(g)   Large-Scale Industries


            1.   Woollen Manufactures. – These may be described under three different heads, viz., wool spinning, woolen textile and woolen hosiery.


            (i)     Wool Spinning. –The worsted, shoddy and indigenous woolen yarns are the most important basic raw materials for woolen textile and hosiery, which are manufactured on a large scale in the district.  Prior to 1949, the supplies of yarn had to be obtained altogether from the spinning mills outside the State, which were situated in Calcutta and Bombay, except the one at Kharar.  This created practical difficulties for the hosiery manufacturers as the supplies from the spinning mills were irregular, particularly during the season when the stocks invariably ran short and the prices rose to unjustified levels.  Quite often it was not possible for the industrialists to get the yarn of requisite count and quality at the appropriate time.  This naturally prompted some of the more enterprising and bigger units to install spinning plants within the city itself.


            The first worsted wool spinning mill was established at Ludhiana in 1949.  It gave impetus to several others with the result that by 1956 the number rose to six.  In 1965-66 nineteen textile mills in the large-scale sector were engaged in the spinning of worsted yarn and manufacturing woolen textiles.  The total number of authorised spindles installed with these units was 23,526.  Powerlooms numbered 159 and handlooms 316.  Their investment in this industry amounted to Rs 472 lakhs and provided employment to 3,160 workers.  The capacity is partially utilised due to limited import of wool tops.  Shoody and indigenous wools are also now being used as raw materials.  The production during 1965-66 was valued at Rs 424.27 lakhs.  Besides these, there exist 14 small-scale unauthorized spinning mills.


            These units work throughout the year and engaged in the production of hosiery yarn, knitting yarn and yearn required for woolen textiles.  Previously, the yarn was produced only from wool tops imported from abroad.  But, due to the limited supply of wool tops and import restrictions thereon, indigenous wool is also now being used for spinning yarn.  Even imported shoddy wool is being used for course woolen textiles and hosiery.


            A big Government undertaking on co-operative basis for combing, viz., All- India Wool Combers Co-operative Society, Ltd., has been set up at Dhandari Kalan, a few miles from Ludhiana13.


            (ii)  Woollen Textile. – Woollen Textile industry was started in the district in 1949.  At Ludhiana, 14 big and 6 small units are engaged in the manufacture of woolen textiles, viz., worsted cloth, woolen cloth, tweeds and blankets.  The industry has a bright future.  Its products are also exported to Hongkong and Afghanistan.  Worsted, woolen and shoddy yarn constitute the raw material.


            About Rs. 5 crores are believed to have been invested in the industry.


            (iii)  Woollen Hosiery. – It item has been dealt with in detail in subsequent pages.


            2.     Cycles and Cycle-Parts. -  In the industrial boom which occurred in the wake of independence, manufacture of cycles and cycle-parts is by far the most important of the industries developed in the district.  Although the industry has shown phenomenal development in the post-independence period, its beginnings can be traced as far back as 1936, or even earlier, when certain repair shops took up the manufacture of accessories like stands, carriers and axles as spares.  Reduced imports from abroad during the course of the World War II (1939-45) provided an opportunity for the industry to grow both in volume and diversity.  The next phase of expansion came in 1957, when the Government of India restricted the imports and fixed assemblage quota of full cycles as between small-scale units and large scale establishments.  Manufacture of cycle-parts and assembling of complete cycles is now a leading engineering trade in Ludhiana though some units also exist in other towns of the district, such as Jagraon.


               13.   The All India combers Co-operative Society, Ltd., Dhandari Kalan, was registered on January 31, 1961, mainly to establish a Wool Combing Plant in the co-operative sector.  The promoters of the scheme included the spinners, hosiery manufacturers, weavers and workers, etc.  As a result of the Chinese aggression in 1962, the State Government decided to contribute to the share capital of the society on matching basis, in order to accelerate the pace of the project, which had assumed great importance as a defence oriented industry.  The total membership of the society as on March 31, 1966, was 451, which included most of the big industrialists of Ludhiana and Amritsar, connected with the woollen industry.


               The subscribed capital of the society as on March 31, 1966, was Rs 11,98,200 out of which a sum of Rs 9,44,670 was fully paid. 


               The Society has constructed the administrative block and the factory building and imported a part of the machinery (Nobel Combs) from U.K.  It has also been granted an important licence for the import of the requisite machinery for the working of the Noble Combs from Japan.  The capacity of the Noble Combs is about 1.2 million Ibs. wool tops annum, on two shift basis.


               The various items of raw materials and components required by the industry are : Free Cutting Steel, Steel of various types, Steel pipes, M.S. Sheets (10 to 24 gauges) M.S. Strips, M.S. rounds and bars, M.S.wires and seamless tubes, etc.  The other anciliaries are tyres, brake rubber, pedal rubber, oils component parts like chains, rims, BB. Shells, steel balls, etc., and consumable stores, such as nickle anodes, copper electroplating and mopping materials, coal, paints, etc.  Steel balls land rims are imported from other States.  With the exception of cold roller sheets and seamless welding tubes, all other verities of iron and steel are produced in India.


            Labour required for the industry, both skilled and unskilled, is available locally.  It has been one of the main reasons for the localization of the industry at Ludhiana.  The Ramgarhia community, who are born technicians and possess a mechanical bent of mind, have a natural aptitude for engineering industries.  Over the years the workers have become specialised in their particular fields.


            The Government Testing and Finishing Centre, Ludhiana, renders cheap services in heat-treatment, electroplating, enamellings and testing to the industry.  The Small Industries Service Institute set up by the Government of India at Ludhiana, is also playing an important role in disseminating the use of latest methods of producing various parts, up-to-date machinery, etc.


            It is estimated that in 1947 the district had 25  units in the line, producing goods worth about Rs. 10 lakhs.  In 1966-67, there were 558 small-scale units manufacturing cycle parts besides 9 small-scale units manufacturing cycle parts besides 9 small-scale and 2 large-scale units assembling complete bicycles.  The industry provided employment to over 6,000 persons during the year amounted to Rs. 896 lakhs.  Cycles and cycle-parts manufacturing units are also having a good demand of their products in the foreign markets, especially from the Middle East countries14.


               14.   Goods worth Rs. 15.45 lakhs were exported to foreign countries during 1965-66.  A notable feature of the Industry during the year was that a Ludhiana firm in the large scale sector gave collaboration to the Ceylon Government for establishing cycle manufacturing units there.


            3.   Sewing-Machines and Parts. – The manufacture of sewing-machine parts and assembling of sewing-machines is another important industry of the district.  Its origin in the Punjab can be traced back to 1925, when a unit took up the manufacture of sewing-machine components at Bassi Pathanan (district Patiala).  These components were initially manufactured in the crude manner and no crude and self-improvised machinery, and were mainly supplied to certain repair shops for replacements, etc.  The industry greatly developed greatly developed during the World War II (1939-45) when, on the inevitable stoppage of imports, acute shortage of sewing-machine parts was felt.  People had to pay  high prices for sewing-machine parts needed for replacement in the imported sewing-machine.  The situation induced some people to start manufacture of these parts.  The requisite equipment and machine-tools for the manufacture of the parts were not available; but the enterprising spirit of the people overcame the difficulties.  It was not long before the industry was centralized in Ludhiana, which had all the needed skill and favorable circumstances for the development of a small-scale industry of this kind.  The industry made good progress because the indigenous parts were much cheaper as compared to the imported ones.  The quality of the locally made parts also improved steadily.


            On the partition displaced  person as had their own workshops for the manufacture of sewing –machine parts in Lahore and other places in West Pakistan ,resumed this activity  in a small way at Ludhiana. In 1953,only eleven spare-parts were allowed to be imported .The industry progressed very much as there was shortage  of sewing machines since World War 11. In 1964, Government imposed further restriction on the import of spare-parts.


            Nearly Rs.25 lakhs are invested in 3 factories in the Large-scale and Rs.2 lakhs in 325 factories in the small-scale sectors. At present out of the total of 106 spare-parts required for assembling a sewing-machine, 100 spare parts are manufactured locally and the rest are imported from other district /States. In 1966-67,there were 4 large-scale and 18 small-scale assembling units, and 1 large scale and 194 small scale units manufacturing sewing-machine parts. The total  production during the year was 63,723 machines valued at Rs. 81 lakhs. The exports during the same year valued at Rs.6 lakhs.


            The principal raw materials required for the manufacture of sewing machines and parts are steels of various kinds, casting, oil and nickel and chrome salt nickel, anodes, peerless polish, coal, etc.


            4.     Steel Re-rolling,- This industry was started in the district about the year 1940 when two concerns were established . In 1956 ,there were 3 re-rolling mills-two at Ludhiana and one at Khanna. In the large –scale sector, one unit went in to production during 1965-66 and produced goods worth Rs. 13.84 lakhs. In the small scale sector, the number of units increased from 3 in 1964-65 to 12 in 1965-66 with production valued at Rs.3.79 lakhs.


            In 1966-67 there were 12 units in Ludhiana, 3 in large-scale and 9 in small-scale sector and 1 in large scale sector in Khanna and 2 in small scale sector. About Rs. 25lakhswere invested in the industry. The annual outturn was worth about Rs. 10 lakhs.


            Round, square and flat bars, hoops and strip angles are manufactured. These products are used in cycle, automobile and building industries.


            The raw material includes scrap iron and billets and steam coal.


            5. Machine-Tools.- Till 1947, Ludhiana could hardly boast of any well-developed small machine tool industry. In 1947 ,there was one such unit in Ludhiana with a complement of 30 workers and an estimated production of Rs.0.5 lakhs. The number of units rose to 9 in 1951,39 in 1955,44 in 1956 and 255 small-scale and 4 large-scale in 1966-67. The estimated production in 1966-67 was valued at Rs.291 lakhs, providing employment to 3,809 workers. Goods worth Rs.3 lakhs were exported. During the following two decades, the concentration of various industries and the availability of skilled labour have been the city a centre for the manufacture of various machine-tools like  lathes, drilling-machines, milling-machines, planners, shapers, presses drills, grinders, hacksaw, power-presses, slotting-machines, circular saws, wood-working lathes, band sawing-machines, small tools with accessories for different machine tools, etc. The raw materials used are iron, steel and hard coke.


            6   Automobile Parts -  The Automobile (chassis and suspension) industry is also gaining importance in the district. Its origin can be traced to the World War II (1939-45) when nuts and bolts began to the locally. As time passed, the number of items manufactured increased. The real start of the industry was made after the partition when some local Ramgarhias took it up as comparatively more profitable of the engineering industries.


            About Rs. 1.25 crores are invested in the industry: 150 registered units and 100 unregistered units are in the field and all are located at Ludhiana. Out of these, one unit is in the large-scale sector.


            The major items manufactured in respect of chassis and suspension comprise: hub bolts, U bolts, centre bolts, spring leaves, hangar shackle, engine pullies, hubs and hub-drums, king pin and spring pins. The industry has shown rapid development. In 1956, there were 30 units engaged in it at Ludhiana. In 1965-66, there was I large-scale unit and 148 small-scale units, providing employment to 1,826 workers. The  production during the year was of the value of Rs. 19.08 lakhs and Rs. 112 lakhs in the large and small-scale sectors, respectively.


            The main raw materials are iron and steel, pig iron, gun metal, constructional alloy steel, etc.


            7.   Diesel-Oil Engine and Parts.- The origin of the industry in the district can be traced to impetus of World War II when in 1941-42 Ludhiana entered the field. To begin with, small spare-parts needed for the repair of diesel engines were manufacture of major spare-parts was also started from 1945-46. Complete diesel engines came to be manufactured form 1948 onwards. In 1966-67 there were 10 units with annual production of Rs. 17 lakhs.


            8.   Scooters.- One unit is engaged in the production of scooters at Ludhiana since 1962. It is working in collaboration with a Japanese motor company in respect of technical know-how. About Rs. 8 lakhs have been invested in the industry. In the beginning, the yearly out-turn was 1,500 sectors. But, due to certain technical difficulties, the production was reduced to 800 to 1,000 in 1965. In 1967-68, however, the production was raised to 7,500 scooters.

            9.   Hosiery Needles.-  The industry was started for the first time in the country in 1960 when a unit was established at Ludhiana with Japanese technical Know-how. From 1962-63, an automatic plant has been installed. About twenty types of needles, used in knitting machines, are manufactured. The industry faces competition from Chandigarh. Its annual production in 1966-67 was of the vale of Rs. 2,10 lakhs.


            The raw materials comprise high carbon strips and wire, both of which are imported from Japan.


            10.   Card Clothing15.-  There is only one unit at Ludhiana engaged in card clothing since 1960, with a capital investment of about Rs. 10 lakhs. Its yearly out-turn is  about Rs. 20 lakhs. Card clothing is Key industries for all textile mills. It provides employment to some 45 persons.


            The raw materials for the card clothing are foundation cloth, steel wire and end clips and plates (imported from Japan and Belgium).


            Stepping fillets-a kind of hard brush for clearing and clothing-are also manufactured.


            11.   Nylon and Staple Spinning.-  Only one unit is engaged in the production of nylon in the district at Ludhiana. It started production in April, 1964.


            The yearly output is worth about Rs. 7 lakhs.


            12.   Gas (Oxygen).-   The production of oxygen gas, used for welding purposes as well as in hospitals, started in the district towards the end of the year 1963, when the first factory was established at Ludhiana. The gas was thus made available at the place at comparatively cheap rates. Another concern also came up by the end of 1964. Rs. 18 lakhs have been invested in the industry. Previously the Ludhiana industry had to face difficulty in getting the materials from Delhi.


            The total capacity of both the units is 163 cubic metres per hours. The annual production in 1966-67 was worth Rs. 9.30 lakhs.


            13.  Measuring Tapes.-The industry was started at Ludhiana in 1950 by the only concern which has since greatly expanded and is single largest tape producing unit in Asia. The technical know-how is indigenous. The installed machinery valued at Rs. 10 lakhs is both imported and improvised. Local made machines and parts have also been adapted for the purpose. Earlier only metallic woven measuring tapes were produced, but now glass fibre tapes, steel tapes and steel rules are also manufactured. There has been a remarkable improvement in the get-up of the tape in regard to shape and final finish. Besides there are 4  units in the small-scale sector. The annual production of industry in 1977-67 was worth Rs. 23 lakhs.


            The industry meets the entire home demand, which was previously met through imports. The tapes are also exported to Middle East, South-East Asian countries and U.K. etc. The industry is thus a great foreign exchange earner.


               15. It is a type of steel wire brush spread on 2” wide foundation cloth. This is used in cylinder, doffer and tops used in  cotton and woolen textiles. This issued for carding in Cotton and Woolen Textile Mills. The special type of Brush is fitted I a cylinder in the doffer and tops machines. It functions as a spiral and spiral the material into fine fibres as a result of rotation.


            14. Flour Mills.- There are 2 roller flour mills at Ludhiana in the large scale sector. These produce flour, maida, suji, dal, chokar, etc. One of these was started in 1931 and the other in 1937. The mills have a total capacity of grinding 6,400 tons of wheat per month, but, due to shortage of food-grains, these are required to grind only imported wheat.


            15. Hosiery.-  Ludhiana has been accepted as the home of hosiery industry, which has been established there for over a century. Ludhiana knitters control almost all markets with in the country and cater for about 90 per cent of the total demand. They have also entered the overseas marked to which the hosiery products have started flowing for the last about a decade and a half in ever increasing volume. Within the country, the industry meets the needs of both the civil population and the requirements of the Defence, Police and other Government Departments. Ludhiana hosiery products are very popular in several foreign countries like Ceylon, Burma, Africa, Thailand the Middle East and the Far East.


            The industry races its origin to the thirties of the 19th century when, as a result of severe famine in Kashmir, several Kashmiri families left their homes in distress and settled down in Ludhiana and its environs. With their traditional skill and artistic talent they soon made the town a centre of knitting socks on wooden or steel rods. Thus they laid the foundation of a craft, which initially formed a useful spare-time job for the ladies only, but in course of time developed in to an important industry through the agency of the local traders who commercialized the artifact of the womenfolk. They usually knitted topless socks. After some years the knitting of complete socks was introduced here mainly through the enterprise of Jullundur girl, who was married to a businessman at Ludhiana. Te girl had learnt the art from the wives of Gorkha military officials stationed at Jullundur. Thereafter, the socks and banians of a fines quality began to be knitted here.


            It was near about 1894 that this primitive organisation of hosiery knitting by the women folk was given up and machine knitting was introduced at Ludhiana.  This gave the local industry a revolutionary turn.  The success of the first hosiery machine installed at Ludhiana in that year led to a number of firms installing these machines.


            During the World War-I (1914-18), like many other industries, the hosiery industry also received its share of war boom, and the manufactures who had till then confined their attention to foot-wear alone, extended their activities to produce woolen sweaters and pullovers.  Soon Ludhiana developed a brisk trade in this type of goods.  Thus, it emerged as the home of Indian hosiery and was poised for a big leap forward.  The introduction of Raschel loom from Germany brought about a radical change in the technique of production.  It facilitated cheaper production on a mass scale.


            During the depression following the World War-I (1914-18) the industry passed through a period of crisis as the prices of hosiery goods fell by 25 to 30 per cent due to competition from Japan.  The local hosiery manufactures boldly faced this crisis by reducing the margin of profit and increasing their efficiency.  The then Government of India also afforded adequate protection to hosiery industry through the Tariff Amendment Act of 1934, against Japanese dumping, which was further amended in 1936 to cover all braches of the hosiery industry.


            The stoppage of imports chiefly from Japan and the tremendous demand for hosiery good by the Defence Department during the World War-II (1939-45), helped the industry towards unprecedented expansion.  But, the shortage of yarns and the scarcity of hosiery machine needles, for which the industry was dependent upon foreign supplies, did not allow the manufacturers to take full advantage of the position.  To overcome this difficulty, the yarns and needles were supplied by the purchasing agency of the defence equipment.  In spite of all these favourable circumstances the condition of the industry during the period was not satisfactory.


            In spite of some major set-backs during the last 20 years- partition of the country, shortage of foreign exchange, Chinese aggression, Indo-Pak conflict, credit squeeze, re-organisation of Punjab, political agitations and the severe recession through which all the industries are presently passing- the woolen hosiery industry of Ludhiana has made remarkable progress.  With the small hand-driven machines installed in the dark corners of small houses in the obscure little lanes of Ludhiana, the industry has been turning out production worth crores of rupees and catering to the entire needs of the country, both for civil and defence requirements.  In 1966-67, there were 2,000 units in the industry with a total annual installed capacity of about Rs. 25 crores and an actual production of Rs. 12 crores, and an actual production of Rs. 12 crores, almost equally divided under three broad sections, viz., (i)  Home Market, (ii) Defence requirements, and (iii) Exports.  All the 2,00 units in the industry are not well-equipped, not more than about 50 per cent, i.e., 1,000 units, could be termed as effective.


            The potentiality of the industry as a big foreign exchange earner has been realised in recent years.  A beginning in the export field was made about 15 years back when some enterprising industrialists of Ludhiana visited foreign countries to explore markets for woolen hosiery.  Despite tough competition, both in quality and price, from advanced countries, the industrialists succeeded in procuring orders in small lots, more or less as ‘trial orders’.  Till five years back the export of goods had grown around Rs. 50 Lakhs per annum.  The big leap in exports was accomplished four years ago when the East European countries felt interested in Indian woolen hosiery.  Although still working with out-moded machines, this small-scale industry has now started exporting woolen hosiery in large quantities.  The exports in 1966 were worth 4.55 crores of rupees and during 1967 these touched Rs. 4 crores.  During the last three years, the major buyers were East European markets.  During the last three years, the major buyers were European markets.  Goods worth about Rs. 50 Lakhs were also sold in the general currency areas, principally in the Middle East countries.  During the current years, the industry has orders in hand worth Rs. 5 crores, of which about Rs. 3 crores are from East European Markets, and the remainder from the Middle East and African countries.  With successful fulfillment of the orders in hand, the industry expects to procure contracts for an additional value of at least Rs. One crore, which will make it possible for the industry to achieve a target of exports worth Rs. 6 crores in 1968.  The war in the Middle East year has assisted the industry in exploring new avenues for its products, where from the orders have increased to about Rs. 50 Lakhs two years back.  The main markets for the products of the industry are U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bahrein, Burma, Kenya, Kuwait, Aden, Sudan, Libya, Honkong, Zambia, Tanzania, etc.  The industry expects to touch the annual exports of atleast Rs. 8 crores in the next three years.


            16.   Power looms. – Started a few years before the World War II, the power loom industry made great strides in the post-Independence period.  It switched on to the production of staple fabrics as mill made cotton yarn became un-available.  The main raw materials for the industry, viz., staple yarn, art-silk, cotton-yarn of medium counts and woolen yarn, are produced mostly in other States.  Some finer varieties are imported from abroad.


            Mostly the powerlooms are of indigenous make.  The industry includes both self-sale units and fabricators.  Their number, which was only 50 in 1947, rose to 165 in 1954-55 and to 570 in 1966-67.  The total investment in the industry was estimated at Rs. 75 lakhs in 1947 and Rs. 365 lakhs in 1961.


            The total value of the production was estimated at Rs. 92 lakhs in 1947 and Rs. 430 lakhs in 1961.  It rose to Rs. 722.60 lakhs in 1964-65, but fell to Rs. 497 lakhs in 1966-67.


            Most of the powerlooms are working on staple and art silk yarn.   The main products are tehmats, linen and other varities of staple fabrics, ninon and shantoon, woolen shawls and corduroy.



(h)   Small Scale Industries


            The small scale industries sector has progressively acquired a prominent place in the development activities of the country.  Consequent upon the revision of the definition of the small-scale industry16, the size and scope of the small scale industries sector has been considerably widened, thus enabling a large number of industrial units to avail themselves of increased assistance and facilities.


            The socio-economic significance of the role of small-scale industries in relation to the economic development of the country has been more fully realised in the post-independence period.  It is reflected in the two Industrial Policy Resolutions of the Government of India adopted in 1948 and 1956 as well as in the progressive allocations made for the development of this vital sector in the Five-Year Plans.


            The total number of small scale units in Ludhiana district during 1965-66 was about 4,200 which rose to over 4,300 during 1966-67.  The total production, which was worth about Rs. 26 crores during 1965-66, also rose to Rs. 27,50 crores during 12966-67.  The increase in the new units during 1966-67 was the largest in the woolen hosiery ; which rose from 1,887 in 1965-66 to 2,000 in 1966-67.  The machine tool industry witnessed an increase in 11 units from 244 in 1965-66 to 255 in 1966-67.  In the field of production the maximum increase was shown by the hosiery and machine tools sectors.  The woolen hosiery production rose from Rs. 7 crores in 1965-66 to Rs. 8 crores in 1966-67 while the machine tools production registered an increase of Rs. 60 lakhs bringing total production to Rs. 2.5 cores.


            17.  Agricultural Implements. – The incentive given by the Government for the development of agriculture in general and the selection of Ludhiana district for intensive agricultural programme in particular has given good stimulus to the manufacture of agricultural implements at Ludhiana.  The industry has also shown good progress. In 1956 there were 15 units – 4 at Ludhiana and 11 at Samrala, engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements.  The production during the year was valued at Rs. 1.34 lakhs.  In 1966-67, the number of units increased to 68 and produced goods worth Rs. 23.6 lakhs.


            18.   Dyeing. – The dyeing industry made a start almost simultaneously with the setting up of the textile industry at Ludhiana.  It caters to the needs of hosiery, power-looms and handloom industries.


               16.   In 1960 the Ministry of Industry, Government of India, had defined small scale industries as industrial units with a capital investment of  not more than Rs. 5 lakhs,  capital investment for the purpose of the definition meant investment in fixed assets like land, buildings, machinery and equipment.

               In view of the changed conditions and, in accordance with the recommendations of the Small Scale Industries Board, the Ministry of Industry, Government of India, has further amended the definition of small scale industries as :-


                 “Small Scale Industries will include all industrial units with a capital investment of not more than Rs. 7.50 lakhs irrespective of the number of persons employed. Capital investment of this purpose will mean investment in plant and machinery only.”


               In calculating the value of plant and machinery, the original price paid by the owner, irrespective of whether the plant and machinery, are new or second-hand, will be taken into account. 


            Previously, dyeing of wool in the district was done I\on a very small scale.  The investment of the different units was meager and they were hardly in a position to install modern equipment.  This position continued up to 1954-55 when there were 46 such units.  In course of time, in addition to these hundreds of small units, eight bigger units came into existence in 1966-67.  With the installation of modern equipment, the output has considerably improved in quantity and quality.


            The units are split into the following three sectors :-


               (i)  units engaged in staple dyeing ;


               (ii) units engaged in wool dyeing ; and


              (iii) units engaged in wool dyeing for military contractors.


            The raw materials for this industry are dyes- English and Indian, acids, bleaching power, soda ash and wood.  Except for wood and acids, all the items are obtained from other states.


            These units more or less work on fabrication basis and dye yarn of others.  There are different grades of dyeing ; fast to soap, fast to bhattim etc.  Staple yarn dyeing is mostly indirect, i. e., kachha or fast soap.  Wool dyeing for military contractors is fast to bhatti, whereas for civil consumption it is kachha or pucca.  Staple dyeing is done mostly for handloom units.


            19.   Washing and Finishing. – Washing and finishing is ancilliary to textile industry.  On the setting up of textile units at Ludhiana, this industry has developed simultaneously.


            In 1956, there were 16 units located at Ludhiana, out of which two were registered under the Indian Factories Act.  The number of units rose to 3 big and 20 small in 1965-66.


            The machines used by these units comprise hydro-extractor for squeezing, dry-cleaning plant, tables, brass-press, wooden or stainless vats for bleaching tubs, etc.


            The raw materials required for the three different processes of the industry are :


Wet washing


Soap, Soda and sulphuric acid.



Sodium hydro sulphite or potassium permanganate and sodium bisulphate.

Dry Cleaning


Petrol and turpentine oil (for woolen cloth).


            Ludhiana badly needs a dyeing and finishing plant for hosiery industry.  A plant will be installed at a cost of Rs. 50 lakhs.  The State Government will purchase shares of Rs. 10 lakhs and the remaining will be owned by the private sector.  It would increase the export potential of hosiery goods.


            20.   Calico Printing. – The industry developed in Ludhiana alongside the development of textile industry.  Mill made designed and printed cloth, however, caused a set back to calico printing.  Although it is on the decline, yet some of the units are catering to the varied needs of the public.  The industry is perennial but its peak season is summer months.  In 1956, there were 12 units functioning in urban areas of the district.  The number of units rose to 32 in 1965-66.


            The tools consist of wooden blocks and addas, like tables with small legs and a stove.  These are available locally except wooden blocks which are sometimes got prepared from other places.


            The raw materials used are dyes, gum, acids, caustic soda and fuel, all of which are available locally.


            The industry generally works on fabrication basis for printing chaddars kheses, etc., for the general public.  The charges depend on the number of colours used.


            The calico printing done at Ludhiana is popular with the public in general and sometimes people prefer to get some of their requirements printed instead of purchasing mill-made printed goods.


            21.   Nuts and Bolts. – The products of this industry comprise two main types as under :


            (i)    Nuts and Bolts (hardware). – This industry was started in 1958.  One big and two small units are engaged in the manufacture of nuts and bolts, panel pins, tinmen, rivets, nails, special type of screws and bolts, etc.  This industry is auxiliary to Government projects and other industries.  Besides, 100 units were in small scale sector, engaged in the manufacture of miscellaneous types of nuts and bolts, in 1966-67.


            (ii)   Nuts and Bolts (patta kabal). _ These comprise three main types, viz., oval plate belt, original potent plate and button plate, which are further sub-divided into several types.


            The industry originated during the World War I (1914-18).  Taking advantage of the heavy reduction in imports and the prevailing high prices for these articles, a number of small units sprang up in and around Ludhiana.  The product turned out by these factories was of somewhat crude type, yet it could find market because of acute scarcity of this essential component of industrial machinery.


            The industry entered a new phase after the partition in 1947 when it began to expand on a big scale.


            In the district, there are 16 units engaged in the manufacturing of patta-kabla.  Out of these one is in the large-scale category.  About Rs. 4 lakhs are invested in the industry.  The annual out-turn is Rs. 4 lakhs.  The products of large-scale unit are certified to be of the standard prescribed by the National Physical Laboratory, Delhi.


            The raw materials used are iron, steel and stainless steel, indigenous as well as imported.


            22.  Electrical Goods. -  The industry was started in 1955 on a small-scale.  Initially only starters for electric motors were manufactured.  In course of time, iron clad switches, of different ranges up to 200 AMPS 500 Volts, began to be manufactured.


            Rs. 10 lakhs have been invested in the industry.  4o units were engaged in 1966-67 in the manufacture of electrical goods worth Rs. 20.05 lakhs.


            At present, the industry is on small scale.  But, with the increasing electrification of rural areas and the installation of tubewells, it has a fairly bright chance of entering into the large scale phase.


            23.   Cotton Ginning and Oilseed Crushing. – Khanna was a well known cotton mandi in the beginning of the present century.  Gradually the people of the area switched over to sowing of groundnut.  Before the installation of oil/ginning mills in Khanna, cotton and groundnut were exported to other areas.  The export  entailed a lot of trouble due to unwieldy volume/bulk of the cotton/groundnut.  The first ginning and oil mill  was established at Khanna in 1905.  It had daily oil capacity of 9 tons and 7,632 bales of ginned cotton. During the World War II (1939-45) two more oil mills were started in 1939 and 1941.  Since 1958 six oil/ginning mills were opened.  Thus by 1967 there were 9 oil mills, out of which 4 were also engaged in cotton ginning.  Rs. 78 lakhs were invested in the industry with the annual out-turn extraction of 3,38,886 quintals of oil and 52,632 ginned cotton bales with daily capacity of 220 tons and 240 bales, respectively.  There are also two cotton ginning mills of sizable capacity at Jagraon.


            Amongst these mills one is a solvent oil mill at Khanna.  It also manufactures cattle feed, fertilizers and poultry feed from by-products, viz., deoiled cake.  This unit also manufactures vegetable oil biscuits.  The Mill also produced soap from certain by-products.  This unit further extracts oil from rice bran.


            In the district oilseed-crushing, flour-milling dal-milling and cotton-ginning is a composite industry.  There were 12 units of cotton-ginning and 28 units engaged in oilseeds crushing.  The annual production was 60,000 bales in 1968.  Besides, groundnut, the oilseed industry crushes mustard, cotton seeds, linseed (alsi), etc. The groundnut-crushing is confined to Khanna.  Its by-products are oil-cakes, etc.


            24.  Surgical Instruments. – The manufacture of surgical instruments at Ludhiana is, like many other industries, a product of the partition of 1947.  The only unit engaged in the manufacture of surgical instruments at the place was originally shifted from Sialkot where surgical instruments were manufactured by the well-known ironsmiths of kotli Loharan, who were the famous manufacturers of the guns and arms under the Lahore Darbar.  The industry was rehabilitated at Ludhiana through the enterprise of the dealer, who migrated from West Pakistan.  He was fortunate to find a handful of refugee workers from Sialkot and readily engaged them in this industry.


            The Unit was first established in 1949.  Till 1966-67 there were 2 units, one on very small scale with annual production worth about Rs. 2.5 lakhs.  The industry, however, does not admit of rapid scope of expansion.


            Different kinds of surgical instruments used in government as well as private hospital are manufactured.  These include ophthalmic instruments, special purpose needless and canulae, electric-medical appliances, table-lamps (anglepoise type), etc.  Eye-operating instruments are a speciality of one unit throughout the country.  That concern has been approved by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences.  The industry foreign exchange earner and saver.


            The main raw materials required by the industry are mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, brass, etc.


            25.  Plastic Goods. –The industry developed in the district along with the cycle industry as it meets the requirements of some plastic cycle parts.  Out of the two units engaged in it the first was established in 1952.  The industry manufactures cycle-handle grips reflectors polythene tubular film, plastic bags and plastic cane etc.  In 1966-67 there were 15 units with annual production for Rs. 9.75 lakhs.


            26.  Paints and Varnishes. – The only concern in the district for manufacturing paints and varnishes is located at Ludhiana.  Started on a very small-scale in 1955, it has made marked progress and has taken up the preparation of synthetic enamels, stoving enamels, black Japan, stoving varnishes, stiff paints and primus.  About Rs. 2 lakhs have been invested in the industry with annual production of Rs. 3.15 lakhs in 1966-67.


            27.  Umbrella Ribs. – First started at Ludhiana in 1957 on a small scale, the industry became well-established by 1961.  high carbon steel wire is used in the manufacture of umbrella ribs.  Nearly Rs. 3 lakhs have been invested in the industry.  In 1966-67 annual out-turn was Rs. 3.15 lakhs.


            28. Radio Assembling. –This industry sprang up in the district after Independence in 1947 when three units started assembling radio-sets.  On an average all of them assembled nearly 500 sets in a year.  The number of units gradually rose to ten.   In 1966-67 the number of units assembling radios and transistors17 was 44.


               17.  Only four parts of the radios and eleven of the transistors are said to be imported while the rest are manufactured in the country.


            29.   Rubber Goods.-  Started in 1956, this industry manufactures saddle tops, rubber-paddle rods, rubber solution (rough), V-shaped chappals, motor spare-parts (rubber), etc.  It is sustained by cycle and motor industry.  Rs. 1.50 lakhs have been invested in the industry.  In 1966-67 there were 9 units with annual production worth Rs. 3.45 lakhs.


            30.   Stationery Articles. – The main articles manufactured in the district include pencils, pins and table stationery as detailed below :


            (i)    Pencils. – Only one unit is engaged in the district at Ludhiana since 1949.  Started on a small scale to begin with, it developed in course of time and by 1960 automatic machines were installed.


            All types of pencils, viz., writing, drawing, checking, artist, copying and even cosmetic, are manufactured at Ludhiana.  For the manufacture of superior types of pencils, cedar wood is imported from U.S.A.  Stamping foil is also imported.  Due to import restrictions, major portion of the product, consisting of cheap pencils, is manufactured constituent, is obtained from Ahmadabad (Gujarat).


            (ii)   Pins. – The industry was started in 1961.  There are two pin manufacturing concerns in Ludhiana, Pins, gem-clips (triangular) over-clips and stapple (used in stappling machines) are manufactured.  The total production per year is worth Rs.  1.50 lakhs.  The total production per year is worth Rs. 1.50 lakhs.  Mild steel wire constitutes its main raw material.


            (iii)  Table Stationery. – The only unit engaged in the industry in the district at Ludhiana was started in 1959.  It manufactures office punching machines – small and heavy, stamping machines, stamp-stands, blotters, table-files, paper-trays, waste-paper baskets, pen-trays, letter-racks, call bells, commercial office file clips, etc.


            31.  Snap Buttons. – The industry was started in Ludhiana at 1959 when only one unit had gone into production.  Afterwards two more units came up, of which only one could survive.  Manufacture of both parts of snap-button, viz., male and female, as also their tin-plating, is done locally.  Rs. I lakh have been invested in the industry.  In 1966-67 the annual production was worth Rs. 4.75 lakhs.


            The raw materials used are brass strips and phosphor-bronze wire.


            32.   Spray Pumps. – There is only one unit in the district at Ludhiana, engaged in this industry.  Established in 1959, it has the capacity of manufacturing goods worth about fifteen lakh rupees which can fully meet the requirements of the State as a whole.  It manufacturers spray dusting machines ----- both power and hand-operated, used for anti-malarial operations and civil defence purposes.


            33.  Steel Furniture. – In 1966-67, three units were engaged in the manufacture of steel furniture and produced goods worth Rs. 6.10 lakhs during the year.  The main items produced are steel almirahs, sofa-cum-bed, sofa fix-tubulars, cash-boxes, safes and a few items of office furniture.


            34.   Washing Soap. – Soap making is an old indigenous industry of the district.  The principal centre is Ludhiana, others being Khanna, Raikot and Jagraon. 


            The important raw materials needed by the industry are caustic soda, oils, soapstone or sodium silicate.


            In 1966-67, 94 units engaged in this industry, with production amounting to Rs. 29 lakhs.


            35.   Zip Fasteners. – The only unit of its kind in the country engaged in the manufacture of invisible zip fasteners is located at Ludhiana.18  It was started in 1963 with the American machinery and technical know-how.  The articles manufactured are invisible-zip fasteners.  Its production in 1966-67 was of the value of Rs. 2.05 lakhs.


            36.   Chemicals. – There is no chemical industry as such in the district.  However, an agency of the D.C.M. (Delhi Cloth & General Mills) at Ludhiana deals in soda caustic, bleaching powder, all kinds of acids, etc.  After packing the goods in sizeable packs, this firm supplies them to retailers and consumers.


            37.   Casting/Forging. -  Casting industry was started at Ludhiana about the year 1922 when two or three small units, having small crucible furnaces, one of them having small cupola furnace, were set up.  During the early stages, the Industry was confined to casting of hosiery machine parts and oil-engine small parts for repair purposes.  The above strength of casting units continued for some two decades whereafter the industry began to expand and by the time of the partition of 1947 the number of units had gone up to about 15.  At the time, toka (fodder cutter) and oil engine main parts also began to be manufactured.  After the partition, the number of units increased in 1966-67 to 140 with annual production of Rs. 39.25 lakhs and the industry concentrated itself at Ludhiana.


            The industry produces oil engines, machine tools, sewing-machines, hosiery-machines, re-rolling mills, centrifugal pumps and other miscellaneous agricultural implements which have been discussed under respective heads.  The forging industry has also been discussed under the heading nuts and bolts.


            38.   Oil Expellers and Parts. – The post-partition period also saw the brewing of another industry, viz., the manufacture of oil expellers and their parts.  In 1954-55, the number of units was 8, besides one composite unit which had also undertaken the manufacture of spare-parts, employing 77 workers in all.


               18.  The only unit of its kind in India, his is the second in Asia, the first being in Japan which started production in 1960.


            39.  Hosiery Machines. -  As an important ancilliary to the well-developed industry, the credit for starting the manufacture of hosiery machines goes to a Ludhiana (Nandpur) firm which launched the enterprise in 1921.  It started with the manufacture of simple circular socks-machines.  Shortly afterwards, about 6 to 7 units entered the field and round and dialdar machines also began to be manufactures.  About the year 1938-39, was started the manufacture of Raschal machines which revolutionized the industry.  By 1950-51, flat interlock and sinker machines also began to be manufactured.  Flat machine was sub-standard in the beginning ; but attained perfection about the year 1958-59.  Now all types of machines used in the industry are manufactured in the district.  With the exception of one unit working in Nandpur, the industry is, however, concentrated in Ludhiana proper.  The district can boast of a well-developed hosiery manufacturing industry with several concerns manufacturing quite elaborate structures with reputable precision.  Major portion of the demand for machines is being met locally.


            There were 20 units engaged in the hosiery machine manufacturing industry in 1954-55.  In 1956, the number rose to 28 which continued as such till 1965-66.


            Lathes of different sizes, drilling machines, milling machines, shapers and grinders are some of the machines used by this industry.


            Iron and steel are the chief raw material of the industry.  The machines manufactured are : “Check Petti, Jay Jacquard Machine, Circular Non-Sinker Body Machine, Sinker Body Machine, Interlock, Raschal Machine 96” wide, cold Calendering Machine, Steam Calendering Machine, Battle Bobbin Winder, Circular Hand Knittin, Circular Plain Rib, Circular Half Jacquard, automatic sock machines, flats and over-look, etc.


            40.   Textile Machinery (Spare-parts). – There is only one unit in the district at Ludhiana engaged in the manufacture of textile machinery spare parts in the district, such as reel and pin, winders, reeling machine, powerloom spare parts, and steam and cold calender19.


            41.   Conduit Pipes. – This industry was started in the district as late as 1959.  In 1966-67, there were 6 units engaged in the manufacture of conduit pipes and produced goods worth Rs. 5.22 lakhs and provided employment to 55 workers.  The number of units decreased in the said year due to inter-State competition.



(i)   Village Industries


            A village industry means any industry which forms the normal occupation, whether, whole-time, of any class of the rural population.  According to the Planning Commission, village industries are those small industries which are, in the main, an integral part of the village economy.  The small-scale industries located in village areas, thus, come under the village industries category.  The employment provided by the village industries is mainly seasonal, and the seasons vary from industry to industry as well as from area to area.


               19.  The manufacture of power looms is restricted under the orders of the Textile Commissioner, Government of India.


            The first effort in the direction of developing village industries and of reviving the old industries started with the Swadeshi movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi.


            42.   Handloom Weaving. -  It is an age-old industry carried on by hereditary weavers.  The period prior to and following the World War II helped the industry to regain some importance because of the shortage of cloth.  Though of late textile mills and powerlooms have dealt a stunning below to the handloom industry, it is receiving due protection from the State.  Some varieties of cloth have been earmarked for manufacture only by the handloom.  Weavers are helped to convert throw shuttle looms into fly-shuttle looms.  A cess has been imposed on mill-made cloth, the proceeds of which are utilized towards rebate to customers.


             The main raw materials are hand and mill spun yarn, staple and woolen yarn.  Hand spun yarn is available in plenty from village folk in the district.  All other varieties of yarn, excepting worsted yarn to some extent, are secured form other States.


            Handloom weaving is carried on in all towns of the district.  In villages it continues as an important industry.  The goods produced by handloom are khadi, woolen mufflers, shawls, tie-cloth, khes and staple cloth.


            43.   Leather and Hides Tanning. – Hides, skins and bark of kikkar tree form the main raw materials for the industry.


            The industry mainly depends upon the death rate of cattle.  The hides and skins of dead animals are first flayed and then treated with kikkar bark which forms the locality available tanning material.


            The hereditary Chamars (tanners), who are mostly engaged in this occupation, lack up-to-date technical know-how and hence do not use modern type of equipment.  They remove the leather with crude knives and spoil it.  The tanners, too, are not acquainted with modern technique of tanning and thereby reduce the value of leather.  Tanning is, however, practiced by few only, the general practices is to sell away hides.


            In 1966-67, 450 units were engaged in this industry which produced goods worth Rs. 35.75 lakhs.


            The cottage units, engaged in the industry, have been mostly organised into co-operative societies.  Some of these co-operative societies are working as production-cum-sales organisations.  These model tanneries have been set up with the assistance from the Khadi Board.


            Jagraon is the main urban centre for the industry in the district.  The cottage units there have been organised into co-operative societies.


            The leather produced by these cottage establishments is mostly used as sole leather or for making country (desi) shoes


            44.   Shoes and Leather Goods Manufactures. – Shoe making is also an ancient industry among the traditional shoe-makers.  Based on style, leather foot wear is commonly classified into western type and desi type.  These types of footwear are manufactures of all leather, upper leather and sloe of other material, etc., in the district.  The raw material for western type of shoes and chrome used as upper, mostly in the manufacture of desi type, are imposed fro other States.


            1135 units were engaged in this industry in 1966-67 with yearly out-turn of Rs. 9.30 lakhs.


            45.   Kohlu (Village Oil Presses). – With the introduction of power driven oil-crashers, the use of kohlus has greatly decreased.  Now, there exist only a few kohlus in rural areas.  10 units were engaged in 1966-67 in the industry with annual out-turn of Rs. 1.15 lakhs.


            46.   Ban and Rope Making. – It is the industry of the villages in the bet area, lying near the bank of the river Satluj, where bhabar grass- the basic raw material for the industry – is available in appreciable quantities.  Besides bhabar grass, the locally produced moonj is also used for ban making.  Improved types of machines, hand-driven and power-fitted, are now used for ban making.  These are provided by Government besides loans for purchase of raw material, etc., in the form of loan and subsidy, etc.  There were 70 units engaged in ban and rope making in 1966-67 with annual production of Rs. 105 lakhs.


            47.   Gur and Khandsari. – The indigenous production of sugar consisted of gur and Khandsari. Machhiwara was famous in olden days for the manufacture of khandsari20 by means of Khanchi system, whereby the raw material, rab, was allowed to settle for a number of days in Khanchi tanks lined with green fibrous material (cellulose) found in the nalas; and the upper layer of the sediments was separated after the drainage of the residual (seera) through a hole at the bottom of the tank. The sediment thus collected was strongly rubbed by feet-pressing and white khandsari, stated to be most useful from health point of view, was available for marketing.


            With the partition of the country in 1947, the Muslim artisans shifted to Pakistan, and the sugarcane crop having failed for a number of years afterwards, the khandsari industry could not be revived on previous scale for lack of skill and shortage of sugarcane.


               20.  Sugar industry in the modern sense meaning white sugar industry, is new in India Indigenous production of sugar usually consisted of brown sugar popularly known as gur.  Although gur is simply unrefined sugar its nutritive value is far greater than that of the white sugar.  White sugar was also being manufactured under the khandsari process


            In the absence of any sugar mill in the district, these is not much allurement to the cultivators to grow sugarcane. They produce gur, etc., on small scale, mostly for their personal use. The surplus is sold in the market. The popularity of white sugar has, therefore, not much affected the production of gur and khadsari, which are imported even from places outside the district. 26 units engaged in gur and khadsari  in 1966-67 produced goods worth Rs. 4.80. Lakhs.


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