Government Institute of Textile Chemistry and Knitting Technology, Ludhiana.-  Situated in the premises of the historic fort at Ludhiana, it was previously known as the Government Institute of Dyeing, Printing and Hosiery Technology, Ludhiana16, which was constituted in 1961, by  amalgamating the two old institutions located in the same premises, viz., Government Hosiery Institute, Ludhiana (initially started in 1962), and Government Institute of Dyeing and Calico Printing, Ludhiana (initially started in 1923 at Shahadara near Lahore, West Pakistan).  The institute is run by the Department of Industrial Training, Punjab and is affiliated to the State Board of Technical Education.

 

16.      On August 1, 1967 the institute was rechristened as Government Institute of Textile Chemistry and Knitting Technology, Ludhiana.

 

 

The Diploma, for the following courses of study offered by this institute, are recognised by the State Board of Technical Education and automatically by the Central Board of Technical Education and all concerned Government Departments in the country: -

 

(i)                Diploma in Textile Chemistry (3 years course).

(ii)               Diploma in Knitting Technology (3 years course).

 

Apart from the above, the following two Certificate Trade Course are run by the institute according to the syllabi and pattern set up the Director General of Employment and Training, Government of India : -

   

(iii)             Certificate Course in Hosiery Manufacturing (1 year Course)

(iv)             Certificate Course in Dyeing Calico Printing (1 year Course)

There is one other regular course for intensive practical training in Knitting 

(v)              Technicians Training Certificate Course in Knitwear Manufacture (Power Driven Machines) (1 year Course)

 

This is the only institution of its kind in the country giving Diploma in Knitting Technology and intensive practical training on all types of modern knitting machines and in textile dyeing, bleaching, finishing, printing and garment dyeing and dry cleaning on semi-commercial and laboratory basis.  For these special facilities of training, students from all over India and even from the neighbouring countries seek training in the Institutes.

 

 

(E)       Physical Education

 

Physical Education, tournaments and others extra-curricular activities receive due attention in the district.   An Assistant Education Officer (P.T.) is incharge of physical education in schools and arranges tournaments, games, sports, etc., in educational institutions.  There is a district School Tournament Committee, with District Education Officer as its ex-officio Chairman.  In high and higher secondary schools, a P.T.I. or primary schools, a few teachers look after this work.

 

The tournaments held at School level each year are : Zonal High Schools Tournament, District High Schools Tournaments, Zonal Middle Schools Tournament and District Middle Schools Tournament.

 

 

(F) National Fitness Crops, National Cadet Crops and Scouts and Guides

 

            National Fitness Crops.-  Launched in 1954 as the National Discipline Scheme, the National Fitness Crops go tits present name in 1965 after the National Discipline Scheme had been merged with several other items of the physical education programme and the Auxiliary Cadet Crops17.

 

17.  Recently, the Union Government has decided to disband the 13 year old programme and to arrange for the placement of instructor in the States.  The sates have not, however, been reported to have reacted favourably to the suggestion.

 

            Thus, introduced in 1965, the National Fitness Crops at development of physical efficiency, toughness, courage, endurance, discipline, patriotic fervour, appreciation of democratic values of life and love for the country amongst the students. Essentially a planned programme of national reconstruction to help children grow up into responsible citizens, the National Fitness Crops endeavors to achieve its objective by inculcating in children a sense of discipline, organisation and leadership. This entails a variegated programme for developing physical, mental and emotional capacity.  It includes a variety of exercise  and activities involving the general development of physique.  Various sets of exercise, traditional Indian exercise, yogic exercise, gymnastic movements and other activities have been included and recommended with  due to consideration to the age levels and sex differences.

 

            The programme is a compulsory curricular activity for all  children of the age group 9–16 in middle, high and higher secondary schools.  Initially, owning to the paucity of trained teachers, it has been introduced only in High and higher secondary schools.  Its strength in the district at the end of March, 1967 was 10,24,289 including 90,670 boys and 13,619 girls.

 

            The Circle Incharge, National Fitness Crops, Ludhiana, is incharge of the working of the scheme in Ludhiana and Ferozpore districts.  He is under the senior supervisor, National Fitness Crops (Northern region), Ministry of Education, Government of India, Chandigarh.

 

            National Cadet Crops.-  The National Cadet Crops is the biggest and the most significant youth movement in the country .  It was started in 1948 with a view to fostering physical fitness and inculcating a spirit of discipline, co-operation, leadership and team work among its members.  In its application the N. C. C. is complementary to the academic institutions.  The aims of the national Cadet Crops are, to develop character, comradeship, the ideal of service and capacity for leadership in young men and women ; to provide service training to youngmen and women so as to stimulate interest in the defence of the country and to build up a reserve of manpower to enable the Armed Forest to expand rapidly in a national emergency.

 

            In Ludhiana district, the first unit of the National Cadet Crops, known as 3 Pb. Bn. N. C. C. Ludhiana, was established in October, 1948 in the Government College for Boys, Ludhiana.

 

            In 1965-66, the N. C. C. Group Headquarters, Ludhiana, had 10 N. C. C. Units under its command and control.  The group consisted of 52 Infantry Companies plus 2 platoons of Senior Division N. C. C. Boys and Girls Cadets, 58 Troops of Junior Division Boys and Girls Cadets and 194 A. C. C. Section.

 

            Some officers and cadets from the district participate in the All-India Advance Leadership Camps of Junior and Senior Divisions Boys (Army Wing).

 

            During the Indo-Pak Conflict of September, 1965, 17 N. C. C. Officers and 462 Cadets, both boys and girls, were employed on civil defence duties of guarding the bridges, traffic points, telephone exchanges and other allied duties at Ludhiana and out-stations.

            The training to the cadets is imparted by N.C.C. and A.C.C. Officers who are selected from amongst the teachers.  They are, however, assisted by the permanent instructional staff of the army.

 

            The strength of cadets at the end of March, 1966, was as under :

 

Division

 

Strength

A C C (Boys)

..

3,144

A C C (Girls)

..

230

Junior Division  N.C.C (Boys)

 

4,972

Junior Division  N.C.C (Girls)

 

455

Senior Division N.C.C (Boys)

 

8,197

Senior Division N.C.C (Girls)

 

1,134

Total

..

18,132

 

 

Scouts and Guides. – Under the chairmanship of the Deputy Commissioner, the District Bharat Scouts and Guides Association is working for the promotion of the movement.  Its strength in the district at the end of March, 1966 was 2,184 comprising 1,280 scouts and 904 guides.

 

For this purpose, the district is divided into 15 zones18 , each under the charge of a Local Headmaster or Principal.

 

18.          The 15 zones into which Ludhiana district is divided in respect of scouts and guides movement are : Ludhiana, Raikot, Jagaron, Dakha, Doraha, Nasrali, Payal, Khanna, Samrala, Sanghol, Sidhwan Bet, Sahnewal, Lalton Klan, Halwara and Mangat.

 

The activities comprise training camps, refresher courses, week-end camps, tahsil camps, district camps, divisional camps, site seeing, hiking trips, etc.

 

(g)  Sports. – Government have taken steps to popularise sports activities in the district, both among men and women.

 

A District sports Officer was appointed at Ludhiana in May, 1962.  sports Associations have been formed in all the ten blocks of the district to popularise sports and youth programme activities in rural areas.  Grants have been given to village panchayats in almost all the blocks to lay out village/block level playgrounds for use of village youth for various sports activities.  Grant on 50 : 50 basis for village level grounds is Rs. 2,500 and for block level it is Rs. 5,000.  The deficiency of open speaces is thus being made up

so that village sportsmen may also get opportunities to play games.  To encourage the promising and budding sportsmen and athletes, a scheme for the grant of annual scholarships has been introduces.  Scholarships to the tune of Rs. 20 per mensem, per head, to school students (both sexes) and Rs. 30 per mense, per head, to college students (both sexes) are awarded.

 

            To improve the standard of games, a scheme for the establishment of regional coaching centres for various games has been started.  In Ludhiana district, coaching centres for hockey, atheletics, and basket-ball have been functioning since May, 1963.  Almost all the educational institutions in Ludhiana proper and some others from rural areas have been taken up for coaching, and training, according to the latest techniques of the different games, is being imparted daily so that the trainees should improve their standards.

 

            The coaches of various games, posted at Ludhiana, visit different institutions for two hours daily in the morning and impart instructions about the fundamentals to the students having special aptitude for different games.  The physical education staffs of the respective institutions follow up the programme and thus raise their standard by daily practice.

 

17.          The Coaches also attend to rural coaching for a week in a month.  Village  Youth Clubs have been formed in about a score of village and the important villages in the district will also be covered gradually.  Government  have introduced a scheme to extend grants to all the Village Youth Clubs for purchase of sports material and paying honorarium to the leaders of the clubs who will be directly responsible for the maintenance of  record and smooth running of the coaching centres.

 

            Block Level tournaments are conducted every month so that village youths may also take part in the competition held by the block sports associations.  Regular coaching camps are also organised.  To improve the standard of rural players, panchayat Tournaments at the block level, and district level and State level are held every year.

 

            League and knock out competitions are arranged by the Sports Department both for (junior and senior) boys and girls for creating healthy atmosphere, tracing out talent and selection of teams for giving advance training and preparing them for the State and national level competitions.

 

            The District Sports Officer also visits various schools to see that the physical education staff implement the coaching schedules prepared in consultation with the District Sports Officer.

 

            Arrangements have also been made to popularise sports among women.  A District Sports Officer (W) was appointed in August, 1965. Competitions at the school/college level, district level, University level and inter-University level are organised from time to time.  Besides, tournaments are held by the Educational Department and the District Sports Association.

            Regional coaching centres have been started for women where training is imparted daily in hockey, basket-ball and athletics.  Coaching camps for a fortnight or two are organised in rural areas where selected girls are given training.

 

            Women Youth Clubs have been formed at block level where training is given.  Competitions are held among these clubs and students and teachers of nearby schools take part in them.  Tournaments are organised at Bloc, district and State levels.

 

(G)   Cultural and Literary Societies and Periodicals

 

            Among the cultural societies functioning in the district, mention may be made of the following :-

 

            Jot Kala Kendra, Ludhiana. – It was established in 1962 to promote Punjabi culture, national unity through cultural programme, publicise development schemes through songs, dramas, etc., and aid the needy poets and men of literary taste.

 

            Among the literary societies, functioning in the district, the following deserve mention :-

 

            Punjabi Sahitya Akademi, Ludhiana. -  It is an all-India organisation of Punjabi scholars, literateurs and artists and is devoted to the cause of the development and promotion of Punjabi language, literature and culture.  It is a registered body under the Societies Registration Act, 21 of 1860, with its headquarters at Ludhiana.  It is associated with the Central Sahitya Akademi are : to train and prepare scholars for research and creative literature ; to establish a Central Library, Research Institute, and Sahitya Sadan ; to undertake the publication of standard bookd and journals ; and to undertake and encourage translation of standard works from and into other languages.

 

            Since its inception in 1954, the Akademi has published upto July, 1966. 40 outstanding research books and held 9 All-India Punjabi Conferences at Ludhiana, Patiala, Delhi, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Ambala, Jullundur, Bombay and Ludhiana.  Besides, the Akademi held more than 50 literary seminars, political symposia and cultural functions.  It publishes its own quarterly research journal Alochana.

 

            In order to extend the scope of its activities and strengthen its functioning, the Akademi set up in 1966 a centre of its own, called ‘Punjabi Bhawan’, at Ludhiana, on the Ludhiana – Ferozepore Road.  Inaugurated on 2nd July, 1966, the Punjabi Bhawan at Ludhiana is a multi-storeyed building and has, among other features, an auditorium with a capacity of 1,000, an open-air theatre, a reference library, a research institute, a writers’ home, a writer’s gallery, an art gallery, a printing press, etc.

 

            Periodicals. – The cultural and literary periodicals, published in the district are detailed elsewhere.

 

 

(H)  Libraries

 

            In the Sikh period, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established and maintained a library in the State toshakhana.  Though Maharaja Ranjit Singh was an unlettered man, he was a great patron of learned men and scholars.  The Maharajas of Patialawere also great lovers of books and they purchased valuable, rare and illuminated manuscripts and preserved them in the palace Library.

 

            In the British Period, the Punjab University College was started at Lahore in the year 1882.  The Punjab Library was established at Lahore in 1884 with the object of providing a library for the use of all classes of the people and a reading-room open to the public free of charge.  The library contributed to the intellectual advancement of the country by placing within the reach of the students and scholars such scientific works as would be impossible for them to acquire. After the partition, the Punjab Library Association was also uprooted, but it was rehabilitated early in 1948, in East Punjab and re-organised at Simla.  It held its first Provisional Library Conference and Book Festival at Simla in October, 1948.  Similar library conferences and Book Festivals were also held at other places in the State.  These activities of the Punjab Library Association paved the way for a planned and co-ordinated development of libraries and improvement of library service in the State.

 

            With a view to co-ordinating and rationalizing the existing library facilities and to providing more facilities for the proper functioning of libraries and reading rooms run by various departments of Government and local bodies, the Punjab Government in the year 1950 set up a Central Body designated as the “Central Library Committee” in which the Punjab Library Association is also represented by its President.  The Committee did excellent work in implementing the plan, known as Radhawa Plan, which envisaged setting up of new libraries in beautiful surroundings and furnishing them with well-designed furniture, picture and paintings concerning Punjab and its people.  Under this scheme, new public libraries were started in urban and rural areas of the State.  Punjab State has not lagged behind other States in India in the development of academic and special libraries.  There is a net work of libraries functioning both in urban and rural areas of the State, which are rendering useful service to the public.

 

            The following libraries are functioning in the district :-

 

            Panchayat Libraries. – Generally every panchayat in the district maintains a small library for the promotion of education in rural areas.

 

            Municipal Libraries. – All the municipalities in the district, viz., Ludhiana, doraha, Jagraon, Raikot, Samrala and Khanna maintain libraries and reading rooms for public use.

 

Municipal Public Library, Ludhiana.

 

            Located on the top floor of the municipal office building, the municipal Public Library, Ludhiana, was founded in 1878 by G.E. Wakefield, the then Deputy Commissioner and President, Municipal Committee, Ludhiana.  It contains 9,197 books on all subjects and subscribes to 28 dailies, 30 weeklies and 9 monthly magazines.  The library also runs 18 part-time reading rooms in different parts of the city, each of which is provided with 23 dailies and 31 periodicals for the readers.

 

            The Library remains open for seven hours a day.  A resident of Ludhiana can become a member on payment of Rs. 3 as annual subscription and Rs. 10 as security for drawal of books.  A person can become a life-member of the Library on payment of Rs. 50 in lumpsum or on donation of books of the same value.

 

            Private Libraries. –Shri Atma Ram Jain, Library, Ludhiana, is the only private public library in the district.  Besides, most of the religious bodies in the district maintain their own libraries/reading rooms which contain literature mostly relating to their particular sects.

 

            College and School Libraries. – All the high/higher secondary schools and colleges in the district have their own libraries meant for the use of their students and teachers.

 

            Punjab Agricultural University Library, Ludhiana. – The Punjab Agricultural University Library system comprises three libraries located at different campuses of the University ; Ludhiana, Hissar (in Haryana) and Palampur (in Himachal Pradesh). Close co-operation among the three campuses of the University is maintained and books and journals are freely loaned form one campus of the University to another.  Any teacher or post-graduate student is automatically a member of all campus libraries and can borrow any book from any campus he chooses.  Books are also loaned to other co-operating libraries all over India.

 

Two publications, viz., Monthly Book Sampler and Received This Week, were being issued simultaneously at Ludhiana and Hissar, as part of their “current awarness services”.  A consolidated list of disseratations has also been published at Ludhiana.

 

The Ludhiana Campus Library is the most developed but it is faced with extreme shortage of space.  It has therefore, been spread over three campus buildings : one in the College of Agriculture Building, one in College of Agricultural Engineering Building, and one in Post-graduate Wing.

 

The library has also acquired sophisticated equipment for documentations and microfilming (being one of the first libraries in India to do so).

 

Punjab University Extension Library, Ludhiana. – At the initiative of the University Grants Commission, Punjab University, Chandigarh, and the India wheat Loan Educational Exchange Programme of the U.S. Embassy, an Extension Library was established at Ludhiana in July, 1960.  Initially housed in Zila Parishad building in the District Courts, it shifted on October 12, 1967, to its own newly constructed building, with a capacity of 200 readers and stock capacity of 1,50,000 books.  It has an auditorium with a seating capacity of 250, where cultural, social and instructional programmes are arranged.

 

In 1966-67, the library had 42,000 books, subscribed to 225 magazines and newspapers, and had a membership of about 3,000.  Reading machines for microforms such as Microfilm Reader and Microcard Reader are available to facilitate consultation of research material no longer available in printed form.

 

The character of this library is unique in India not so much because of its name but because of the types of services it renders.  It caters for the requirements of readers right from a researcher.  Another unique feature of the library is that it provides service to the local community which brings it into the category of public library.19

 

19.  The Punjab University Extension Library, Ludhiana, casters to the needs of people residing, serving, studying, teaching and working at Ludhiana or within a radius of 60 kilometres.

 

Besides, the library offers bibliographical services in regard to Indian News Index, Punjab University Dovtoral Dissertations, Subject Guide to Indian Periodicals in Economics, Vidhaya Shirshak Suchi (list of Subject Headings in Hindi), etc.

 

 

 

CHAPTER XVI

MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH

 

v    

Public Health and Medical Facilities in Early Times

v    

Vital Statistics

v    

Diseases Common to the District

v    

Medical and Public Health Services

 

 

 

            (a)       Survey of public Health and Medical Facilities in early times.- The indigenous system of medicine-known as Ayurveda has been in vogue in the country from very early times. Despite the prevailing superstitions the scientific spirit progressed and the ancient Ayurvedic system became highly developed and produced eminent practitioners like Dhanwantri, Charak, Shuskata and Vagbhat.

 

Ayurvedic system was fairly advanced in diagnostic methods. All senses were employed from diagnosis. Pulse also played a great role in diagnosis and prognosis and elaborate pulse lore was developed. The classification of disease was quite elaborate.

 

Therapeutics were based largely on hygiene and diet-both of great importance in ancient civilization. Pharmacy was highly developed and Ayurveda mentions no less than 760 vegetable drugs in addition to those from animal and mineral products. Hospitals were established in the country long before the Christian era. Greatest accomplishment of Ayurveda was in the field of Surgery. Excision, incision, scarification, puncture, probing, extraction, squeezing and sewing were elaborately described by Shustrata. Rhinoplasty (replacement of the nose) was a unique achievement in Hindu period owing to the practice of cutting the nose as a punishment under the law.

 

Etiological relationships of rats in plague and mosquitoes in malaria wer also fully recognised.

 

Rhazes, Habibun-Abbo and Avicena were best known practitioners and teachers in Arabic medicine and their works were followed by most of the Mohammadans all the world ove. The muslims were greatly influenced by the Greek system of medicine and for the same reason the method of treatment adopted by the muslims, through similar to the Ayurveda in many ways, came to be known as ‘Unani’ or Greek System. Sections of the Mohammadans, however, Like the Hindus also, believed in superstitions and they attached considerable importance to amulets and charms to ward off the evil effects of certain diseases. Prayers, too, for curing diseases were much relied upon.

 

            Druing Mohammadan period, the Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine were generally practiced. The Unani system became more popular in the urban areas due to the patronage of the rules; but in the rural areas, where a major part of the population resided, Ayurveda continued to be practiced. 

 

            In the 18th century the Sikhs wielded power in the Punjab and in their time there was some revival of Ayurvedic system; but simultaneously the influence of Unani System was also discernible .Public health was not considered to be a major problem; since most of the time was utilised by the rulers in the expansion of their dominions and collection of revenue. Under peaceful conditions and benevolent rulers free medical aid in some form was available in big towns. The people in the rural areas had to fend for themselves as best as possible.

 

(b)              Vital Statistics:

 

General Standard of Health as reflected by Statistics.- The Population of the district according to census figures from 191 onwards would indicate the trend of variation amongst males and female:

 

Years

 

Persons

Decade variation

Percentage decade variation

Males

Females

1901

..

6,51,937

..

..

3,56,567

2,95,370

1911

..

5,03,842

-1,48,095

-22.72

2,85,393

2,18,449

1921

..

5,53,200

+49,358

+9.80

3,10,044

2,43,156

1931

..

6,56,660

+1,03,460

+18.70

3,66,683

2,89,977

1941

..

8,01,093

+1,44,433

+22.00

4,37,336

3,63,757

1951

..

8,07,418

+6,325

+0.79

4,37,336

3,70,082

1961

..

10,22,519

+2,15,101

+26.64

5,51,304

4,71,215

 

(Source: Ludhiana District Census Handbook, 1961 p. 161)

 

            These statistics reveal that there has been steady increase in population. There has not, however, been notable increase in population from 1941 to 1951, the period covering the partition of Punjab for the obvious reason that most of the Muhammadans migrated to West Pakistan and in their place the displaced persons from certain districts of west Pakistan settled in the district. As the land left by Muslims was much less in the district, the number of migrants rehabilitated here could not be more. The exceptional rise in the population of the district in 1961 is not only due to rapid industrialisation of Ludhiana; but also to increase in the birth rate and decrease in death rate caused by the improved medicals facilities available in the district.

 

            The registration of vital statistics, as elsewhere, is compulsory throughout the district. In rural areas the chowkidars maintain ‘Birth and Death Registers’. Necessary records are also maintained by the municipalities in the urban areas. Besides other advantage the procedure provides a dependable record of the growth of population and it also helps in visualizing the scope of measures to be taken to check the mortality rate and also to devise ways and means to effect family planning etc. the chief Medical Officer complies this data. Appendix I at page 582 indicates the birth and death rates and infantile mortality rate, etc.

 

            There has been marked increase in the birth rat since 1954. It was highest in 1955. This increase was interalia due to comparatively peaceful and easy conditions. During the Third Five-Year plan period the birth rate was on decrease due largely to extensive Family Planning and birth control measures undertaken by the Government. The mortality rate was highest in the years 1946 and 1947. As a result of improved medical facilities in the Third Five-Year Plan mortality rate was reduce appreciably

 

            Important Causes of Mortality - The important causes of mortality in the district are fever, dysentery, respiratory diseases and injuries. Appendix II at page 583 given some of the important causes of detail.

 

 

(C) Diseases Common in the District:

 

            (i) Fevers - The largest mortality in the district is due to fevers, such as Tyhid, Malaria and other types of Fevers. These are caused by unhealthy living and poor diet. the ailments are chronic and the Medical Department finds it difficult to eradicate them. Ordinary fevers may be successfully checked by sulpha-drugs and anti-biotics. Medical facilities have, however, been made available in the remotest corner in the district. Further to remove the persistent cause of fevers, the Government proposes to clear the slums in big cities and towns. The improvement Trust, Ludhiana, has taken some practical measures in this direction. Better living and balanced diet would ultimately eliminate or at least lessen considerably the general types of fevers.

 

            (ii) Respiratory Diseases - Respiratory Diseases, which are responsible for mortality only next to fever, are caused by different types of smokes, fumes, vapors of chemical gases, released by the burning of charcoal, coke, etc.- a necessary material required in industry. These gases pollute the atmosphere all the twenty-four hours and are inhaled by the local population. The smoke is constant source of irritation and harmful to the respiratory organs. Another factor responsible for aggravating the diseases in the large influx of labour class form the rural areas of Ludhiana in search of employment. Diseases like Tuberculosis and find favourable conditions in overcrowded, dart and dingy factories, wherefrom thee are carried back in the dwelling of labourers. The slums greatly help in the spread of disease. Working long hours is extremely unhealthy surroundings leads to low resistance which further aggravates the weakness in respiratory mechanism and increases the number of victims.

 

            No check is maintained on the discharge of harmful gases and smokers in the city. Factories Act, 1948, however, lays down that there should be proper disposal of gases in the atmosphere and any harmful wastage should be removed to places where it does not effect the public health.

 

            (iii) Malaria - The next common disease is Malaria, which is own practically extinct in the district. This disease used to take heavy toll of thousands of persons in the district in the Bet areas. the National Malaria Control Programme followed by National Malaria Eradication Programme reached the stage of surveillance in 1959. the measure has reduced the morbidity and mortality to almost base line. From 1964 N.M.E.P. entered into maintenance phase. It will be interest to deal with the matte in detail to form a clear picture of the eradication of the disease in the district.

            Malaria control Programme was taken up in the district in 1953. The Malaria Unit, Ferozepore, carried out various anti-malaria operations in the riverain tracts of Ludhiana District. In 1954, a few more units were opened and accordingly the Jullundhur Unit was made responsible for carrying out anti-malaria measures in endemic areas of the district. In 1959 the State switched over to National Malaria Eradication Programme. A mypoendemic unit was raised at Ludhiana. This unit was mainly responsible for taking up measures in the way of residual insecticidal spraying in mypoendemic areas of Ludhiana District, Moga Tahsil of the Ferozepore District and Phillaur Tahsil of the Jullundhur District. The unit continued covering these myoendemic areas while endemic areas of the district remained under the control of the Jullundhur Unit. In 1962, on re-organisation, Ludhiana and Jagraon tahsils of Ludhiana District and Moga Tahsil of Ferozepore district were put under the control of Ludhiana Unit and Samrala Tahsil under the Chandigarh  Unit. Subsequently the entire district was put under the Ludhiana District Unit.

 

            The number of Malaria cases treated in Hospitals/dispensaries in the Malaria Unit, Ludhiana, pertaining to the agencies of Ludhiana District is given below :

 

Year

All cases

Fevers only

Percent

1959-60

1,41,549

3,429

2.4

1960-61

1,54,637

1,922

1.2

1961-62

2,82,339

347

014

 

            From 1964 the unit was brought to the maintenance phase.

           

            The statement showing rounds of D.D.T spray in Malaria unit, Ludhiana, Pertaining to the Villages of Ludhiana district are given below :

 

Year

Number of villages

Population  protected

Covered area(in Sq.miles)

Houses sprayed

Rooms sprayed

Number of rounds

1959-60

275

4,30,147

-

N.A.

-

Ist

1960-61

276

4,33,635

-

-

-

Ist

1961-62

275

5,67,964

481.85

78,972

3,440

Ist

 

            Spray operations were withdrawn from 1962-63.

 

            The figure given hereunder indicate stages of malaria cases during surveillance and maintenance phase :

 

Year

Number of fever cases detected

Number of blood smears collected

Number of  cases given presumptive treatment

Number of blood smears examined

Number of smears found positive

Number of positive cases radically treated

1962

83,207

83,307

82,375

-

11

-

1963

76,224

75,172

76,055

84,845

4

-

1964

1,08,408

1,15,281

1,07,483

1,15,281

6

6

1965

46,226

47,507

43,549

47,477

2

2

1966

70,602

69,103

71,252

67,575

41

41

1967

69,633

78,114

64,923

77,843

32

32

1968**

85,174

1,03,458

83,386

1,03,121

50

50

 

            **one Block Sidhwan Bet was reverted to attacked phase temporarily in 1968 and two rounds of spray were given in the infected area.

 

            (iv)  Dysentry and Diarrhoea.- Next among the common diseases are dysentery and diarrhoea. These diseases caused by infection adversely reflect on the hygienic conditions of the areas. From 1953 Primary Health Centres, one each in N.E.S Programme, have become permanent features of the medical facilities. Apart from the medical aid provided in these centres services like maternity and child health, environment sanitation, check of communicable diseases, school health services, vital statistics, health education and family planning are being well looked after particularly in the rural areas. the Medical department is keen on elimination epidemics and endemics but ultimately it is the preventive measures in the form of healthy living, protected water-supply and drainage system and change in diet habits that would ensure complete elimination of the infections.

 

            (v) Communicable Diseases.- The communicable Diseases-Cholera Small-Pox and Plague, have also not been noted in district since 1948. The general preventive measures protected water-supply, drainage system and de-rating and preventive inoculations have been some of the significant factors in the elimination of these diseases. Preventive inoculations are also done at melas, wherever necessary.

 

            Small-Pox.-  While Cholera and Plague have disappeared from the district, small-pox, despite persistent effects, has not been completely eradicated. There were 10 cases in 1963. The main reasons for this are that people do not voluntarily get themselves vaccinated after intervals. Unhygienic living in rural and slum-area is also to a large extent responsible for its incidence. Form 1956 the disease except in 1963 when some deaths were registered from small-pox.

 

            Small-pox cases continue to occur during certain seasons every year and the disease appears in epidemic form once in a span of 5-6 years. Keeping in view the gravity of the situation National Small-Pox Eradication Programme was launched in 1961-63. Mass campaign was started and the entire population of the district was vaccinated. This colossal work was done under the supervision of medical Officer specially appointed for the purpose. Beside medical staff posted in the district, medical personal posted under the Zila Parishads and the municipalities were also called upon to undertake vaccination work. In the rural area I Superintendent Vaccination., 14 Vaccinators and 5 Assistant vaccination and Rural sanitation vaccination have been appointed. In Ludhiana City there are 7 vaccination stations with equal number of vaccinators under a superintendent Vaccination, Ludhiana.

            Periodic disinfection of open wells in all villages of the district is also done by the sanitation staff.

 

            Appendix III at page 584 would show the incidence of small-pox and the details of preventive measures taken in the district.

 

            Plague.- Plague, presently non-existent, was the most feared of all the pestilences. Ever since its spread in 1897 it was never entirely eliminated from the State till 1937. It brought have in the district from 1901-04, as mentioned elsewhere. Since partition, like other district of the State, this pestilence has not been noticed in Ludhiana. This has been achieved y extensive and repeated use D.D.T and gammexene in the treatment of rat burrows and flea harborages in the endemic areas. Utmost vigilance is also maintained and every possible precaution is taken to apply preventive measures, including anti-plague inoculation, wherever human cases occur.

 

            Tuberculosis.-  A Tuberculosis clinic is functioning in Ludhiana since 1954. It is engaged in anti-Tuberculosis work. It was upgraded in 1957 and provided with the necessary equipment. The patients avail themselves of facilities, free of cost, of diagnosis and treatment. This clinics is manned by a doctor, health Visitor, a Laboratory Technician, an X-Ray Technician besides other supporting staff. The work done by the clinic from 1960 onwards in different fields is given hereunder:

 

Year

Number of persons vaccinated

Number of persons treated

1960

2,485

845

1961

596

911

1962

-

1,030

1963

-

903

1964

-

1,135

1965

79

991

1966

318

1,060

1967

246

1,257

1968

 431

                 1,429

 

            A team of B.C.G. Vaccinators covers the whole district under the supervision of the chief medical officers, Ludhiana.

 

 

(D) Organisation of Medical and Health Services

 

Previously medical services were divided into two wings-one under the medical services and the other under the health wing. The Civil Surgeon was the incharge of the medical services and was responsible for the functioning of hospitals and dispensaries, medical and surgical work besides being Government medical-legal expert, himself working under the administrative control of the Director Health Services, Punjab. On the other side the District Medical Officer of Health was incharge of Public health Wing of the Health Organisation in the district. He, too, worked under the administrative control of the Director, Health Services, Punjab. He was responsible for sanitation improvement, disease prevention and health promotion services. He was also to advise the municipalities on public health matters. In April, 1964, both these wings were amalgamated. Under the new arrangement the Chief Medical Officer is incharge of both the medical and health services in the district. Administratively the medical staff employed by Zila Parishad has also been put under his control. The staff however draws their salaries from the funds of Zila Parishad. This system was adopted for the purpose of increasing efficiency.

 

            The Chief Medical Officer is assisted1by the Senior Medical Officer, 25 Medical Officers, 5 Assistant Medical Officers, 2 Dental Assistant Surgeons (one male and the other Female), 44 Dispensers (males and females), 4 Staff Nurses, 12 Nurse Dais, one X-Ray Assistant and a Laboratory Assistant in the District.    

 

1.  The position is as 1-11-1966.

 

            Out of the above mentioned strength the City Dispensary has a Medical Officer, 3 Dispensary and other miscellaneous staff and the Model Town Dispensary is manned by a Doctor, 2 Dispensers,  1 Nurse and Dial Besides other miscellaneous staff.

 

            Public Hospitals.- Out of Government hospitals/dispensaries being run in the district, civil Hospital, Ludhiana and Civil Hospital, Khanna, are noteworthy. Civil Hospital, Ludhiana, is manned by a Senior Medical officer, three Medical Officers, Eight Dispensers, two Nurses, Two Nurse Dais, X-Ray Assistant, Laboratory Assistant, Dental Surgeons Besides Miscellaneous staff. 35.464 out-door patients, 1,886 in-door patients were treated in 1966.

 

            The hospital, which has been constructed at a cost of Rs. 10 lakhs at Bharat Nagar Chowk is the second of its kind in the State. The first such hospital was constructed at Amritsar. The hospital will benefit about 25,000 labourers who are covered by the E.S.I. Scheme. The labourers Gobindgarh, Phillaur, Khanna and Malerkotla will also be provided medical treatment there.

 

            Besides the provision of Clinical laboratories an, X-ray plant and two operation theatres have been set up.

 

            The Government has also planned to construct residential quarters for the staff working in the E.S.I Hospital at a cost of Rs. 5 Lakhs.

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