education Officer is assisted by 2 Deputy District Education Officers, 1 District Education Survey Officer, 1 District Science Supervisor, 1 Assistant Education Officer (Physical Training), 1 Instructor in National Fitness corps, and a number of Block Education Officers. The Primary schools function directly under the Block Education Officer, but the Deputy Education Officers control the middle, high and higher secondary schools in the district.

 

            At the ministerial level, the establishment, accounts examination and general branches function under the general supervision of a Superintendent, who is responsible to the District Education Officer for general administration and working of the office.

 

 

(c)  General Education

 

Pre-Primary Schools

 

            A systematic pre-primary education is of recent origin.  Meant for children of the age group 3-6 years, it seeks to inculcate in them the habit of maintaining good health and behaviour and in developing social sense.  The District Child Welfare Council, Hoshiarpur runs three balwadis in the town where children between 3 and 5 years of age are admitted.  Education is imparted through play-way activities of the kinder garten and Montessori methods.

 

Primary and Basic Schools

 

            Free Primary education was introduced in the State during the third five-Year Plan (1961-66) in the age-group 6-7 in 1961-62, and was extended to the age-groups 7-8 in 1962-63, 8-9 in 1963-64, 9-10 in 1964-65 and 10-11 I 1965-66.  As a step towards the free towards the free and compulsory universalisation of primary education, all the revenue villages in the district, have been provided with primary schools during 1976-77.  Special incentives are given to children of the weaker sections of the society by way of supplying free text books and middy meals.  Besides, to improve the instructional condition of the schools, a provision has been made for the purchase of books and charts.

 

            The total number of primary/basic primary schools in the district, as on Marcy 31, 1975, was 1,056, with 1,69,751 scholars.  The number of teachers, on June 15, 1975, in these schools was 4,457 (2,350 males and 2,107 females) both in government and private schools.

 

            The details of educational institutions and scholars at the primary stage in the district are given in Appendix I, on page 359.

 

 

Secondary Schools

 

            Ever since the introduction of the Compulsory Primary Education Act, in 1962, it has been the endeavor of the State’s Education Department to bring the maximum number of students of schools going age, particularly, those belonging to the economically and socially weaker sections of society, to the schools by persuasion rather than by coercion.  Consequently, there has been a tremendous increase in enrolment in the secondary schools. At the secondary schools, 120 high schools and 113 middle schools in the district. The total number of scholars studying in the high/higher secondary schools was 21,296, and that in middle schools was 52,811.  According to the 1971 Census, there were 74 villages having 76 middle schools and 82 villages having 84 high or higher secondary

 

            The total number of teachers in all the middle, high and higher secondary schools in the district, as on June 15, 1975, was 2,006 (1,1414 males and 592 females) and 1,156 (890 males and 266 females),respectively.

 

            The details of the educational institutions and scholars at the secondary stage in the district, as on march 31, 1975, are given in Appendix II on page 360.

 

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