GAZETTEER JALANDHAR

CONTENTS

(First Edition 1980)

SN

Subject

1.       

General

2.       

History

3.       

People

4.       

Agriculture And Irrigation

5.       

Industries

6.       

Banking, Trade and Commerce

7.       

Communication

8.       

Miscellaneous Occupations

9.       

Economics Trends

10.   

General Administration

11.   

Revenue Administration

12.   

Law and order and Justice

13.   

Other Departments

14.   

Local Self Government

15.   

Education and Culture

16.   

Medical and Public Health Services

17.   

Other Social Services

18.   

Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organizations

19.   

Places of interest

 

 

 

CHAPTER – I

GENERAL

 

v     Origin of the Name of the District

v     Total Area and Population of the District

v     Administrative Division of the District

v     Climate

 

 

 

Origin of the Name of the District.-  The district is named after Jalandhar, a demon king, who finds a mention in the Puranas and Mahabharta.  According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of lav, son of Rama. According to yet another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar’ means area inside the water, i.e. tract laying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas, still another name of Jalandhar had been Trigartta, as it was waters by three rivers, Satluj, Beas and Ravi.

 

Total Area and Population of the District.- According to 1991 Census, the area of Jalandhar District was 3,401 sq. km, but according to the Director of Land Records, Punjab, the area of the district during 1993-94 was 3,413.56 sq. km. The tahsil-wise area of district during 1993-94 is given below

 

Tahsil

Area

(Sq. km)

Jalandhar

1,008.51

Nawashahr

774.66

Nakodar

881.85

Phillaur

748.54

 

(Source: Director of Land Records, Punjab)

 

           According to 1991 Census, the total population of the district was 20,26,787 persons (10,67,093 males and 9,59,694 Females) which ranked 3rd in the state.

 

Administrative Division of the District - The Jalandhar District consist of 4 tahsils/subdivisions viz.  Jalandhar, Nawashahr, Nakodar and Phillaur. Besides, there are 5 sub-tehsils, viz. Kapurthala, Bhogpur, Banga, Shahkot and Nurmahal. The district is divided into 12 development blocks, viz, Jalandhar East, Jalandhar West, Bhogpur, Adampur, Nawashahr, Banga, Aur, Nakodar, Shahkot, Phillaur, Nurmahal and Rurka Kalan. According to 1991 Census, the district had 1,256 villages, (uninhabited 17 and inhabited 1,239).

 

           Boundary Changes.- There has been no change in the boundary and jurisdiction of the district since the publication of the main volume of Jalandhar District Gazetteer in 1990 up to the reference period i.e. 1993-94.

 

Climate

 

The climate of this district is on the whole dry except during the brief south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from the middle of November to early part of March. The succeeding period upto the end of June in the summer season, July, August and first half of September constitute the South-West monsoon season. The period from middle September to the middle of November is the postmonsoon or transition period. Although tahsil Phagwara is in the Kapurthala District, for the description of climate the same has been included in the Jalandhar district.

 

Rainfall.- Records of the rainfall in the district are available for 6 stations for sufficiently long period, the detail of the rainfall at these stations and for the district in general are given in Table 1 and 2. The average annual rainfall in the district is 703.0 mm. The rainfall in the district in general increases from the south-west towards the north-east and varies from 551.3 mm to Nakodar to 892.3 mm at Adampur (Aera-obsy). About 70 per cent of the annual normal rainfall in the district is received during the period July to September, July being the rainiest month. Some rainfall is received mostly as thunder showers in June and in association with passing western disturbances in the cold season. The variation in the rainfall from year to year in the district is appreciable. In the 80 year, 1901 to 1980, the highest annual rainfall amounting to 181 per cent of the normal occurred in 1917. The lowest annual rainfall which was 55 per cent of the normal occurred in the year 1905. In the same period, the annual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 22 years. Two consecutive years twice in the period. It was be seen from Table 2 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 501 to 900 mm in 58 years out 0f 79.

 

On an average, there are 36 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. The number varies from 30 at Phagwara to 45 at Adampur (Aera-obsy).

 

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded at any station in the district was 304.8 mm at Jalandhar on 18 August 1878. The average monthly rainfall in Jalandhar District during 1974, 1979, 1984 to 1993 is given in table 3.

 

Temperature.- There is a meteorological observation in the District of Jalandhar. But it has started functioning very recently. So description is follows is based on the records of the observatories in the neighboring district where similar climate conditions prevail. After February, temperature being to rise rapidly. June is generally the hottest month with the mean daily temperature at about 41oC and the mean daily minimum at about 27oC. Scorching dustladen winds blow on many days in the summer season and the day temperatures on individual days may reach above 450C. Afternoon thundershowers which occur on some days during the summer bring welcome relief through only temporarily. With the onset of monsoon by about the end of June or early in July, the day temperature drop down appreciably. But the nights continue to be a warm as nights during the summer. Due to increase moisture in the monsoon air, the weather is often sultry and uncomfortable, in between this rains. After about mid-September when the monsoon withdraws temperatures decrease, the drop in the night temperature being rapid. January is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 19oC and the mean daily minimum at about 6oC. During the winter season. Cold waves effect the district in the rear of western disturbances and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down below the freezing point of water.

Humidity.-during the brief south-west monsoon months and for spells of a day or two in association with the passing western disturbances high humidity prevails in the district. In the rest of the year, the humidity is low. The driest port of the year is the summer season when in the afternoons the relative humidity is 30 percent or less.

 

Cloudiness.-The skies are heavily clouded and over cast on a few days during the south-west monsoon and for spells of a day or two in association with passing western disturbances during the cold season. During the rest of the year, the skies are mostly clear or lightly clouded.

 

Winds.-Winds are generally light in the district. In the south-west monsoon season, winds from direction, between north-east and south-east, are common but on many days in the afternoons westerly to north-westerly winds predominate, except in the latter half of summer, when easterlies and south easterlies blow on some days

 

Special Weather Phenomena.-During the cold season, western disturbances after the weather over the district when thunder storms occur. Dust storms and thunder storms occurs in the summer season and rain during the monsoon is after associated with thunder.              

Jalandhar

Nakodar

Phillour

Nawashahr

Adampur (Aero-obsy)

Phagwara

Jalandhar (District) Mean

Station

73  (a)

      (b)

73  (a)

      (b)

73  (a)

      (b)

73  (a)

      (b)   

20  (a)

      (b)

19  (a)

      (b)

      (a)

      (b)   

No. of  years of data

33.3

2.5

26.2.

2.1

30.7

2.4

39.4

2.8

23.8

2.3

25.9

2.1

29.9

2.4

January

32.6

2.5

29.6

2.3

30.5

2.4

36.7

2.8

40.0

2.9

23.3

1.5

32.1

2.4

February

28.6

2.4

22.5

2.0

27.1

2.1

32.1

2.5

33.8

2.7

32.1

2.1

29.4

2.3

March

13.7

1.3

11.1

1.1

12.2

1.1

12.9

1.2

12.7

1.5

5.2

0.8

11.3

1.2

 

April

14.5

1.3

11.6

1.1

11.8

1.1

11.4

1.3

24.3

1.8

11.2

0.9

14.1

1.3

May

40.8

2.7

33.2

2.3

45.73.0

56.1

3.4

89.7

4.6

42.5

2.7

51.3

3.1

 

June

197.3

8.5

156.1

7.7

190.0

7.9

238.9

9.1

283.3

10.6

174.6

7.4

206.7

805

July

190.2

8.0

139.7

6.8

170.3

7.2

202.9

8.3

242.7

10.5

157.4

6.6

183.9

7.9

August

98.2

4.0

87.7

3.6

105.0

3.7

118.2

4.1

99.7

4.6

97.3

4.1

1.1.0

4.0

September

22.2

0.9

15.5

0.7

20.5

0.9

23.0

0.9

13.7

0.9

36.8

0.9

21.9

0.9

October

4.5

0.4

3.6

0.4

4.1

0.4

4.1

0.4

9.6

0.8

4.7

0.3

5.1

0.5

November

18.3

1.2

14.5

1.0

17.6

1.4

19.4

1.5

19.0

1.3

9.1

0.7

16.3

1.2

December

694.2

35.7

551.3

31.1

665.5

33.6

795.1

38.3

892.3

44.5

620.1

30.1

703.0

35.7

Annual

181 (1950)

 

203 (1950)

 

186 (1917)

 

196 (1917)

 

136 (1962)

 

158 (1957)

 

181 (1917)

Highest annual Rainfall as % of normal & Year

43  (1972)

 

43 (1905)

 

39 (1969)

 

39 (1918)

 

52 (1974)

 

34 (1963)

 

55 (1905)

 

Lowest annual Rainfall as % of normal & Year

304.8

 

287.0

 

292.9

 

240.0

 

205.8

 

137.9

 

Amount (mm)

Heaviest rainfall in 24hours*

1878 August18

 

1880   July 05

 

1955  October 04

 

1892 September 14

 

1970    August 23

 

1955   October 04

dated

(a)   Normal rainfall in mm

(b)   Average number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm or more)

*Based on all available data up to 1980

**Years of occurrence given in brackets

 

TABLE 2

Frequency of Annual Rainfall in the District (Jalandhar)

(Data 1901 to 1980)

Range in mm

No. of Years

301—400

401—500

501—600

601—700

701—800

801—900

901—1000

1001—1100

1101—1200

1201—1300

4

8

14

21

12

11

4

3

1

1

         (Source : Additional Director General of Metrology (Research), Punne)

 

TABLE III

Monthly Average Rainfall in the Jalandhar District during the year 1974,1979,1984 to 1993

 

1974

1979

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

 

Year

0.64

3.32

0.43

0.31

3.38

3.68

0.32

4.14

0.13

--

5.40

1.23

January

--

10.90

9.22

0.04

3.46

3.09

4.43

0.56

7.48

4.52

4.44

1.27

 

February

0.94

7.54

1.75

0.24

2.6

1.48

4.9

3.00

5.17

2.66

4.12

4.37

March

0.31

0.70

1.96

2.72

1.54

2.28

0.99

1.38

--

2.73

0.74

2.03

April

0.93

4.07

6.00

1.22

1.24

17.27

0.42

0.14

0.59

1.65

1.65

1.10

May

8.67

5.83

12.84

8.40

4.36

1.96

7.41

2.17

1.67

8.32

4.21

4.61

June

10.25

24.01

32.75

44.72

18.23

5.04

43.83

21.82

22.55

12.38

16.31

50.33

July

10.17

4.73

31.37

19.28

16.5

11.7

24.00

22.97

30.65

25.87

20.09

5.81

August

3.52

3.85

22.94

5.51

10.10

1.28

63.84

4.12

40.28

5.52

5.32

14.56

September

--

0.13

--

4.98

1.09

2.37

--

0.88

.06

0.52

--

--

 

October

--

1.55

0.33

--

0.35

0.45

--

0.72

.81

--

2.74

0.27

November

1.36

--

0.82

2.08

1.87

1.24

4.74

3.92

7.18

6.34

.24

--

December

36.79

66.63

120.41

89.50

64.72

51.91

153.98

64.84

116.57

75.51

65.26

85.56

Total

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1975, 1980, 1985 to 1993)

 

 

CHAPTER – II

HISTORY

 

v     Ancient Period

v     Medieval Period

v     Modern Period

 

(a)             Ancient Period

 

In ancient time, the district or Kingdom of Jalandhar comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from the Ravi to the Satluj. According to the Padama Purana, as quoted by General Conningham the country takes its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara the son of the Ganga by Ocean.

 

           The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjodaro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological exploration made during the recent years have pushed the antiquity of the Jalandhar District of the Harappa period. On the basis of surface exploration, the following new sites have been bought on the Archaeological map of India and the traces of the self-same people as at Harappa and Mohenjodaro have also been detected in Jalandhar District at the following places:-

 

Serial No.

Name of the Village

Name of the Tehsil

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

Appra

Asapur

Bara Pind

Bsian

Katpalon

Lallian

Nagar

Dholeta

Tehang

Bir Bansian

Bhagwanpur

Basian

Dhogri

Dhandauri

Dugri

Haripur

Khaira

Kartarpur(R)

Kala Bahina

Kotla Nihang

Daulatpur

Madhopur

Malian

Nauli

Ucha-Lutera

Bairsian

Charan

Heon

Maahliana

Nurpur

Rahon

Sujjon

Taharpur

Haripur

Daulatpur

Dherian

Mulewala

Malsian

Noorpur

Nakodar

Singhpur

Tut

Talwandi Madho

Phillaur

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Jalandhar

Do

Jalandhar

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Nawashahr

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Nakodar

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

 

 

From the above mentioned evidence, it is established that the whole of the Jalandhar District was a part of the vast areas covered under the Induas Valley Civilization during the early period of history. This civilization developed prior to the Aryan Civilization in this region.

 

           The excavations done and the places which is given above in the Jalandhar District have revealed the imprints of Harrapa culture in east Punjab the earlier two important sites i.e. (Harappa and Mohanjodaro) being in Pakistan. Rare and unique archaeological objects have been found in Nagar (tahsil Phillaur) in Jalandhar District. The earliest known cities in India were in the Valley of the river  Indus. The remains of a number of different settlements have been discovered by archaeologists. These are scattered over an area of thousand miles. The two biggest cities were Mohenjodaro and Harappa. These cities were inhabited from 2300 to 1700 BC.

 

           The earliest historical mention of Jalandhar occure in the region of Kanishka, the Kushan King of northern India in whose time a council of Buddhists theologians was held near Jalandhar about 100 AD to collect and arrange the sacred writings of Buddhism and to bring about reconciliation between its various sects.

 

           In the 7th Century, when the famous Chinese traveller and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of Harsha Vardhana, the Kingdom of Jalandhar or Trigartta under Raja Utito (Whom Alexender Cunningham identifies with the Rajput Raja Attar Chandra). It was said to have extended 167 miles (about 268 kms) from east to west and 133 miles (about 213 kms) from north to south, thus including the hill states of Chamba, Mandi and Suket (Himachal Pardesh) and Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. Raja Utito was a tributary of Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear to have continued to rule over the country right upto the 12th century, interrupted some time or the other, but their capital was Jalandhar and Kangra formed and important stronghold.

 

           According to Chinese pilgrim Famine, who traveled India in the seventh century AD, there were so many Vihars and Maths of Buddhism in India. In the Jalandhar District, there were as many as 50 Vihars and Maths of Buddhism. The Buddhism religion was adopted by a large number of people.

 

           From the later half of the tenth century upto AD 1019, the district was included in the Shahi Kingdom of the Punjab and Jalandhar was an important city in the region.

 

(b)             Medieval Period

 


AD 1296-1316               ..               

 

AD  1398                     ..

 

 

 

AD 1416                        ..

 

AD 1417                       ..

 

AD 1419                      ..

 

During the reign of Ala-Ud-din Khilji, is one  of the numerous Mughal invasions, the invaders under Dua were defeated near Jalandhar by Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan in AD 1297

 

In consequence of the sack of Delhi by Timur, the house of Tughlok  had fallen.

 

Malik Tughan assassinated the Governor of Sirhind, but was driven into the hills of Malik Daud and Zirak Khan.

 

Malik Tughan returned with a considerable army and besieged Sirhing, Zirak Khan was sent against him by Khizr Khan (AD 1414-1421) of Delhi, and on his approach be retreated towards the hills. He was then, it is stated, allowed to retain possession of Jalandhar.

Tarikh-I-Mubarak Shahi mentions Tughan, Raja of the Turk-bachrhas of Jalandhar, as aiding Sultan Shah Lodhi, Governor of Sirhind and uncle of Behloi Lodhi, against a pretender, who had assumed the name of Sarang Khan and raised

 

AD 1420                   ..

 

..AD 1421                      ..

AD 1431-31                    ..

a rebellion in the mountain of Bajwara near Hoshiarpur, which were then depended on Jalandhar.

Tudhan again revelled against Khzir Khan besieged Sirhind, and overran the country as far as Mansurpur and Payal. Malik-Khair-ud-din was sent against him from Delhi and was joined at Samana by the forces of Zirak Khan, and Tughan retreated, crossing the Satluj, at Ludhiana. But the river being low, the royal forces followed on

which he fled into the country of Jasrath KhoKhar, and his Fife was given to Zirak Khan

 

Zirak Khan, the then Governor of Jalandhar was obliged to withdraw into the fort of Jalandhar, on the approach of Jasrath Khokhar, who after a year recorded the river and marched against him. He next besieged Sultan Shah Lodhi in Sirhind, but on the approach of the new Emperor Mubarak Shah raised the siege and released Zirak Khan at Ludhiana

 

Jasrath defeated Malik Sikandar on the Be n  near Jalandhar, took him prisoner and afterwards laid seize to Lohare, he retreated and Nasrat Khan was placed incharge of Lohare and Jalandhar. In August 1432, Jasrath returned and  attacked him, but was defeated.

 

In the Muharram of September 1432, Malik Allah Dad Lodhi, who was sent to relieve Nasrat Khan was attacked by Jasrath near Jalandhar.

 

 

AD 1441                   ..

 

AD 1445- 51              ..

 

AD 1524                       ..

1540                             ..

 

1555                             ..

 

 

1556-1605                     ..

  
Muhammad Shah confirmed Bahlol Lodhi of Sirhind in the Governership of Lahore and Dipalpur and sent him against Jasrath. But Behlol Lodhi came into terms with the Khokhar Chief, revolted and remained independent and finally in AD 1450 became sovereign of Delhi.

 

India was split into a number of independent states at the time of Alauddin Alam Shah. The Sultanate of Delhi had long before the rise of the Sayyids been considerably diminished in its size and strength. At that time, Sarang Khan in the Bist Jalandhar Doab created disturbances, which has to be crushed under the personal direction of the Sultan.

 

On Babar’s fourth invasion of India in the year, he gave Jalandhar and Sultanpur in Jagir to Daulat Khan Lodhi as whose instigation he had come.

 

Humayun was expelled by Sher Shah. His retreat was covered at Jalandhar by his brother, Mirza Hindal, who was finally obliged to retire before the Afghans, who crossed the Beas at Sultanpur.

 

On Himayun’s return in this year, Bairam  Khan was sent against an Afghan detachment at Hariana in the Hoshiarpur District and after  driving it back on Jalandhar, he advanced and occupied the surrounding country.

 

On the defeat of Sikandar Sur at Sirhind and his flight to the hills, Shah Abu Maali was sent to the

 

1605                            ..
Jalandhar to hold him in check. But instead of staying there, he advanced to Lahore and thus gave Sikandar Sur an opportunity of collecting of army and making another effort to secure his throne. In consequence, Akbar was sent incharge of Barian Khan to the Punjab. After receiving the submission of the Raja of the Kangra, Akbar took up his residence at Jalandhar, where among others, Kamal Khan, a grandnephew of Jasrath  Khokhar waited on him and was well received. Akbar now called to the east of meet Hemu, and during his absence, Sikandar Sur defeated Khizr Khan, Governor of Lahore, at Chamiari. Barian Khan, who had been appointed Khan Khanan of Akbar’s accession in 1560, and had been virtual sovereign lost his power and withdrew with the avowed intention of proceeding to Macca. On this way, however, irritated at some further events, he changed hi intention, and going to Dipalpur, he collected troops and prepared to attack Jalandhar. He advanced by way of Tihara, where a party of his friends under Wala Beg was defeated, by Abdulla Khan , Mughal. Shortly after, he himself was brought to action and beaten by AtgahKhan on 23 Augest 1560, at Gunachaur, near Rahon. During Akbar’s reign, copper coin were minted at Jalandhar and his minister Todar Mal, made settlement of land revenue in Jalandhar Doab. Guru Arjan Dev founded the town of Katarpur in 1539.

 

Shortly after the accession of Jahangir, hi son Khusro revelled and leaving Agra, withdrew to Lahore via Delhi. He was besienging the citadel

 

1627-1658                     ..

 

1632                            ..

 

1634                            ..


of Lahore when heard of the Emperor’s advance guard at Sultanpur, and at once marched for the Bea. When he reached Bhairowal, on that river, the imperical forces had already crossed and battle took place in which he was defeated. During Jahangir’s reign(1605-27), Jalandhar Doab received special attention because of Nurjahan’s attachment with Nurmahal. She had

been brought up there and among other things, she got a big Serai built there.

 

Under Jahangir’s successor, Shah Jahan, the Serai and Dakani was built on high road between the Delhi and Lahore. Many villages were founded. The new town of Phillaur dates from the reign of Shah Jahan, when its site, then covered with ruins, was selected for on of the Serai  on the imperial road from Delhi to Lahore.   

 

Guru Teg Bahadur was married to Mata Gujri daughter of Lal Chand, Khatri of Kartarpur on 15 Asuj 1689 Bikram (AD 1632).

 

The battle of Kartarpur was fought between Mughal troops and Guru Hargobind. The imperial troops were routed and both Painda Khan and Kala Khan were killed.

 

During the rest of the 17th Century, Jalandhar remained firmly attacked to the Delhi Empire. With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Mughal Empire began to lotter.

 

 

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