Historical Places

 

            There are few notable places in or around Ludhiana.  The tomb of Pir Roshan, i.e., Pir Qadir Jalani, in the open space to the south of the fort, has already been referred to.  There is also an old tomb, in the Sayyed’s mohalla of one of their ancestors (Saiyed ali Fil Mast), and several Hindu tamples (Shivalas and Thakarduwaras) which are not very old.

 

            Near the city lie a few old Muhammadan remains.  These are Shaikhanwali masjid and a tomb near the fort.  The mosque, which has two mainarets and three domes, was built in the time of Aurangzeb and the Khanaqah of Suleman Shah Chisti, a square domeless tomb, is probably unfinished.  The Khanazah of Saiyed Ali Sarmast, two tombs and a mosque in an enclosure are situated outside Purana Bazar.  One tomb is octagonal and underneath it is a tahkhanah.  The second tomb, according to an inscription, was built in A. H. 978. (1570 A. D.).  The first tomb was probably built in the time of the Tughluqs.  The Khanqah of Shah Qutb, west of thr orad to Phillaur, is said to have been standing for the last over six and a half centuries.  The walls of the enclosure and the pavement are evidently of bricks from Sunet ; the khanqah of Sayyed Ali Buzarg, a brick tomb is said to have been built over three and a half centuries ago.

 

            To the north of the city, the fort is situated on a point of the ridge over-looking the lowlands.  It is a square structure with a high mud wall and a deep ditch, the inside measuring about 100 metres each way ; and it owes its present form to sir D. Ochterlony, who made use of the bricks found in the neighbouring ruins of Sunet for building the fort.

 

            To the west of the Railway Station and behind the district offices the old Rakh (plantation), commonly known as Rakh Garden, which contained a Municipal Swimming Pool, has recently been greatly reduced in extent.  Except the Pool and small surrounding area, the locality has almost completely buildings and residential houses.  The old cantonment has completely disappeared, except some houses and a few offices close to the town and the church and the cemetery.

 

Malaudh. -  The historical town is situated at a distance of about 40 kilometres from Ludhiana on Ludhiana-Ahmedgarh Road – linked by approach road from Kup.  It lies on 75o- 56’ Longitude and 30o – 38’ Latitude.  Malaudh appears to be a very ancient place where the well known Mallas, with whom Multan or Mallustan is associated, are said to have attained prominence in a battle against the local people.  as a result of their victory the place came to be known as Malla Udey- rise of the Mallas.  In course of time it baceme corrupted as Malaudh.  There was a Theh Loharan about 1 kilometer on southern side, which has now disappeared.  It was in 1754 that Sardar Man Sing conquered the fort from the Malerkotla Afghans.  Thereafter Malaudh remained under the Sardars. The town had a fortification wall which has been pulled down.  Malaudh is also connected with the Namdhari attack on Malerkotla.  In 1872 a batch of Namdharis approached the Sardar for assistance and murdered him on his refusal to join hands with them.

 

Maladh has a Government High School (Co-educational), Middle School for girls and a Primary School for boys, a Post Office, Primary Health Centre and a Veterinary Dispensary.

 

Payal. – Payal is the headquarters of the sub-tahsil of the said name in Ludhiana tahsil.  It is about 37 kilometres from the district headquarters.  It lies 30o – 43’ north and 76o – 7’ east.  Payal is about 10 kilometres from Chawa Railway station by road.  It is linked with G. T. Road at a distance of 13 kilometres from Khanna on Ludhiana side and also with Malerkotla by metalled road.  The town is situated on an old mound.

 

As a part of the former Princely State of Patiala, Payla was a sub-tahsil of Dhuri tahsil under Sunam Nizamat (district). On the formation of Pepsu in 1948 its status was raised to that of a tahsil and it was placed under Bassi Nizamat (district).  From August, 1953 onwards Payal was attached to Amloh sub-tahsil of Sirhind tahsil, Patiala district.  From February, 1954, Payal was again raised to the status of sub-tahisl attached to Sirhind tahsil, Patiala district.  From November, 1963, Payal sub-tahisl, comprising 86 villages, including Payal, has been attached to Ludhiana tahsil.

 

 

Payal has an interesting historical background.  Some 760 years ago Shah Hassan, a Mohammadan Faqir, took up his a bode on the old mound.  He was followed by some Seoni Khatries of Chiniot, who settled there at the suggestion of the Faqui.  Whil digging the foundation, a Payal or Pazeb (a women’s foot ornament) was found at the place.  The Faqir advised his followers to name the new habitation after the ornament.  The founder’s tomb stands in the town.  In A. D., 1236 Malik Ala-ud-Din Jani, who had rebelled against Sultana Razia, was killed by the supporters of the Sultan near Payal.  During Emperor Akbar’s reign Payal was made a Pargana of sirhind.  The town gradually grew in importance under the Mughals.  Ibrahim Hussain Mirza, a relative of Emperor Akbar’s reign Payal was made a Pargana of Sirhind.  The town gradually grew in importance under the Mughals. Ibrahim Hussain Mirza, a relative of Emperor Akbar’s reign Payal was made a Pargana of Sirhind.  The town gradually grew in importance under the Mughals.  Ibrahim Hussain Mirza, a relative of Emperor Akbar, on account of hostile attitude towards the Emperor, had fled to the Punjab.  He plundered Sirhind in A. D> 1573 and ravaged the country around it.  according to Mullah Abdul Qadir, author of Muntakhib-ut-Tawarikh : “His men, when he arrived at Payal, committed such atrocities upon the Muslim population as cannot be described”.  The Mirza was, however, hotly pursued by the imperial forces into the Punjab and thence to Multan where he died a wounded prisoner.”

 

It was at Payal again, that, during his expeditionary march to the Punjab in 1581 A. D., Emperor Akbar got the good news that his rebel half-brother Mohd. Hakim, the ruler of Kabul, who had set pout for the capture of Lahore, had withdrawn from the Punjab.  Under the Later Mughals Payal  formed a pargana of the Pathan State of Patiala in 1766.  The town is by no means an important trade centre.  Among the local industries may be mentioned carving of door frames or manufacture of raths and bahlis by the carpenters. Light country shoes are also made there.

 

There is an old fort in Payal.  The name of the ruler who constructed it is not known.  Its interior is fast crumbling.  Presently the local Girls Primary School is housed in the serviceable portion.

 

Close to the fort there is a temple of Ram Chander.  Dusehra mela is held every year.  There is also ‘Dasnam Ka Akhara’ – a temple, another of this type is said to be in Varanasi.  There is also a Devi temple constructed over a hundred years ago.

 

Payal has a Government High School for Boys with Basic Classes, a Government Middle School for Girls, a Primary Health Centre, Veterinary Dispensary,  police Station, Post and Telegraph Officer with telephone facilities and a Ladies and Children’s Park.

 

Qila Raipur. – Qila Raipur is linked with Ludhiana by rail and road.  By rail it is at a distance of 18 kilometres and by road nearly 21 kilometres on Dehlon-Gujjarwal Road.  It lies in 75o – 49’ – 30” Longitude and 30o-45’ – 45” Latitude.  Its population in 1961 was 4,928.  It has Government High Schools for boys and girls, the latter with basic class, a Veterinary dispensary and a post office with telephone facility. The village has a panchayat.

Qila Raipur is famous as a sports centre.  In the month of February Grewal sports tournament is held here every year.  The 34th tournament was held in February, 1969.

 

A historical gurdwara, named Damdama Sahib, outside the village was built in memory of the 9th Guru Teg Bahadur.  About a kilometer to the north-east of the village is the Akhara of Shri Dev Puri, an ashram which provides free boarding and lodging for Sadhus.  Its own 250 bighas of land attached to the Ashram.  Some two hundred inmates of the Ashram attend to all jobs from ploughing the fields to cobbling the shoes, etc., by themselves.  Residential arrangements have been made in cubicles and in a big circular thatched pavilion.  The Ashram has amenities like electric and water supply.  With the produce from  the land attached  to the Akhara and donations in kind from the  people of the surrounding area, a community kitchen is run  for the benefit of the visiting and resident Sadhus, who are fed in a spacious hall close to it.  The Sadhus going out on pilgrimage or to other stations may leave their belongings in the pavilion where several bundles are seen hanging from the beams of the thatched ceiling.  The multi-storeyed Samadh of the founder of the Akhara, Sawami Dev Puri, who died some years ago, is under construction.

 

Rara. (Shaib). -  13 kilometres from Payal on the bank of the Sirhind canal there is a big Gurdwara called Rara Sahib.  It lies on 75o-57’ Longitude and 30o – 43’ Latitude.  Sant Ishar Singh is the head of the institution.  This Gurdwara (Karamsar) was constructed in 1936. The people of Katari- a village on the other bank of canal, donated 50 Bighas of land for the purpose.  Presently the Gurdwara has also acquired a 200-Bigha farm.  Its produce is used for running the ‘langar’.

 

The Gurdwara has a very spacious Diwan hall recently completed with ultra modern light and sound fittings.  It can accommodate about 4,000 persons.  In front of the hall a vast enclosure is proposed to be utilized for open air Dewan on moon lit nights in summer.  Sant Ishar Singh holds religious discourses at Rara Sahinb and also is several other Gurdwaras.

 

Sahnewal. – To the south-east of Ludhiana at  a distance of about 16 kilometres, Sahnewal is situated on Amritsar – Ambala- Delhi main railway line and the G. T. road.  It lies on 75o – 59’ – 05” Longitude and 30o – 50’ – 27” latitude.  Its population was 3,830 in 1961 compared to 3,618 in 1951.  The town has a Government High School, Kanya Vidyala High School, Arya Girls School, Dispensary with indoor facility  and Veterinary Hospital.  There is a Police Station, Post and Telegraph Office and Telephone Exchange.  There is a Panchayat Library and tow other public libraries.

 

On account of its location near Ludhiana some Small-scale Industries have been developed there. it is a good market for wheat, maize and groundnut.  A cattle fair is held half-yearly.

 

There is a historic Gurdwara known as Damdama Sahib, which is said to have been built at the where Guru Gobind  Singh stayed for a short-while after leaving Chamkaur.  Free langar is available at the place.

Siahar. – Siahar is at a distance of 19 kilometres from Payal on Payal Malerkotla Road linked by a kachha approach road.  It lies on 75o – 55’ Longitude and 30o – 42’ Latitude.  Guru Hargobind is said to have stayed here.  The dakki (forest) where he stayed is situated at a distance of half a kilometre from the village.  In his memory a Gurdwara has recencly been built there.  His horse is stated to have died here.  The legend goes that the Guru buried his dead horse with a costly doshala.  This doshala was taken away by two low caste residents who further sold it to the local money-lender.  The fact was reported to the Guru under whose curse misfortune fell on the miscreants.

 

Big diwan is held in siahar on Guru Hargobind’s birthday in the month of Asadh (June), on Kartika Puranmashi (October) and 7th Pausa (December) every year.

 

Sunet. – Five kilometres from Ludhiana, on Ludhiana-Jagraon Road, the ancient village of Sunet is situated.  The place is also popularly known as Ucha Pind and Kacha pind probably on account of the existence of an old mound there. Its  population was1,622 persons in 1961 against 1,575 in 1951.  It has a Government(Co-educational ) Middle School.  There is a Branch Post Office run by a Part-time teacher.  The village falls within has a panchayat.  Sunet is famous for the huge mound, which is said to have measured 17,550 ft. in length and 1,200 ft. in breadth at the time it was visited by sir Alexander Cunningham in 1878-79.  At present the mound has greatly shrunk in size.  A small portion still remains.  Pieces of ancient bricks and potsherds are found scattered in large quantities.  Numerous terracotta seals and other antiquities have been found from the place.  Some interested persons have also antiquities have been found from the place.  Some interest persons have also collected a number of coins, clay seals and other relics fro the site7.

 

7.  Several coin moulds, burnt clay seals and other objects procured from Shri harbans Singh of Ghulai have been displayed in the historical museum of the State Archives at Patiala.

 

 

The place is undoubtedly of great antiquity as vouched by the number and the variety of old coins found there.  Sir Alexander Cunningham in his own report had acknowledged the collection of more than 1,000 coins, which related mostly to pre-muslim period8.on the basis of the overwhelming numismatic evidence it was inferred by him that the town of Sunet was in existence before the Christian era.  The fact was proved by the coins of Uttama-Datta and Amogha- Bhuti9. It continued to flourish down to the time of Samanta – Deva, the Brahmin King of Kabul and the Punjab, about 900 A. D.

 

8.   Report on “A tour in the Punjab, 1878-79” by Sir Alexander Cunnigham, Vol. XIV PP. 65-67, 1882.

9.   Sunet is also believed to be a later capital of the Yaudheyas on the basis of these coins, Ibid, p. 65, 1882

 

Since no coins of the Tomara Rajas of Delhi or of the various Mohammadan dynasties have been found, it is believed that Sunet must have been destroyed during one of the early invasions of Muhmud of Ghazni.  The place remined uninhabited for centuries thereafter.

 

The above conclusions are broadly confirmed by the report of Tolbort. Which confirms that vast quantities of building material have been obtained from the place by the people of the surrounding areas.  about the history of Sunet very little is known beyond the popular belief that the place suffered a convulaion on account of the curse on the king.  According to the fable Raja Maj Gend or Ponwar of Sunet treated his subjects with great violence and cruelty.  The king, being afflicted with ulcer was told that human flesh would do him good.  So he had ordered that a human being might be brought from each household as occasion might require.  One day it so happened that it was the turn of the only child of a widow.  As the king’s agents came to take away the boy, the mother’s tears moved a holy man, who made an unsuccessful attempt to turn away the soldiers.  In his rage he had cursed the town and its king to be destroyed.  So it happened that the town was buried underground.

            Another legend has it: Sirkap , the ruler of Sunnet10 was in the habit of eating one goat a day. The supply of the goats having failed, his cook served  up the flesh of a young child. The Raja noticed the difference and the cook explained the difficulty. Sirkap was satisfied and ordered the cook to serve up  a young child daily. When it was the turn of the child of a Brahman widow the mother rushed to Mirhoto (Ludhiana) and implored the great Saint Kutb Shah  to save her child. The Saint obliged by killing the cruel king. The name of the Muslim Saint suggested the existence of Awans, who were actually found  at Ludhiana . the story might have been connected with Sirkap by the Awan colonists of Ludhiana on their migration from Awan- kari district situated  between Jhelhm and Indus.

 

10.  In the Shajra  Nasab Bandobast, 1882,” the origin of the name of the village is given as King Sarkap laid  the foundation of the new town on a gold brick ‘Sone KL Int’, whereby it got the name ‘Sone Int”. It became popularly known as Sunet”. It is further explained that the earlier town had been completely deserted since long.  The ancestors of the present owners on setting at the place retained the old name.  Some gold coins were discovered from the site.


 

(c)  Jagraon Tahsil

 

Jagraon tahsil of the Ludhiana district, with an area (1064.60 Sq. kilometres)  in 1961, lies on the south bank of the Satluj between 30’-35’ and 30’-59’ north and 75’-22’ and 75’-47’East. It is bounded on the  East by Ludhiana tahsil on the North by Jallandhur district, on the West by Ferozepore district and on the South by Sangrur district. The tahsil and the population of 242,662 in 1961 as against that of 208646 in 1951. it contains the towns of Jagraon proper (population 29,617in 1961), which is the tahsil headquarters, Raikot (population 11,239 in 1961) and 163 villages. The historic battle field of Aliwal (1846)is situated in this tahsil.

 

            Bhundri.- Bhundri is a small village , about 26 kilometres north of Jagraon in the same tahsil. It lies on 75’-35’ Longitude and 30’-57’ Latitudw. It is linked by road with Chauki Man –a railway station on Ludhiana –Ferozepore Railway line. The village has a Panchayat, a Middle School (Co-educational), a Veterinary Hospital and a Sub- Post Office attached to the school. There is a Primary Health Centre under the Community Development Block. Its population was 882 in 1961 against 334 in 1951.

 

The village has been constantly inhabited since its foundation. The revenue records reveal that the original settlement was started by Bhunder  Mallah (Boatman), also known as Bhunderke, who had  to relinquish possession  under adverse circumstances. Some eleven generations ago Rana Ladho Rajput, on account of his differences with fellow Rajputs, migrated to the place from Hatur and acquired proprietary rights of the village with the permission of the ruler of the day. Ever since the village has been owned by his descendants in the form of (Patties or divisions.)

 

            The place was the scene of one of the battles of the First Anglo-Sikh War, 1846. the action was fought here on 28th, January ,1846. To commemorate the battle a lofty column about 60’-70’ high was raised on a platform about 10 ft. high by the British in 1870. A stone slab giving the description of the battle in English was fixed on one side. It has since fallen down. The platform carries on three sides the dates of the battle in Punjabi, Urdu and English. On the fourth the legend ‘Erected in 1870 gives the date of the commemoration column.

 

            Guru Sar Sadhar:- 12 kilometres from Raikot, 35 kilometres from Jagraon and 26 kilometres from Ludhiana itself, Guru Sar Sadhar is associated with the sixth Guru Hargobind, who spent 5-6 months at the place. It lies on 75’-38’ Longitude and 30’-46’ Latitude. The development of this dry area into a fertile and flourishing agricultural land was largely due to the efforts of the Guru ,who dug many wells and established a Sar or Sarowar near the halmet of his devotee Bhai Jiwanda of village Sadhar. It was here in the month of  September. A.D/ 1631 that a powerful Muslim adherent of the Guru,Rai Jodh of Kangar, his pious wife and son, Chain Beg, came to pay homage to the Guru and placed at his disposal 500 horsemen, which greatly helped the Guru in his last 2 battles against the Mughal forces. It was at this place that about 1,200 Sikhs from Kabul and Kandhar came to pay homage to Guru Hargobind under the leadershop of their masands, Tara Chand, Bakhat Mal and Bhai Dayala.  During the stay of the Guru at Sadhar Bhai Karoria, another disciple, offered Rs 2 lakhs and regretfully reported that two valuable horses brought by him for the Guru from Kabul had been forcibly taken away by the Mughal officials on the way.  Guru Hargobind deputed his trusted disciple,  Bhai Didhi Chand, who, with the help of Bhai Jiwan, a carpenter of Lahore, brought the horses to the guru by risking his life.  Impressed by the dedication and devotion of Bhai Jawanda, the Guru bestowed upon him a pair of his shoes as a gift.  The shoe is still in the possession of the descendants of Bhai Jawanda and can be seen at their house or can be brought to the nearby Gurdwara on making a suitable offering.

 

            On every full moon-day a big diwan is held at the Gurdwara which lasts till 8 in the evening.

 

            There is a Government School for Girls, G. H. G. Kahlsa College and College of Education with basic and B. Ed. Classes in a beautiful building.  The Primary Health Unit is housed in new Ranjit Memorial Building.  The village has a Police Post, 2 Post Offices, one in the village and the other in the College of Education.  There is a Panchayat and a Library.  Guru Sar Sadhar has acquired great importance on account of the development of Halwara Colony about 2 kilometres away.  A beautiful market has sprung up on the road and the two places have thus become linked together.  The population of Guru Sar Sadhar was 2,923 in 1961 as compared to 2,731 in 1951.

 

            Hatur. – Hatur is a village in Jagraon tahsil about 25 kilometres from the latter.  It lies on 30o – 36’ – 16” latitude and 75o – 25’ –48” longitude.  Its population was 3,695 persons in 1961 as against the figures of 3,063 in 1951.

 

            The present village, continually inhabited, was founded close to the old mounds which are believed to be a very ancient.  At the old site, also called Arura and identified with ancient Ahichetti, Lord Mahavira is said to have performed char-mansa or four months’ recess in the timw of Raja Kanaketu.  The place was at that time known as Aichata nagari (see 14th and 15th pages of the Dharam Katha).  General Cunningham holds that Bhadaur may be identified with Arhatpur, which is undoubtedlynamed afterLord Mahavira, the Jaina Tirthankar or Arhat.  Old coins and antiquities have been found at the mounds.  People say that the ancient name of the place is Ahichatta and that its ruler, Raja Buddhamati, composed a work in Prakarit, entitled Dharma Katha, which is still used by the Puja tribe in the District.  In the 15th Chapter of this book, it is mentioned that a former princes of the city of Ahichatta, named Kanaka Ketu, reigned at the time of Mahavira Swami.  Under him the town was so large that Bhadaur and the adjoining villages were the suburbs of Arura.

 

            Among th enotable monuments and Hatur may be mentioned a Maqbara of Rai Ferozwala, near the village.  The heirs of Rai Firoz were in possession of the buildingand continued to live in the village till the partition of the Punjab in 1947, when they migrated to West Pakistan.  30 – 35 years ago a big mela used to be held at the Maqbara.  Some people still visit the Maqbara to pay respect and make offerings there.   The  place is, however, in very poor state of preservation.  The roof of the building and the gates are missing.  The Azmat Khanwali Masjid, a brick mosque said to have been built by the Mughal noble in the times of Emperor Shah Jahan, and another mosque entitled barkhurdar Khanwali Masjid are also in dilapidated condition and in disuse.  The Idgah and the Masjid jail Khanwali are completely ruined.  The  Nikkamalwals Math, known to have been built in the time of Emperor Humayun, is again completely demolished. 

 

            The huge mounds or thehs are situated just outside the village.  The outlying portions of the mounds have already been brought under the plough. The process continues and even the bigger mounds have suffered considerable erosion.

 

            Since all the exiting monuments at Hatur date back to the medieval period, it may be inferred that the present habitation started in the time of the Delhi Sultanate.  Bharu and Lapal, sons of Sheikh Chachu, who as a Rajput was called Tulsi Dass before he embraced Islam in the 12th Century in the reign of Ghiyas-ud-Din Gauri, came to Hatur and initially lived by plunder under the protection of Udho Panwar.  Shortly afterwards Bharu made himself the master of hatur and Lapal settled in the adjoining village of Shah- jahanpur.  Seventh in descent from Baaru was Rai Kalha I, who took sefvice under, perhaps, the last of the Syed Sultans of Delhi, probably in the beginning of the 15th Century.  The family continued as a feudatory of the Delhi empire (Zamindar or mustajir) under the Lodies and Mughals for several generations.  The original site might have been the scene of mass scale destruction in consequence of repeated Muslim invasions from the north-west.  The residents of Hatur believe that the place was deserted and reoccupied seven times.  The existing village is said to have been founded the eighth time.  Hence the name hatur (probably meaning thereby that it was the ‘hasht’ or 8th occupation ).

 

            Hatur has a Government High School and a Government Girls Middle School.  There are Civil and Veterinary Dispensaries and a Primary Health Centre.  The village has a Post Office and a Panchayat.

 

            The construction of the metalled roads from Barnala to Hatur and to Jagraon and the electrification of the village (already underway) are expected to greatly increase the importance of the ancient village.  Two cattle fairs are held at the place in April and October every year.

 

            Jagraon. – Jagraon is Municipal town and the headquarters of the tahsil of the same name.  It lies on the Northern Railway, 40 kilometres West of Ludhiana- Ferozepore Road in 37o – 47’ – 15” Latitude and 75o – 28’ – 30” Longitude.  It is the second important town in the district and had the population of 29,617  in 1961 as compared to that of 24,519 in 1951.

 

            The town is not of great antiquity. It is said to have been founded about 250 years ago by Rai Kalha with the blessings of a Mohammadan Faquir called Lape Shah, who took up his site of the present town and prophesied that a big town would grown there.  Even the streets as they run now were marked out by the Faquir.  Rai Kalha invited cultivators – Gujars, Arains and Jats from the surrounding area and assigned them lands according to the number of each tribe.  He also settled members of mercantile community at the place and enclosed their dwelling with a wall, while the agricultural population settled down on the land earmarked for each tribe outside the town, the outlying areas wee enclosed with the usual hedges (War).  For the same reason the suburbs got the designation of Agwars (Ag meaning forward or  outer).

 

            The town was named after a Rajput Jirga or council, who were charged with the growth of the town and were probably known as the Rai’s representatives.  About 3 kilometres north of Jargaron on the West of the Sidhwan Road is situated a mound of some dimensions.  It is called Solah and marks the site of an old village where the Agwars and adjacent villages of Sherpur, etc., are said to have arisedn.  It was here in 1802 that young Rai Alias met his death in the hunting field.  Under the Ranis, who succeeded him, Ahmed Gujjar, the thanedar or the local representative tried to assert his independence.  He was, however, expelled with the help of the ruler of Patiala. In 1806 – 8 Maharaja Ranjit Singh deprived the Ranis of their possessions.  The country around Jagraon passed into the hands of the Ahluwalia (Kapurthala) chief.  Under him the town became the headquarters of the Ilaqa or territory.  The mud fort of the Rais was improved.  The town of Jagraon passed into British possession with the rest of the Cis-Satluj territory after the first Anglo-sikh War, 1846, when the fort was demolished.

 

            Jagraon may be said to be a town of Pirs.  The graves of some notable Pirs, such as Mohkam Din, Bandli Shah, Kheve Shah, Chup Shah and Zahir Wali Shah are situated there and merit description.

 

            Lape Shah. – The small mausoleum of Lape Shah stands in the heart of the town.  On one of the walls there is a painting of a camel and a dog. The legend has it that, led by the dog, the camel went round the town with a pot hung from the neck.  Votaries of the Pir would put the food in the pot, which was brought by the animal to the master.  The Pir is said to have himself laid out the streets of Jagraon. Every Thursday a fair is held there and both Hindus and Mohammadans offer alms and light earthen lamps filled with sarson oil.  Lape Shah had said that jargon would be destroyed by floods.  Accordingly the people still become panicky on even a slight indication of flood at the place.

 

            Hazart Mohkam Din. – His khanqah is situated just outside the town.  On Thursday people assemble there to offer oil, salt, sugar cakes (Patashas) and flowers.  From 13 – 15 Phalguna (middle of February) a big mela (Roshni) is held there and is attended to by thousands of people.  the Khanqah has no regular attended.  A local residents, who has been entrusted with the keys by the Darvishes of Paona, a village 5 kilometres away from Jagron, on Ferozepore road, opens the gate on Thursdays.  The building is well maintained.  Nearby is the grave of a Hindu named Gandhi Mar. whom Mohkam Kin had cursed to be always insulted by the people because in his desire to remain close to his master he had refused to go a distant place.  The grave is ruins and is used as a dumping site.

 

            The graves of Zahir Wali Shah and Kheve Shah are  situated at a distance of about 3 kilometres from Jargaon outside Rehlan agwar.  People offer alms there on Thursday.  The graves being removed from the town, very few people visit them.

           

            Fairs are held on the grave of Chup Shah on 11th and 12th Asadha when banners (Jhande) and degs (cooked meals) are offered and on that of Bandhli Shah on 25th – 29th  Asadha every year.

 

            Haveli of K.B. Syed Moulvi Rajab Ali, 11once a magnifies building is in ruins. The Havli seemed to have been originally built on every grand scale and occupied the whole south–western side of the town.  It was entered through lofty gates which could easily admit elephants. The building contained several spacious halls and rose to three storeys.  A mosque and a baradari, which contained a big personal library to Syed Rajab Ali, a great scholar, were situated alongwith the principal mansion. Even at present the ruined Havli is occupied  by several displaced families.  Nearby, the ldgah outside Jagraon was built by Rajab Ali in 1264 A.H. corresponding to A.D. 1847.  It has crumbled down.  Jagraon was originally built as a fortified town.  The outer wal  along the main gate has, however, been pulled a down and at places houses have built on the older foundations.  The grain market outside the town across the railway line was built in A.D. 1906.

 

11.For a life-sketch of Maulvi Rajab Ali see Appendix I at pages 670-71.

 

            Jagraon has Lajpat Rai Memorial Degree College, Government Junior Basic Co-Educational Training School, Government Higher Secondary School for Boys and  a High School, a High School for Girls.  There are two Middle Schools (Private) 5 Primary Schools, a civil  Hospital, Maternity Hospital, Vaternity Hospital and a civil Rest House.  There are two Serais, one of them in a poor condition, Lajpat Rai Memorial  Library and Jagraon Municipal Club.  The town has a Police Station, 3 Post Offices, a Telephone Exchange and  a Telegraph Office.

 

            Jagraon has a flourishing market for  cotton, wheat, maize and gram.  There are 2 cotton Ginning, Pressing and oil Mills.  Recently tractor-parts are manufactured at the places.

 

            Every month a cattle fair is held at Jagraon.  The town is surrounded by suburban areas.

 

            Jagraon has a cold storage.  There are big godowns maintained by P.W.D. with the following storage capacity : -

 

            55 Bin with the capacity 380 quintals

            1 Lahore Shed – 5,500 quintals

            1 Ware–housing – 5,500 quintals

            Lal Kothi – 5,500 quintals

 

            About 2 kilometres on Sindhwan Bet Road to the Left of the town is a fairly large mound known a Solah.  It is also popularly called qabr of naugaza (grave of a yards long person).  Baba Nand Singh of Kaleran, a renowned Saint of the area is held to have practiced ‘Bhagti’ just close of the grave.  The bhora (the underground cellar) dug by the Baba has been filled up by the people.  

 

            Nanaksar. – The construction of a splendid commemorative Gurdwara of the said name near the little known village of Kaleran, one of the agwars of Jagraon, has given the place outstanding religious importance.  The Gurdwara is about 5 kilometres from Jargaon by rail.  It is a Railway Flag station about 45 kilometres west of Ludhiana on the Ludhiana-Ferozepore section of the Northern Railway.  It lies in  30o – 47’ – 57” north Latitude and 75o – 25’ –26” east Longitude.  Its population was 136 in 1961 as against 34 in 1951.  The beautiful Gurdwara along with the tank has been constructed through public contribution by S. Ishar Sing, a disciple of Sant Nand sing, whose death anniversary is celebrated with great enthusiasm by thousands of his followers for 3 days from 11th – 13th Bhadra, i. e., in the third week of August every year.  Thousands of persons visit the Gurdwara on the occasion.

 

            Underneath back portion of the main building a gupha or deep hollow in the ground, where Baba Nand Singh mediated, has been enclosed in marble in the form of room and tastefully decorated.  A flight of stairs leads to the underground cellar.  A life size portrait of Baba Nand Singh rests on a costly bed.  Visitors who perform or under take to perform certain prescribed religious ceremonies are allowed to visit the sanctum.  The subterranean room is richly, perfumed with incense which constantly burns there.

 

            Baba Nand Singh was born in Sherpur, an outlying village of jagraon.  He had renounced the world and meditated in guphas (underground cellars).  To start with he did not build a Pucca Gurdwara.  He had, however, drawn up a plan of the present Gurdwara and its construction was started by Sant Ishar Singh in 1950.  A very bigh tank and a beautiful Gurdwara in marble have been built.  The kalas or the cupola of the Gurdwara is golden.  A special feature of the Gurdwara is that no cooking is allowed inside it and no money is to be offered as charadwa or offering.

 

            At two places Akhandpath is held in the Gurdwara.  Side by side Jap Ji Sahib and Sukhmani Sahib are recited from morning till evening.

 

            The tank was completed in a remarkably short period of 28 days.  No women sewdars (attendants) are allowed to stay in the Gurdwara.  Sant Ishar Singh occupied the gaddi for 13 years.  At present Bhai Sahib Kundan Singh, Bhai Sadhu Singh and Bhai Narain Singh  are revognised as Hozoorias or principal votaries.  The roof of the Gurdwara has been constructed like a fort.  There are 4 minarets.  There is a Shish Mahal (hall of mirrors) in the Gurdwara, where Baba Nand Singh passed away.  Only sewadars or special attendants and pathis (reciters of prayers) are allowed to enter the specila apartments.  The summer and winter clothes of Baba Nand Singh have been preserved in a glass ward robe.  About 100 sewadars permanently live in the Gurdwara.  They do not draw any salary and are deemed to have dedicated their lives for the service of the Gurdwara.  People contribute in kind.  Cooked food is brought there for distribution in truck loads during the mela days..

 

            Raikot. – The revenue records relating to the year 1882 A. D. give the origin of its name as : “In the beginning Rai Ahmed, the ruler of the day, started the habitation at the spot and built a Kot (fortification) around it.  The place took the name after its founder with the addition of word Kot and, therefore, came to be known as Raikot.”

 

            Rais were originally Hindu Rajputs, who had embraced Islam during the medieval period.  Their descendants had continued to live there until 1947, when the last of them migrated to Pakistan.  Raikot is situated at a distance of about 25 kilometres from Jagraon by road and is about 40 kilometres by direct road route to the south west of Ludhiana.  it lies in 30o – 38’ – 57” North Latitude and 75o – 35’ – 59” East Longitude.  Its poupulation was 11,239 in 1961 as compared to 10,193 in 1951.  Raikot is a Municipal town.  Raikot has a Government Higher Secondary School for Boys and Government High School for Girls with Basic Training Class.  Attached to the Gurdwara Tahli Sahib there are 2 Khalsa High Schools- one for Boys and the other for Girls.  There are a Civil Dispensary and a Veterinary Hospital under the Zila Parishad.

 

            Historical Places. – The palaces of the Rai Nawabs of Raikot, mostly in ruins, are now used for residential purposes. In one of these a Primary School is also run.  Raikot is famous for the historical gurdwara called Tahliana.  Guru gobind Singh came here from Machhiwara on his way to Muktsar.  He sojourned at the place under a tree and asked a local resident, Nura by name, to bring him some milk.  Apologetically he regretted his inability to provure any milk for the Guru because no buffalo was in milk at the time.  However, with the blessings of the Guru a she-buffalo, when tied to a tree, was milched.  The Guru gave Nura a metal pot known as Gangasagar with many holes in it.  miraculously, however, milk if pured into the vessel will not folw out, but sand, when put in it, flowed out of the holes of the vessel.  Rai Kalha on being informed of th epresence of the Guru at the place came to pay respect to him.  The Guru bestowed upon him a Patta and a Khanda (sword).  Out of  his concen for the fate of two sons of th Guru taken to Sirhind, Rai Kalha had deputed his employee, Nura, to bring first hand information.  On his return to Raikot the messenger was so overwhelmed with grief on the tragic occurence that he hesitated to break the shocking news to the Guru, who could, however, sense his difficulty and required him to narrate whatever has transpired without any fear.  The Guru had, thorugh his own intuition, understood what had happened to his sons.  As a token of his resolve to end the cruel Mughal Government he flourished his sword to cut a patch of grass at the place.  The action was symbolic of his intrepid efforts to end ‘Zalam Raj’.  The sword was presented by Imam Bux, the descendant of the Rais in 1854 to the Deputy Commissioner, Ludhiana, for transmission to the governor General12 while the Gangasagar is stated to have been taken away to Pakistan by Inayat Khan, a descendant of the Rais.

 

12.     See Appendix II at pages 671- 72.

 

            Close to the place where the Guru had halted for rest, about 1 kilometre away from Raikot, a gurdwara known as Tahliana or Tahli Sahib was built through the efforts of Sant Maghar Singh of Mohi in 1914.  Sant narainsingh, who had special interest in education, established tow schools, one for the Boys and the other for the Girls in the estate attached to the Gurdwara.  Sant Nihal Singh was responsible for the construction of an extension to the main Gurdwara near the tree under which Guru had taken rest. A tank (sarovar) is also proposed to be built at the site of the pond which separated the tree under which the Guru had rasted from the other to which the buffalo had been tied.

 

            About 13 kilometres from Raikot another Gurdwara connected with the visit of Guru gobind Singh, to this area, has been built at Bassian in 1933.  The Guru is said to have spent some time with Rai Kalha at the place and played chess with him.  For the same reason the Gurdwara is called “shatranj Sahib”.  A big dewan is held there every year on 30th Phalguna and 1st and 2nd Chaitra (about middle of March).

 

            Tihara. – Tihara, though believed to be an ancient site (the old town has long since disappeared in the river and no traces there of remain) is situated about 22 kilometrea from jagraon on Sidhwan Bet – Kishanpura road.  It was a well-populated village before partition in 1947.  Thereafter it has become deserted and has lost its previous importance.  Earlier it had a good Mandi with considerable trade.  At present almost all the houses are kachcha.

 

            Tihara has a government Middle School, Primary health Centre and a Post Officer attached to the School. An Ayurvedic Dispensary Equipped with Family Planning facilities is functioning there.  It has a panchayat.  The population of the village has arisen from 412 in 1951 to 537 in 1961.

 

            There is a Maqbara of Shah Diwan, where people come with offerings on Thursdays and light earthern lamps with sarson oil.  It is said to have been built in the reign of Emperor Akbar.

 

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