GAZETTEER SANGRUR

 

CONTENTS

(First Edition 1980)

 

SN

Subject

1.       

General

2.       

History

3.       

People

4.       

Agriculture And Irrigation

5.       

Industries

6.       

Banking, Trade and Commerce

7.       

Communication

8.       

Miscellaneous Occupations

9.       

Economics Trends

10.   

General Administration

11.   

Revenue Administration

12.   

Law and order and Justice

13.   

Other Departments

14.   

Local Self Government

15.   

Education and Culture

16.   

Medical and Public Health Services

17.   

Other Social Services

18.   

Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organizations

19.   

Places of interest

 

CHAPTER I

 

GENERAL

 

Contents

Ø      

Introductory

Ø      

Topography

Ø      

River System and Water Resources

Ø      

Geology

Ø      

Flora (Botany)

Ø      

Fauna (Zoology)

Ø      

Climate

 

(a) Introductory

(i) Origin of the name of the District – The District of Sangrur takes its name from its headquarters town, Sangrur. It is said to have been founded by one Sanghu, a Jat, about four hundred years back.

(ii) Location, General Boundaries, Total Area and population of the District. --  Sangrur is one of the four districts in Patiala division. It is, one of the southern district of the State and lies between 290 –4` and 300 – 42` north latitude and 750 – 18` and 760—13 east longitude[P1] . It is bounded by Ludhiana and Firozpur districts in the north, by Bathinda District in the west, by Patiala District in the east and by Jind District (Haryana State) in the south. 

Sangrur, the headquarters of the district administration is directly linked by road with Chandigarh (142 km), Ludhiana (80 km), Budhlada (73 km), Delhi (257 km), Sultanpur (189 km), Gurdaspur (250 km), Ganganagar (240 km), Nangal (196). It is also directly linked by rail with Ludhiana and Jakhal (in Haryana). All the municipal towns of the district except Bhadaur, Bhawanigarh, Dhanaula and Longowal have railway stations.

According to the Director of Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar, the area of the Sangrur District was 5,110.13 sq. km. In the year 1981-82. In terms of area, district ranks 4th in the State after Firozpur, Faridkot and Bathinda districts. The tahsil-wise area of the district, according to the Director of Land Records, Punjab, is given below:

Tahsil

Area  (sq. km.)

Sangrur

899.55

Malerkotla

1307.69

Barnala

1485.07

Sunam

1417.82

District Sangrur

5,110.13

 

According to the 1981 Census, the population of the district was 18,10,250 persons (10,88,609) rural; 3,21,641 urban) comprising 7,58,058 males and 6,52,192 females.

(iii) History of the District Administrative Unit and the Changes in its component parts. – Prior to the partition of the country, Sangrur as headquarter of the Princely State of Jind. It was made a district only on 20 August 1948 when PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab State Union) was created. It then comprised Sangrur, sanam, Narwana and jind tahsils. The district went under a territorial change when Barnala District was merged in it on 1 September 1953. It then had five tehsils viz. Sangrur, Malerkotla, Barnala, Jind and Narwana. The PEPSU was merged with the Punjab State on 1 November 1956.

On reorganization of the State of Punjab on 1 November 1966, the district underwent a further territorial change. Jind and Narwana tahsils were allocated to the newly created Haryana State. Tahsil Sunam, which was degraded to a sub-tahsil at the time of merger of Barnala District, was again made a tahsil in 1970. Since then, it comprises four tahsils, viz. Barnala, Malerkotla, Sangrur and Sunam.

(iv) Subdivisions, Tahsils and Tanas. – According to the 1981 Census, the district comprises 717 Villages (707 inhabited and 10 uninhabited) and 14 towns constituted into four tahsils, viz. Barnala (137 villages), Malerkotla (287 villages), Sangrur (132 villages) and Sunam (161 villages). All the tahsils have been made subdivisions – Marlerkotla on 1 September 1948, Barnala on 1 September 1953, Sangrur on 15 June 1965 and Sunam on 1 April 1970.

The tahsil wise list of police stations and police posts in the district is given in Chapter XII ‘Law and Order and Justice’.

 

(b) Topography

In any area unit, the degree of smoothness of the surface, the nature of slopes, the arrangement of various natural feature and the surface materials have a distinctive role in fashioning the patterns of human activity. Viewed in this context, Sangrur District is endowed with a nearly level surface. The occurrence of sand dune feature in some parts only breaks the monotony of the landscape.

In general, the district forms a part of the Punjab Plain. The surface of this plain has been formed by the depositional work of major streams traversing through the region. Very largely, its topography is that of an alluvial plain, marked by flatness featurelessness. 

However when subjected to mirco-regional analysis, Sangrur District Shows up significant, local variations in surface configuration, its small size notwithstanding. The district slopes from north-east to south-west. The highest elevation of about 850 feet above sea level has been recorded near village Chapranda in Malerkotla Tahsil, while the minimum of 730 feet is in Sunam Tahsil. Hence it slopes with a gentle gradient of over a foot per kilometer. The elevation of some important stations in the district is as under:

           Ahmedgarh                -- 822 ft. above sea level

           Malerkotla                  -- 801                    

           Dhuri                        -- 787                               

           Sangrur                     -- 770                    

           Barnala                      -- 751                    

           Dhanaula                   --745                      

Physiographic Division

 

Broadly speaking, the district can be divided into two psysiographic tracts:

a.      The upland plain with occasional occurrence of sand-dunes;

b.     The flood plain of the Ghaggar River.

(a) Upland plain with occasional occurrence of sand-dune

Barring a narrow belt of low-lying land along the Ghaggar River which traverses through the southernmost part of the district, the whole of the district is an upland plain which covers more than 95 per cent of the area of the district. It slopes at a gentle gradient of over a foot a kilometer from north-east to south-west.

This tract is covered with old alluvium and is generally marked by flatness and smoothness with a sprinkling of land-dunes, of course in a varying degree. These sand-dune feature vary feature vary in height from a minimum of 2.3 feet to a maximum 30 to 40 feet. The length of these features varies from a minimum of a few yards to over hundred yards. The orientation of most of these sand-dunes is from south-west to north-east, corresponding generally with the south-west monsoons.

It may further be noted that these future are not uniformly distributed over the whole district. These find relative concentration in the tract adjoining Bathinda District while there is a sparse distribution of these in the tract adjoining Patiala District. On the basis of the density of these sand features, plain may be sub-divided into two zones;

a.      Zone with relative concentration of sand-dunes;

b.     Zone with only occasional occurrence of sand-dune.

 

(i) Zone with relative concentration of sand-dunes

This zone roughly covers about 75 per cent of the area of the upland plain of the district. This upland plain, which is strewn with sand-dunes, adjoins Bathinda District which partakes in some measures the topography of the eastern parts of the Rajasthan Desert. The presence of sand-dunes gives an undulating character to the topography of this part of the district. At some places, there is fair concentration of the sandy features.

The boundary of the zone roughly coincides with 790 feet contour line. Traditionally, it is called the “jungle” area (because in the past here existed dense forests). It may be mentioned, however, that as a result of human action, the land has been in the process of transformation, in recent years particularly. The sand-dunes and sand-mounds have disappeared from many places with the reclamation of land consequent upon the extension of canal and tube-well irrigation. The landscape gives a fairly flat now in most parts.

 

(ii) Zone with only sparse distribution of sand-dune

This zone is predominantly level, with occasional occurrence of sand-dune adjoining the zone discussed above. Here the land is well developed agriculturally, the plough extending to every cultivable part of the plain. In the area adjoining patiala District, the sand-dune are conspicuous by their absence. In the Sangrur District as a whole, the occurrence of sand-dune decreases from south-west to north-east. But the development of tube-well irrigation in recent decades, in combination with or without canal irrigation, has played a very significant role in modifying the landscape of both the zones into a level land. The boundary of this zone corresponds with that of the traditionally known ‘powadh’ area.

Thus the upland plain of the district, though apparently a part of the level and featureless surface of two relatively different sub-units.

 

(b) Floodplain of the Ghaggar

The floodplain of the Ghaggar is a low-lying area along the banks of the river which traverses through the southernmost part of the district. This is a relatively narrow floodplain, its width generally remaining well within about 5 kilometres. Previously when there were no checks to the floods, the whole of the low-lying tract was victim of the floods during the rainy season. Waterlogging conditions prevailed till recently Antiwaterlogging measures taken in recent years have, however, improved these conditions. The construction of embankments has reduced the menance of floods. The old flood plain has since been brought under cultivation.

This floodplain is characterised by a variety of features including depressions and pools of water which are present here and there.

It follows from the above that the physiographic personality of Sangrur District has been shaped by water and wind. Its topography is predominantly of an upland plain which is alluvial in origin and strewn with sad-dune in varying degree.

 

(c) River System and Water Resources

(i) Main Rivers and Tributaries and Canals

Most of the area of the district is without any trace of major water channels. It is drained by only two seasonal streams. River Ghaggar traverses through the southernmost part of the district. Sirhind cho is the other small torrent which constitutes part of the surface drainage of the district. Apart from these two water channels, some stagnant pools of water, called ‘ponds’ which are found near the settlements, are distributed over the whole district.

Ghaggar. – In Sanskrit literature, River Ghaggar has been identified with ‘lost Saraswati’. In any case, it is certain that in the past River Ghaggar formed part of a bigger river system which used to flow through this part of the Punjab. Satluj and Yamuna rivers were thought to be tributaries to this system. The uplift of the Yamuna-sutluj divided is said to have led to the shifting of the river courses – the Satluj shifting its course towards the west and the Yamuna towards the east. As a consequence River Ghaggar was left as a misfit river. Now it exists only as an inland drainage stream.

The present Ghaggar which traverses through Sunam Tahsil of the district, originates in Sirmur District of Himachal Pradesh. After emerging from the Shiwalik Hills, it is joined by a number of small torrents at different points of its course. The stream enters the plain area near Mubarkpur village in Patiala District. Later in its down stream journey, it receives the water of Tangri, patiala nadi, Markanda and Saraswati which are also seasonal streams.

The Ghaggar enters Sangrur District near village Pakki Khanauri after about 70 miles (112 km) journey through Patiala District. Its direction in Patiala District is north east to south west. But as soon as it enters Sangrur District it follows a nearly westerly direction. Near village Chandu it is connected by an escape channel with lake Bhupinder Sagar in Patiala District.

In it upper course the river contained some water throughout the year, but in its lower course it is generally dry. Here it carries water only during the rainy season when it is in heavy floods. Previously, these floods used to cause lot of damage to the adjoining areas. But now with the progressive channelisation of the stream, the floods are bring brought under control. In Sangrur District, the channel of the river is not very wide.

After flowing through the district, it leaves it near village Karail (Tahsil Sunam) and enters Hisar District of Haryana. For some distance, it flows through Bathinda District of Haryana, it loses itself in the sands of Thar Desert of Rajasthan.

Sirhind cho. – It is also known as Sunamwala Cho or mansurwala cho. It originates from the waters near Rupnagar which get accumulated in Malerkotla Tahsil it flows in south-westerly direction and loses itself in stagnant waters near the town of Sunam.

Small stagnant pools of water are sporadically distributed over the whole plain. These are the local depressions filled with rain water. These are used for bathing the cattle and for providing drinking water to them.

 

(d) Geology

(i) Geological Formation

The area forms a part f Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. The sediments comprising the alluvium are sands of various grades, kankar and clay. Occurrences of gravels and pebbles have been reported from some of the drilling undertaken in the district. Blown sands also occur as dunes in the area specially in the western, northern, and north-western pars. Light grey fine to medium grained micaceous and normally occurs at 5 to 8 metres below the land surface. Pandoo – sticky clay – is usually found at shallow depths of less than 2 metres below the surface. At places the brownish black soil characterstic of boggy lands is found at shallow depths of less than a metre from the surface. Kankar is associated practically with all types of soils. All the above sentiments are of Quaternary Age.

Kankar- in the area as (a) massive beds (b) cavernous beds, and in(c) nodular and (d) granular forms. The first two varieties of kankar are intimately associated with the paleochannels/buried channels in the area as floodplain deposits, while the latter who forms are related to the geo-hydrological conditions in the area.

Alkaline soils in the area occur as thin surfacial coatings of about 6 cm thick layers in the surface. These soils are mainly found along the floodplains of the buried channels in the area. A preliminary survey indicates that these soils are rich in sodium sulphate/sodium carbonate salts which can be economically extracted.

Salpetre appears as thin surfacial layers especially during the hot months.

 

(ii) Mineral Resources

Bedded Kankar. – A reserve of about 4.4 million tones of kankar has been estimated around Nadampur, Matran, Nandgarh and Balad  Khurd (All in Tahsil Sangrur). The average grade of the deposit is 45 per cent acid insoluble; 21.1 per cent calcium oxcide (CaO) and 5.7 per cent Magnesium Oxcide (Mg O).

Bedded Kankar has also been reported from Fetehgarh. Bhadson, Jaulian, Sangatpure, Panwan, Kakra, Phaguwala, Remnagar, Jalan, Rai singhwala Roshanwala, Ghabdan (all in Tahsil Sangrur) and Tolewal, Jakhepal Bas and Satauj (in Sunam Tahsil).

The kankar around Sunam-Sangrur has been estimated at about 42.5 million tones out of which nearly 15.4 million tones is that of bedded variety and the rest belongs to nodular and concretionary varieties. The average grade of the kankar is about 48.8 per cent insolubles, 21.5 per cent CaO, and 3.9 per cent Mg O. 

Nodular Kankar. – Nodular kankar practically occurs throughout the area at an average depth of 1-2 metre below the surface.

About 16.8 million tones of kankar has been estimated around the villages sulhar (tahsil Sunam), Nandgarh, Nadampur (Tahsil Sangrur), etc. with an average grade of 40.8 per cent acids insoluble, 27.7 per cent CaO and 2.8 per cent MgO.

Saltpetre. – Next to Firozpur in importance is the Sangrur District which is also rich in deposits of saltpeter. Occurrences are reported from various villages in the blocks of Cheems, Sunam and Barnala.

Kallar. – The district is reported to have about 70,310 hectares of kallar affected land during the year 1973-74. Extraction of sodium salts from kallar form this district alone is likely to give substantial revenue return and in addition it ma reclaim the land without initial expenditure in effective chemical treatment. As a result, 6687 hectares of kallar affected land have been reclaimed by 1982-83.

 

(iii) Seismicity

History of the post 200 years for which records are available shows that Sangrur District has been affected by earthquakes of moderate intensity. Although no major epicentral tract has been located near Sangrur, a number of earthquakes originating in the western Himalyas ranging from Hindukush to west U. P. hills have been experienced here. The prominent among these are the Kangra earthquake of 4 April 1905, the Chamba earthquake of 22 June 1945 and the Kinnaur earthquake of 19 January 1975. The maximum intensity experienced in this area due to the Kangra earthquake of 4 April 1905 could have reached VI M M2 [P2] .

The chief tectonic feature affecting the region are the main Himalayan Boundary fault which comprises a number of thrusts called Jawalamukhi, Krol, Nahan, etc.

Considering the tectonic features, the area may experience slightly higher seismic intensity of VII M M than recorded so far at the place. This view is further corroborated by the seismic zoning map of India prepared under the auspices of Indian Standard Institution wherein the area has been shown in zone III, which further corresponds to seismic intensity of VII M M. Studies made in U. S. A. and other advanced countries. Reveal that seismic intensity VII M M corresponds to horizontal ground acceleration of 18-140 Cm/sec3[P3]  or an average acceleration of 67 cm/sec2. The wide range of acceleration is due to the fact that acceleration is larger on soft filled up ground and much less on hard rock.

Considering the above, it is inferred that important structures on consolidated foundations in Sangrur District may be designed for horizontal acceleration of 7 per cent gravity (.07g). This factor may be suitably increased for weaker foundations. Regarding vertical acceleration the general practice is to make a provision for 50 per cent that of horizontal acceleration.

 

(e) Flora (Botany)

Sangrur District is one of the 12 districts of Punjab and is caved out of the erstwhile princely State of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. The climate in the area is very hot in summer and markedly cold in winter. The mean maximum temperature during June is 106.80 F (41.60 C), whereas the mean minimum temperature during January is 42.80 F (60C) and the annual rainfall is approximately 110. cm. The soil of the district is Indo-Gangetic  alluvium. On the whole, the district resembles in several aspects the district of Hisar (now in Haryana).

Before 1947, irrigation and drinking water system was meargre in the district. Thereafter, there has been gradual improvement in supply of water for irrigation and drinking, and there is considerable change at present. Even today, there are certain places which are experiencing great difficulty in supply of water. In order to overcome this difficulty, ponds are still excavated for storage of water during rainy season and utilized during drought periods.

The fauna and the flora are similar to that in that in the adjoining parts of patiala plains. Kikar (acacia nilotica (L). Wild ex. Del. Subsp. indica (Bth.) Bren Grow abundantly throughout the district, whereas ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) is planted near wells and fields. In certain places mango-aam (Mangifera indica L.) is grown in plenty. The pipal (Ficus Religiosa L.) Barota and neem (Azedirachta indica juss) are planted near villages. Shisham (Dalberga aissoo box). Has been the planted along canals and Siras (Albizia procera Bth or Albizia lebbeck Bth) are seen along the roadsides. In addition to these fras (Tamarix aphylla (L) Karst) is common near villages and it is useful for roofing. There are patches of jungle in certain localities in the district mostly confined to jand (Prosopis cineraria (L) Macbr.) Karir (Capparis decidus (Forsk.) Degew.) reru and jal (Salwadora eleodes Decne.) the Dhak (Butea monosperma (Lmk.) Taub. Is also common in marshy places whereas the khajur-date palm (Phoenix sylvestris (L) Roxb. Is found in sandy areas.

The reserve forest of the district is known as birs and a portion of this is used for raising crops for the district animals and is irrigated from cho. Aish Ban Bir lies some 3 km east of Sangrur town. Pigs, deer and occasionally wolves are found in it. There was a provision for charging a nominal fee of grazing the animals in birs. The birs provide a plentiful supply of somak palinji, palwa (Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk) Satph), khabbal or dabh (Cyncdon dactylon (L) Pers), Panni Vetiveria zizanoides) (L) Nash) and pala grasses and afford a kind of relief to the cattle at the time of drought. The principal trees of birs and jal (Salvadora oleides Decnes), Kair (Acacia catechu Wild), Jand (Prosopis cineharia (L) Kikar (Acacia oilotica (L), Wild. Ex Del. Subsp. Indica (Bth) Brenan) and beri (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk). The height of the trees varies from bir to bir. At the time of famines, the fruit of jal (Salvadora oleoides Decne.), jand [prosopis ceneria (L) Macbr.] and ber (Zizyphus mauritana Lamk) are eaten by poor, whereas bark and leaves of those trees are used as fodder for cattle. The fruits of jal (Salvadora oleoides Decne.) and kair (Acacia catechu Wild) and jand [Prosopis ceneraia (L) Macbe.] are called pinju and sangar respectively, which are used as vegetable. Certain trees or bir are also used for fuel and timber.

Sometimes in the past, deforestation had been effected by the private land owners due to consolidation of holdings in the district with the result that the fuel resources had become uneconomical. There was an acute shortage of forests in the district resulting in soil erosion and devastating floods. The strips along roads, rails and canals were transferred to the forest Department for scientific management some 22 years back. Since their transfer, the Forest Department has been raising fuel plantation to meet the growing demand of firewood of the district and to save the land from erosion and floods. The Forest Department has also launched scheme called ‘Farm Forestry” throughout the State of Punjab, the implementation of which has been highly appreciated by the farmers. Since 1972-73, 13,69,343 plants have been planted along the fields in the district which amply shows that greenery has come back. Forest Department is concentrating on the development of forests which play a vital role in the economy of the district. With the raising of nurseries and fuel wood, plantation along the strips as well as fields the supply of firewood has improved to a great extent. Firewood is needed in large quantities to release cow-dung to use it as manure in order to increase food production. Timber from Shisham, Kikar, dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Acacia nilotica (L). Wild. Ex DC subsp. indica (Bth. Brenan, mango Mangifera indica L. and jaman etc. Zyzygium cumini (L) skeels are used for manufacturing furniture and agricultural implements. Mostly, the timber is used in the construction of buildings in rural areas.

Timber from shisham and kikar is used in cottage industries, agriculture requirement and development of communications. Fuel-wood is also obtained in addition to timber, Approximately 2,120 cu. M of quantity is sold every year in the district. Income from sale of grass and kana is also divided. The principal produce forest in the district is timber and fuel-wood. Panni and grass are minor elements of forest produce. The cottage industries for preparation of furniture, charpais, pawas and baskets and packing cases, etc. depend upon the forest produce. In addition to this, paper industry also depends on forest produce. Eucalyptus trees are raised in plenty to help the paper industry.

 

(f) Fauna (Zoology)

Wild boar, blue bull, jackal and common Indian hare and common mangoes are found in the district. Black and grey partridges, blue rock pigeon and common myanah are also found in the fields and jungle areas of the district.

There is a separate wildlife staff posted in the district which provide protection to the wildlife in the fields, and jungle areas. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 has been enforced in this State, w.e.f. 1 April 1975. Every effort is made to enforce Wild Life Laws and thus provided protection to the wild life in the district. The public is also being educated by way of various publicity medias like meetings, conferences, lectures, appeals, distribution of wildlife literature amongst masses, etc.

There is no wild life sanctuary in the district.

The different zoological types found in the district are detailed below:

(1) Pisces (Fishes). – The different varieties of common fishes available in the district are: Notopterus notopterus (parri), Amibly Pharynogdon mola (sheesha), Catla Catla (theil), Esomus damricus, labeo bata (bata), L. calbasu (kalabans), L. rohita (rohu), Osteobrama cotio cotio (chiddu), puntius chola (chiddu), Botia darion, Mystry (Mystys) cavasius (cheenger), M. (Aorichthys) seenghala (seenghara), M. (Mystus) vittatus (kangir) Clarias batrachus (magur), Hetero Pheustes fossils (sanghi), Pseutorpius atherinoides, Ompox bimaculatus (cheenger), O. pabda (pobda), Wallago attu (mullu) Nangra virdescens, Channa punctatus (dotta, Macrognathus aculeatus (bam), Mastacembelus armatus (bam), Chanda baculis (shusha), C. nama (sheesha) Glossigobius gutum (gobi), etc.

(2) Amphibians (Frogs and Toads). – The common frogs found in the district are: Rana tigriana Daudin (Indian bull frog), Rana breviceps Schheider (Indian burrowing frog) and Bufo melanostictus Schneider) (common toad).

(3) Reptiles. – Snakes are found al over the district. The most common of these are the dreaded Bungarus caerulus (Common Indian Krait), Vipera russalli (russelles viper), Echis carinatus (rhoorsa), Typhlops porrectus (blind snake), Leptolyphlops blandfordi, python molurus molurus (Indian python), Ery johin johni (johnis sand boa), Lycodon striatus (wolf snake), ptyas mucosus (rat snake), Psamophis leithi (gunther sand snake).

Common lizards found in the district are Hemidactylus Brookia Grey: found under stones, Hemidactylus Flaviridis Ruppel found in and outsides the house, calotes versiculor (daudin) found in lawn and hedges. In bushes and areas of thick vegetation, Mabuya macularia (Dum). Of Bibr.) ophiomorus tridactylus (blyth) and varanus moniter linn are found.

Two spices of tortoises are found in the district geoclamys himiltoni (Gray) and chitra endica (Gray).

(4) Birds. – The birds commonly found in the district are of two types, viz. resident birds and migratory birds (which visit the area in winter), as given below:

(5) Resident Birds. – Little grebe podiceps ruficollis capensis, salwadori; little cormorant, phalacrocorax niger; little green heron, butorides striatus choloriceps; Indian pond heron, ardeola grayii grayii; cattle egret, bubulcus ibis corromandus; eastern large egret, etretta alba modesta; little egret, egretta garzetta garzetta; night heron, nycticorax nycaticorx nycaticorx; little bitter, txbrychus minutus minutus; lesser whistling teal, dendrocygna jawanica; large whistling teal, dendrocygna bicolor; spotbill duck, anas poecilorhyncha poecilorhyncha; cotton teal, nettapus coromandelianus coromandelianus; crested honey buzzard, pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis; pariah kite, milyus migrans govinda; brahminy kite, haliastur Indus Indus; Indian shikra, accipiter badius dussumieri; white-eyed buzzad eagle, butastus teesa; bonelli lawk-eagle, hieraaatus fasciatus fasciatus; king vulture, torgos calves; cinereous vulture, aegypius monachus; Indian whitebacked vulture, gyps bengalensis; Short-toed eagle, citaetus gallicus gallicus, lagger falcon, falco biarmicus huggar; north Indian grey partridge, francolinus pondicerianus interpositus; Indian black partridge, francolinus francolinus asiae; Punjab jungle bush quail, perdicula asiatica Punjabi; India sarus crane, Grus antigone antigone Indian moorhen, Gallinula chloropus indica Redwattled lapwing, vanellus indcus indcus; Indian blackwinged stilt, himantopus himantopus himantopus; Indian river tern, sterna aurantia; blackbellied tern, sterna acuticauda; Blackbellied sandgrous, patrocles orientalis orientatalis; Blue rock pagion, columba livia; Indian ring-dove, strepelia decaocto decaocto; Indian red turtle-dore, streptopelia tranquebarica tranouebarica; Senegal dove, streptopelia senegalensis campayenses; Large Indian parakeet, psittacula eupatria nipalensis; Northern roseringed parakeet, psittacula kameri borealis; common hawk cuckoo, cuculus various various; Indian Koel, eudyamys scolopacea scolopacea; common crow pheasant, centropus sinensis sinesis; Indian barn own tyto alba stertens Northern spotted owlet, achena brama indica; Indian great horned or eagle owl, Bubo bubo bengalensis; Indian little nightjar, icaprimulgua asiaticus asiaticus; Indian house swift, aspus affinis affinis; palm swaft, cypsiurus, Indian Pied Kingfisher, ceryle rudis leucomelanura; Indian small blue kingfisher, alcedo atthis bengalensis; White breasted kingfisher, halcyon smyrnensis smyrnesis, bluecheeked bee-eater, merops supercilious persicus; Bluetailed bee-eater, merops orientalis orienitalis; Bluebearded bee-eater, nyctiornis athertoni athertoni; blue-jay, coracias benghalensis benghalensis; European hoopoe, upupa epops epopa; Grey hornbill, tockus birostris; Norhtern green barbet, megalaima zeylonica caniceps; Copper smith, megalaima haemachephala; maharatta woodpecker, picoides mahrattensis mahrattensis; Norhtern goldenbacked woodpecker, dinopium benghalense benghalense Singing bush lark, mirafra jawanica contilans; Black crowned finch-lark, eremopterix nigriceps affinis; Indiaa creasted lark, galerida cristata chendoola Indian Striated swallow, hirundo daurice erythrophgia, Indian Grey shrika, lanius excubitor lathora, Indian baybacked shrika, lanius vittatus vittatus, Kingcrow, dicrurus adsimilies albirctus, Rosy pastor, sturnus rosens, Brahmina myna, sturnus pagodarum, India myna, acridotheres tristis tristis, Bank myna, acridotheres ginginianus, Northeren Jungle myna, acridotheres fuscus fuscus, North Western tree pie, dendrocitta vagabunda bristoli, India house crow, corvus splendens splendens, Indian jungle crow, corvus macrorhynches culminates, Punjab raven, corvus corax subcorax; Northern small minivet, pericrocotus cinnamomeus pereginus; North Westren iora, aegithina tiphia septentrionalis; White checked bulbul, pycnonotus leucogenys leucogenys; Renvented bulbul, pycnonotus cafer; Westren yellow eyed babbler, chrysomma sinense hypoleucujm; Common babbler, turboidus caudatus caudatus; large Grey babbler, turdoides malcolmi; streaked fantail warbler, cisticola juncidis cursitans; Rufousfronted wrenwarbler, prinia buchanani; Indian streaked wren-warbler, prinia gracilis lepida; Northern Westren Plain Wren Warbler Prinia socialis terricolor Northern ashay wren-warbler, prinia socialis stewarti; Gangetic junhle Wren-Warbler, prinia sylvatica gangetica; Indian tailor bird, orthotomes sutorius gazuratus; Bristled grass warbler, chattornis striatus; striated march warbler, megalurus palustris taklon; Indian magpie robin, copsychus saularis; Brown rock chat, cercomela fusca; Dark-Grey bush shat, saxicola ferra; Bronbacked Indian robin, saxicoloides fulicata combaiensis; North Western Paddyfield pipit, anthus novaesee landiae waitei; Large pied wagtail, mots motacilla moderaspatensis; Indian thick billed flower pecker, dicaeum gaile agile; Indian purple sundbird, nectarinia asiatica; Indian white-eye, zosterops palpebrosa palpebrosa; Indian house sparrow, passer domesticus indicus; Sind jungle sparrow, passer p yrrhonotus; Indian yellowthroated sparrow, petronia xanthocois xanthocollis Indian baya, ploceus phillippinus phillippinus; Black-throated weaver bird, ploceus benghalensis; Indian streaked weaver bird, ploceus manyar flaviceps; Red munia, estrila amandava amanava; White throated munia lonchura malabarica malabarica; India spotted munia, lonchura puncturate punctulate; striolated bunting, emberiza striolata striolata; Crested bunting, melophus lathani; etc.

(6) Migratory Birds. – White stork, ciconia ciconia; ciconia; Black stork, ciconia nigra; Brahminy duck, tadorna ferruginea; common shelduck, tadorna tandorna; Pintail, anas acutia; Common teal anas crecca ecrecca; Mallard, anas; platyrhynchos; Bluewinged teal, anas querquedula; Common pochard, aythya ferina; White-eyed pochard, aythya nyroca; Longlegged buzzard, butee rufinus rufinus; pale harrier, circus macrourus; Eastern Common crane, grus, grus lilfordi sharpe; Sociable lapwing, vanellus gregarious; Dusky redshank, tringa nebularia; spotted sand-piper, tringa glaroela; Common Indian starling, sturnus valgaris paltaratskyi; Northern White browed fantail flycatcher, ribipidura aureola; Moustached sedge warbler, lusciniola melanopogon minica; Northern bluethroat, erithacus syecicus svecicus; Northern pied bush chat, saxicola caprata bicolor; Pied chat, cenathe picata; European tree pipit, anthus trivialis trivialis; winaceous breasted pipit, anthus roseatus; Central Asian water pipit, anthus spinoletta coutellit; Northern yellowheaded wagtail, motacilla citreola citreola; Wentern yellowheaded wagtail, motailla citreola citreola; Westren yellowheaded wagtail, motacilla citreola werae, Black-backed yellowgeaded wagtail, motacilla citreola werae, Black-backed yellowheaded wagtail, motacilla citreola calcurata; Grey wagtail, motacilla caspica caspica; Indian white wagtail, motacilla alba dukhunesis; Masked wagtail, motai cilla alba personate.

(5) Mammals. – Those found in the district are: Hemiechinus auritus collaris, longeared hedgehog; paraechinus micropus micropus, Indian hedgehog, Suncus murinus, house shrew; Petropus giganteus giganteus, Indian flying fox; Myotis formosus formosus, hodgson’s bat; Plectus auritus homochrous, hedgson longeared bat; Fundumbus pennanti, the northern palm squirrel; Mystrix Indica, the India crested porcupine; Rattus rattus, the common Indian rat; Musoculus linnaeus, the house mouse; tatera indica the India gerbille; Mus dooduga dooduga, the India field mouse; Lepus nigricollis, the Indian hare; vulpes bengalensis, the Indian fox; Canis aurena, asistic jackal; Viverricula indica, the small India civet; Herpestes edwardsi, the common mongoose; and macaca mulata mulata, the rhesus macaque[P4] .

The migratory birds visit all the suitable habitats of the district like jheels (lakes) marshes, rivers, orchards, irrigated and cultivated fields etc. Depending upon the species, the birds stay in the district from 6-8 months. Some birds are passage migrant and are seen in the district for a few days only.

(g) Climate5[P5] [P6] 

(i) Climatic Divisions and Seasons and Their Duration.

The climate of the district is on the whole dry and is characterized by a short monsoon, a hot summer and a bracing cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from November to March is followed by the hot season lasting up to the end of June. The period from July to mid-September constitutes the rainy season, of south-west monsoon. The second half of September and October may be termed the post-monsoon or transition period.

 

(ii) Temperature and Humidity

Temperature. – At Sangrur, there is a meteorological observatory functioning since 1970. The available data of this station are not sufficient for the preparation of normals. The account which follows is, therefore, based on the records of this observatory together with records of observations in the neighbouring districts where similar climatic conditions prevail. Temperature starts rising from middle of February and from about the beginning of March increase rapidly till June which is generally the hottest month. The mean daily maximums temperature during June is around 1040 f (400C) and the mean daily minimum is around 40.60F (270C). The heat is intense in summer. On individual days, the day temperature may occasionally exceed 1160F (470C) or 118.40F (470C) or 118.40F (480C). Scorching dust laden winds which blow during the hot season render the weather very trying. Afternoon thundershowers which occur on some days bring some relief although temporarily. With the onset of monsoon by the end of or the beginning of July, there is Junea drop in the day temperatures but nights continue to be as warm as in June. Due to increased humidity in the monsoon the weather is oppressive in between the rains. At the end of rainy season, by the middle of September, there is a decrease in temperature, the drop in the night temperature being more rapid. After October, both day and night temperatures decrease rapidly. January is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 680F (200C) and the mean daily minimum at about 56.60F (70C). In winter, particularly in January and February, cold waves in the wake of passing western disturbances affect the district and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down below the freezing point   of water. On such occasions frosts are likely in the district.      

Humidity. – During the south-west monsoon, season July to September the relative humidity is high, being 75 to 80 per cent in the mornings and about 55 to 65 per cent in the afternoons. High humidities of more than 70 per cent also prevail during the winter months, December to February. It is comparatively drier during rest of the year. April and May are the driest period of the year when in the afternoons the relative humidity is 25 per cent or less.

(iii) Rainfall

There are five raingauge stations in the district, which started functioning from 1954. Average rainfalls, monthly as well as yearly, and the number of rainy days recorded at these five stations and for the district as a whole based on data upto 1980 are given in the Tables 1 and 2. the frequency of annual rainfall in the Sangrur District from 1954 to 1970 are given in Table 3. the period of availability of data of these stations being not sufficiently long, the period of availability of data of these stations being not sufficiently long, the description that follows is based stations being not sufficiently long, the description that follows is based on these short period data augmented by the rainfall data of the neighbouring districts. The average annual rainfall in the district is about 590 mm, the maximum (about 73 per cent) falling in the months of July to September, July being the wettest month. The rainfall in the district increases from south-west towards the northeast and varies from about 490 mm, at Sunam to about 670 mm at Malerkotla. There is some rain, mostly in the for of thundershowers, during the pre-monsoon month of June. Some rain is also received with passing western disturbances during winter. The variation in the annual rainfall from year to year is large in the 17 year period 1954  to 1970, it is seen that the highest annual rain fall in the district amounting to 182 per cent of the normal occurred in 1955. The lowest annual rainfall which was 58 percent of the normal occurred in 1965. The nnual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in five out of 17 years. For the district as a whole, two consecutive years of such low rainfall occurred once. Considering the rinfall at individual stations. It is seen than similar rainfall has occurred at least once in four out of five stations. Barnala dn Malerkotla had however such rainfall twice. It will be seen from Table 1 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 450 and 750 mm in 10 years out of 17.

On an average, there are 27 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. This number varies from about 24 at Sunam to about 31 at Malerkotla.

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded in the district was 377.5 mm on 3 august 1976 at Barnala.                                                                                   

(iv) Atmospheric Pressure Winds

Winds are generally light but do gain some strength during the late summer and early part of the monsoon season. In the south west monsoon season winds from easterly and southeasterly directions are more common with north westerlies blowing on some days. In the post monsoon and winter seasons, the predominant wind direction is north westerly.  In the summer, winds are generally from north westerly direction but on some days they blow from south east.

Special Weather Phenomena

 

The district is scarcely affected by monsoon depressions. During the cold season, passing western disturbances affected the weather over the district causing few thunder storms. Rain during the June and the monsoon season is often accompanied with thunder. Dust storms occur occasionally during the hot season.


TABLE

Normals and Extremes of Rainfall in Sangrur District

 

Stations

No. of years of data

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Sangrur

17    (a)

20.5

13.0

19.6

4.2

14.9

44.9

190.3

 

        (b)

  1.7

  1.1

  1.9

1.6

  1.4

  2.5

    6.9

Sunam

17    (a)

14.0

12.1

 13.8

4.0

12.0

48.0

119.5

 

        (b)

  1.4

  1.1

   1.3

0.3

  1.0

  1.7

    4.9

Barnala

18    (a)

19.5

13.2

13.4

5.4

  7.2

30.1

182.6

 

        (b)

  1.3

  1.1

  1.5

0.3

  0.8

  1.5

    5.4

Dhuri

17    (a)

20.5

17.5

16.0

4.9

15.7

61.5

218.2

 

        (b)

  1.6

  1.2

  1.6

0.6

  0.8

  2.0

    5.8

Maler-kotla

17     (a)

21.8

18.2

21.4

5.8

35.2

51.3

198.7

 

        (b)

  2.1

   1.5

  1.7

0.6

  1.3

  2.1 

    7.6

Sangrur

        (a)

19.3

15.0

16.8

4.9

16.9 

45.0

181.9

 

        (b)

  1.6

  1.2

  1.6

0.5

  1.1

  2.0

    6.1

 

(a) Normal rainfall in mm

(b) Average number of rainy days (days with rain 2.5 mm or more)

 

TABLE

Normals and Extremes of Rainfall in Sangrur District

 

Aug

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

Highest annual rainfall as % of normal and year

Lowest annual rainfall as % of normal and year

Haviest rainfall in 24 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amount

Date

 

149.6

 

101.2

 

35.5

 

3.6

 

14.3

 

611.2

 

162

(1960)

 

64

(1954)

(m. m.)

192.4

 

12 July 1960

   7.0

   4.4

  1.5

0.4

  1.1

  30.5

 

 

 

 

130.4

  86.8

35.2

1.5

11.4

490.1

189 (1955)

44 (1962)

160.0

11 July 1960

   6.5

   3.7

  1.1

0.2

  0.8

  24.0

 

 

 

 

129.0

120.1

37.5

2.8

  7.7

568.5

172 (1955)

61 (1968)

212

26 July 1964

   5.8

   4.1

  0.8

0.3

  0.7

  23.6

 

 

 

 

163.0

115.8

  41.2

2.4

16.1

682.8

167 (1955)

30 (1965)

175.0

5 July 1967

    6.1

    4.2

    1.1

0.3

  0.9

   26.2

 

 

 

 

141.2

110.9

54.0

3.6

11.2

673.3

194 (1955)

45 (1965)

199.0

5 July 1967

   6.6

    4.2

   1.8

0.4

  1.1

 31.1

 

 

 

 

142.6

107.0

  40.7

2.8

12.2

587.7

182 (1955)

58 (1965)

 

 

    6.4

    4.1

   1.3

 0.3

   1.1

  27.3

 

 

 

 

 

Normals and Extremes of Rain in Sangrur District of 10 years data from 1971 to 1980

 

Station

No. of years of data

Jan

Feb

March

April

May 

June

July 

Aug

Sangrur

10      (a)

11.4

12.7

11.7

  6.4

14.1

41.6

145.0

119.6

(b)

  1.4

  2.0

  1.7

  0.7

  1.5

  2.5

    7.1

    6.5

Sunam

10      (a)

19.0

16.8

  7.2

11.6

12.9

48.8

148.1

169.0

 (b)

  1.4

  1.8

  1.8

  0.6

  1.5

  3.3

    9.4

    7.3

Barnala

10      (a)

  7.4

13.6

  6.0

  6.8

  1.3

45.9

121.8

139.2

 (b)

  0.8

  1.5

  0.9

  0.5

  1.0

  3.0

    6.9

    7.9

Malerkotla

10      (a)

12.1

22.0

15.1

  7.6

 7.3

47.9

 59.6

161.5

 (b)

  1.2

  1.1

  1.4

  0.8

   .2

  2.5

    7.8 

    6.4

Dhuri

10      (a)

  8.8

 8.9

  4.2

   ...

 2.9

 2.9

 14.1

123.9

(b)

  0.6

 0.3

  0.5

  

  0.7

  1.6

    4.7

  5.0

Average Sangrur District

10

 (a)

11.7

14.8

  8.8

  6.5

11.7

45.4

137.7

142.6

 (b)

  1.1

  1.5

  1.2

  0.5

  1.2

  2.6

    7.2

    6.6

 

 

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total 

Highest annual Rainfall as % of Normals and year

Lowest annual Rainfall as % of Normals and year

Heaviest Rainfall in 24 hours

39.2

7.9

9.0

9.1

422.1

5972 mm (1977)

2302 (1974) 

141.0

 

2 Aug. 1971

  2.8

0.5

0.4

0.7

27.00

339.3

6 July 1972

72.2

9.4

2.1

6.6

523.7

7891 mm (1974)

2593

(1972)

276.7

10Aug 1973

  3.3

 0.7

0.5

0.9

32.0

181.5

 4 July 1974

35.7

1.1

4.1

4.10

396.9

7757 mm (1977)

2870

270.0

 6 Sept      1975

  3.0

0.6

0.7

24.9

377.5

9 Augt 1976

35.7

5.8

4.7

15.9

404.4

7179 mm (1977)

1921 (1971)

158.6

15 Jul 1977

  2.2

0.3

0.4

1.0

26.0

135.2

11 Jun 1978

50.9

7.4

4.8

12.3

391.3

6358 (1976)

220  (1977)

146.8

21 Jul 1979

  2.2

0.2

0.2

0.7

17.0

7031.4

 

209.8

14 Jul 1080

46.7

6.3

3.7

9.8

447.9

53.5

 

 

 

  2.7

0.3

0.4

0.8

25.4

 

 

 

 

 

 (Source: Deputy Commissioner, Sangrur)

 

 

Frequency of Annual Rainfall in the Sangrur District

(Data 1954 – 1970)

Range in mm.

No. of years

250-350

1

350-450

1

450-550

5

550-650

2

650-750

3

750-850

3

850-950

1

950-1050

..

1050-1150

1

 

 

 

Contents    Next


 [P1]Maximum length of the district (north to south) is 105 km.

 [P2]Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931

 [P3]Ibid.

 [P4]Zoological Survey of India, Regional Station, Dehradun

 [P5]

 [P6]Material supplied by the Deputy Director General of Observatories (Climatology and Geophysics), Pune