CHAPTER XVII

OTHER SOCIAL SERVICES

 

Contents

Ø      

Labour Welfare

Ø      

Prohibition

Ø      

Advancement of Scheduled Castes and backward Classes

Ø      

Other Social Welfare Activities

Ø      

Public Trusts, Charitable Endowments and Muslim Wakfs.

 

It is obligatory on the part of a progressive and welfare State to improve the lot of the down-trodden and the helpless. For this purpose, the State Government is wedded to a policy of implementing various social welfare measures; education, medical and public health services, etc., being relatively more important aspects. Among the less important aspects. Among the less important measures covering only a section of the population, mention may be made of labour welfare, prohibition, upliftment of scheduled castes and backward Class. Etc.

(a) Labour Welfare

Labour welfare is concerned mainly with the improvement of health, general well-being, safely and productive efficiency of the worker. It also includes the facilities and amenities as may be provided in, or in the vicinity of undertakings to enable the labour force to work in healthy and congenial atmosphere, instrumental in increasing the efficiency. Besides, it includes provision of canteens and cafeteria, recreational facilities, and provision of restrooms. It also entails arrangement for transport to and from work and the provision of residential accommodation, crèches, nurseries, balwadies, primary and high school, etc. for children of the worker. 

The State Government set up the Punjab Industrial Safety Council in May 1969, on the pattern of the National Safety Council. It is a voluntary organization with no political affiliation. Factory owners and associations of workers, Government departments, and all others interested in the safety measured in industry can become members of this council which shall advise, organize, encourage and promote methods and procedures for assuring safety and health of the industrial workers.

Labour Legislation. – With a view to ameliorating the miserable condition of the working class and to safeguard their interests, the number of social and legislative measured have been undertaken. Such measured are important not only from the humanitarian point of view, but also otherwise, since these contribute to enhance Productivity. Various Acts which have been adopted and brought into force are mainly connected with the working conditions of labour, their safety, minimum wages and other emoluments, benefits, and facilities, and provisions for settlement of disputes between and employers and the employees and the like. After achieving independence in 1974, not only new law\s for labour welfare were enacted but amendments were also made in the already existing laws to make them more beneficial to the workers.

 

The various Central and State labour laws in force in the district are; the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923; the Employment of Children Act, 1938; the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946; the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; the Factories Act, 1948; the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Working Journalists (Conditions of Service and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1955; the Punjab Industrial Housing Act, 1956; the Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishment Act, 1958; the Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961; the Maternity benefit Act, 1961; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965; the Punjab Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1965; the Punjab Industrial Establishments National and Festival Holidays, Casual and Sick  Leave) Act, 1965; the Contractors Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972; and the Fair Wage Clause and East Punjab Public Works Department Contractor labour regulations. 

The above mentioned labour enactments contain various welfare measures for the labour and inter alia, provide for regulation of conditions   and hours of work, rest intervals, leave with wages, national and festival holidays, casual and sick leave, overtime payment, safety from accidents, health and sanitation, prohibition of employment of children below certain age and of women at night, regular payment of wages, payment of minimum wages, payment of minimum bonus, payment of gratuity, formation of trade unions for the purpose of collective bargaining certification of standing orders by employers for clearly defining the service conditions of workers, redressal of grievances and settlement of industrial disputes, etc.

Prior to the Independence, thee was no separate organizational the State to look after the interest of industrial labour and other workers and to deal with their day-to-day problems. It was only in 1949 that a separate Labour Department was set up under the charge of a Labour Commissioner. The primary functions of the State Labour Department are to maintain peaceful industrial relations in the State, and also to further the labour welfare measures, both statutory and non-statutory. Subject to certain limitations, it ensures that the working conditions for labour conform to a certain minimum of safety and comfort; that the wages are adequate and regularly paid; and that injuries sustained during the performance of duties are properly treated and suitably compensated. The department also seeks of provide for medical care and model living for as many labourers and their dependents as possible. The prevention of industrial disputes and their settlement, as and when these arise, is one of the major functions of the department. 

As there is no Labour-cum-Conciliation of Officer in the Sangrur District, the Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, Patiala, exercises jurisdiction over the Sangrur District. There is one Inspector of Factories (Gazetted), posted at Barnala having jurisdiction over the entire district of Sangrur and also some area of the adjoining districts. There is also one Labour Inspector Grade I (Non-gazetted) posted at Sangrur. He is incharge of whole of the Sangrur District. Besides, there are w Labour Inspectors Grade II posted at Sangrur and Barnala to enforce provision of the Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 1958.

The Labour-cum-Conciliation Officer, Patiala also deals with the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Section 12(i) of the Act casts a duty upon Conciliation Officers to take steps immediately when there is an apprehension of an industrial dispute. It requires the Conciliation Officer to move even suo-moto to get the employer and the representative of workmen together. They are empowered to inspect any document which they think necessary. They are empowered to inspect any document which they think necessary. They have to see that a fair settlement is arrived at between the parties amicably. In case they fail to settle the dispute, the matter is referred, through Government in the labour Department to the Labour Court, Patiala, or the Industrial Tribunal, Punjab, Chandigarh, as the case may be.

The sailent feature of the Central and State Labour Laws inforce in the district are given below:

Central Legislation. –The Factories Act, 1948, provides for health measures, safety from accidents, canteen s, shelters, restrooms, working hours, intervals for rest, leave with wages, etc. The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, provides for dealing with industrial disputes through conciliation machinery, works committees, adjudication and arbitration. The payment of Wages Act, 1936, regulates the payment of wages to the workers employed in establishment covered under the Act. The inspectorate staff is required to deal with complaints regarding non or less or delayed payments of wages. The Workmen’s Compensation Act. 1923, provides for the payment by certain classes of employers to their workmen of compensation for injury by accident. The Indian Trade Unions Act, Act, 1926, provides for registration of trade unions and certain rights and privileges to the registered trade unions. It gives immunity from civil and to the registered trade unions. It gives immunity from civil and criminal liability to trade unions. It gives immunity from civil and criminal liability to trade union executive and members for bonafied trade union activities. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, requires the employers, employing 100 or more persons, to define with sufficient precision the conditions of employment and to make the said conditions known to workmen employed by them. The motor Transport Workers Act, 1961, marks another milestone in the field of labour legislation as it seeks to regulate and ameliorate the conditions of workers in the transport undertakings employing five or more workers.

The Payment of Bonus Act, contains the provisions regarding the payment of bonus to the employees by the employer from his share of profits. The employment of children Act, 1938, prohibits the employment of young children below the age of 15 years in certain risky and unhealthy occupations. The Employees state Insurance Act, 1948, contemplates the provision of medical benefits and payment of sickness benefit to insured workers in case of sickness, indisposition, disability, etc. The Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952, seeks to make a provision for the future of industrial workers after he retires or for his dependents in case of his death before retirement. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, provides for payment of maternity benefit to women workers for a period of 12 weeks. The payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, provides for a scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories, mines, ports, oilfields, plantations, railway companies, shops or other establishments and in the matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. For the administration of this Act, Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers are the controlling authority.

State Legislation. – The Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 1958, regulates the working conditions, hours of work, rest intervals and weekly rest as also holidays, leave, and overtime of workers employed in the shops and commercial establishments. The Act also provides for opening and closing hours of establishments and entitles the employees in the event of a violation of any of these provision, to go to courts to get their grievances redressed. The Punjab Labour Welfare Funds Act, 1965, provides for the setting up of a Labour Welfare Board and appointment of a Welfare Commissioner. The unclaimed wages of the employees and accumulation of fines have to be credited to the Labour Welfare Fund, out of which the Board is to finance its various welfare activities. A Labour Welfare Board is already functioning in the State. The Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh, is the Welfare Commissioner under the Act. The Punjab Industrial Establishment (National and Festival Holidays, Casual and Sick Leave) Act, 1965, provides for the grant of 7 days national and festival holidays, casual leave on full wages and 14 days sick leave on half wages to all employees covered under the Act.

In order to secure proper benefits under the various labour laws an adequate enforcement machinery works under the Labour Commissioner Punjab, Chandigarh. He is assisted, at the district level, by Labour-cum-Conciliation Officers, Factory Inspectors, labour Inspectors and other miscellaneous staff.

Industrial Relations. – Industrial relations between employees and employers are governed by the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. The object of this Act is to ensure harmonious industrial relations between the workers and employers. The industrial relations machinery set up under the Act is of two types: one, for the prevention of disputes by providing works committees within the industrial units; and the other, for the industrial relations machinery outside the industry comprising conciliation officers, boards of conciliation, courts enquiry, labour courts, industrial tribunals and national tribunal.

On the whole, the relations between employers and employees in the district have been peaceful.

Following table gives particulars regarding the industrial disputes in the Sangrur District under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, from 1974 to 1978:

Year

Number of disputes raised

Number of strikes and lock-outs

Number of workers involved in strikes

Number of mandays lost

1974

42

1

21

693

1975

---

---

---

--

1976

88

---

---

---

1977

87

----

---

---

1978

92

---

---

---

(Source: Labour Commissioner, Punjab, Chandigarh)

The Factories Act, 1948. – All factories are required to be registered under the Factories Act, 1948. It codified for the first time the old international principle that none should employ any worker on any manufacturing without ensuring his health, safety and welfare. The Act provides for health measures, safety from accidents, shelters, rest rooms, working hours, intervals forest, leave with wages, etc. With a view to ensuring the enforcement of these provisions, the inspectorate staff is required to carry out a minimum number of inspections every month in the specified proforma. In case of minor violations, inspectorate staff issued warnings and notices to the managements, whereas, in cases of serious or repeated violations, necessary prosecutions are launched against the defaulters in the courts of law. To improve efficiency and quality of inspection work, at least two test checks over the inspection conducted by the labour Inspectors are carried out every month.

In 1978, the number of working factories registered under the Act in the district was 218 and the number of workers employed in these factories during the year was 3,674.

Employees’ Provident Fund Scheme. – Compulsory provident fund has been introduced in certain specified industrial establishments under the Employees’ Provident Funds and Family Pension Funds Act, 1952. Every employee of an establishment of which the Employees, Provident Fund Scheme is applicable, is eligible for membership of the fund after completion of 6 months continuous service or 120 days of actual work, whichever is earlier. Contribution at the rate of 61/4 per cent is deducted from the basic pay, dearness allowance (inclusive of cash value of food concessions, if any admissible) and retaining allowance of employees who get pay up to Rs 1,600 per month or less. An amount equal to the workers contribution is contributed by the employer every month. The entire amount is deposited in the State Bank of India in the employees’ provident fund accounts. Under the scheme, provision has been made for the grant of advances on certain conditions to the members for financing life insurance policies, construction of houses and to defray medical expenses, from their share of contributions to the fund. 

The number of factories/establishments covered under the Act in the Sangrur District, as on 31 March 1978, was 74 and the total number of subscribes to the scheme was 3,678.

For the execution of this scheme, the Regional provident Fund Commissioner Chandigarh, is incharge of the State of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. He is assisted by a number of Inspectors in the field who acute government policies.

Employees’ State Insurance Scheme. – The Employees’ State Insurance Scheme is an integrated measure of social insurance embodied in the employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948. This scheme provides protection to employees working in the factories using power and employing 10 or more persons and establishments/shops not using power but employing 20 or more persons, excluding mines and railway running sheds. The scheme was introduced in the State in 1953.

Medical care is the hallmark or this scheme and is administered, at present, through dispensaries and panel clinics for out – patients and at the hospitals for treatment of indoor patients. It is designed to provide security for the industrial workers under sickness, maternity and employment injury, etc.

Under the Employees’ State Insurance Scheme, a number of benefits are available to the workers. Sickness benefit is available to the workers in the form of cash payment for 91 days in two consecutive contribution periods, if the sickness is certified by the Medical Officer to compensate the loss suffered on account of abstention from work. In addition to Sickness benefit the Extended Sickness Benefit is available to an insured person in case of long term diseases at the rate of 25 per cent more than the Sickness Benefit for 124 days or 309 days in accordance with the diseases. Inured persons under going sterilization under the Family Welfare programme are entitled to Sickness Cash Benefit up to 7 days for vasectomy and 14 days for tubectomy. However, this period may be extended to 14 days and 21 days, respectively in consequence of post-operative complications. Maternity benefit is available to the female workers in cash for vasectomy and 14 days for tubectomy. However, this period may be extended to 14 days and 31 days, for tubectomy. However, this period may be extended to 14 days and 21 days, respectively in consequence of post-operative complications. Maternity benefit is available to the female workers in cash for confinement, premature birth of child or miscarriage. The additional maternity benefit for 30 days is admissible on account of sickness and of confinement or pregnancy. The Temporary Disablement Benefit is given to insured persons who sustain employment injury, at the rate of 25 per cent more than the standard Sickness Benefit. Permanent Disablement Benefit is given periodically in cash to the insured persons suffering from loss of earning capacity as a result of employment injury, the dependents are entitled to periodical payments in the shape of pension at the prescribed rates. Funeral Benefit at the rate of Rs 100 is paid as a lump sum grant to defray funeral expenses of the diseased. This amount is payable to the eldest family member or who actually incurs the expenditure on funeral ceremony of the insured person. Under Employees’ State Insurance Scheme, the insured persons suffering from loss of earning capacity as a result of employment injury. In the event of the death of an insured personas a result of employment injury, the dependents are entitled to periodical payments in the shape of pension at the prescribed rates. Funeral benefit at the rate of Rs 100 is paid as a lump sum grant to defray funeral expenses of the diseased. This amount is payable to the eldest family member or who actually incurs the expenditure on funeral ceremony of the insured person. Under Employees’ State Insurance Scheme, the insured persons are provided artificial limbs in case of loss of limbs due to employment injury or when amputation is due to employment injury. Hearing aids, spectacles and dentures are also provided to the insured persons where loss of hearing, impairment of eye-sight or loss of teeth are due to employment injury.

This Scheme functions under the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation which has its headquarters at New Delhi. It is under the administrative control of the Director General, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation, New Delhi. The Scheme is executed in the State through the Regional Director, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation, Chandigarh, who inspects factories, collect contributions and arranges payment of cash benefits.

The provision of medical benefit is the statutory responsibility of the State Government and facilities are to be given according to the standards laid down by the ESIC. The expenditure on other cash benefits is to be met entirely out of the Employees’ State Insurance Fund. The Scheme is financed mainly by the contributions from employers and employees with the State Government sharing a part of the cost of medical care.

The Employees’ State Insurance Scheme was implemented at Malerkotla in the Sangrur District on 16 June 1968. By 31 March 1978, it covered 600 employees working in 25 factories/establishments. An ESI dispensary is functioning at Malerkotla.

(b) Prohibition

Like other districts of the Punjab State, the Sangrur District too is wet. On 31 March 1978, there were 247 country liquor vends and 37 foreign liquor vends in the district.

The consumption of exciseable articles in the district during 1973-74 to 1977-78 is given in the following table:

Year

Country Spirit (Proof Litres)

Foreign Spirit (Proof Litres)

Wine and Beer (Bulk Litres)

Opium (Kgs)

Bhang (Kgs)

1973-74

9,99,000

83,638

95,427

--

---

1974-75

10,09,000

1,14,104

91,059

1.250

---

1975-76

10,19,870

1,13,142

1,32,409

2.500

---

1976-77

10,79,870

1,58,671

2,67,146

2.000

---

1977-78

11,78,983

1,92,224

2,71,108

2.000

---

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1978 to 1978)

The Sangrur District falls under the jurisdiction of Deputy Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Patiala. The Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Sangrur, administers the Excise Inspectors, 16 Excise Inspectors, besides other miscellaneous class III and Class IV staff.

Cases detected under the Punjab Excise Act and Punjab Opium Act in the District, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given in the following table:  

Year

Excise Act

Opium Act

Total

1973-74

733

887

1,620

1974-75

833

978

1,811

1975-76

1,115

1,012

2,127

1976-77

1,300

1,159

2,459

1977-78

1,265

1,167

2,432

(Source: Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Sangrur)

(c) Advancement of Scheduled Castes and backward Classes

The Programme for the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes was started in Sangrur District in 1949 when the Department of Welfare of Scheduled Castes was established in the erstwhile PEPSU. However, their interests are now being watched by the Department of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Class, Punjab, Chandigarh.  

The main object of this Department is to co-ordinate and devise schemes and programmes to improve socio-economic status of the members of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes and to improve their educational standard with a view to improving their overall condition. 

Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes. – According to the 1971 Census, the number of Scheduled Castes persons was 2,71,322 (1,47,635 males, 1,23,687 females) forming 23.66 per cent of the total population of the district. Out of these, 2,34,204 (1,27,700 males, 1,06,503 females) lived in rural areas and 37,119 (19,935 males, 17,184 females) in urban areas.

The list of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes inhabiting the district, and their main professions are given in the Appendix at the end of the chapter at pages 404 to 405.

Measures adopted for the betterment of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes 

With a view to improving the general standard of living of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Government have launched various schemes for improving their social, economic and educational status. The Directorate of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and backward Classes, Punjab, Chandigarh, is responsible as well as the schemes sponsored by the Government of India for the welfare of Scheduled Castes and backward Class in the State.

Under Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitution of India, provision has been made for reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes in the Parliament and the State Legislatures on the basis of their population. The provision for reservation of seats was made for the period of 10 years, from the date India became a Republic (26 January 1950). This has further been extended up to 1990, each time for a period of 10 years. A number of seats has been reserved for these communities in the panchayats, panchayat samitis and zila parishads. In order to provide employment to educated boys and girls of these castes, 25 per cent vacancies have been reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 5 per cent of the Backward Classes in all government departments and establishments at the time of direct recruitment. The members of Scheduled Castes and 5 per cent for the Backward Classes in all government departments and establishments at the time of direct recruitment. The members of Scheduled Castes also enjoy certain relaxations for reservation in promotion – 20 per cent in Class III and IV, and 14 per cent in Class I &II for Scheduled Castes.

The District Welfare Officer, Sangrur is responsible for the implementation of welfare schemes for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes at the District level. He is assisted by 4 Tahsil Welfare Officers posted one each at the tahsil headquarters, 1 Lady Supervisor, 9 Lady Social Workers, 1 Accountant, besides other miscellaneous staff.

The details of various schemes which are being implemented for ameliorating the lost of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are given below:

1. Welfare Schemes

The State Department for Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Back-ward Classes is implementing following schemes for the benefit of Scheduled Castes and backward Classes in the district:

Subsidy for the Construction of New Houses for Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis

This scheme was started in 1975 in the district. Under this scheme, subsidies are given for the construction of new houses to those members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis (former nomadic tribes, now includes in the Scheduled Castes) who are unable to built better houses due to their poverty. The house subsidized under the scheme are constructed in the form of colonies.  A sum of Rs 900 each was granted as housing subsidy till 1974-75. However, due to rise in prices from the year 1975-76, the amount of subsidy has been increased to Rs 2,000. Unskilled labour and site are provided by the beneficiaries themselves. A beneficiary is required to build a house, consisting of one room, one verandah, a kitchen and a courtyard with a total areas of 5 to 6 marlas.

The amount of subsidy granted and the number of beneficiaries under the scheme in the district, during the years 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

5,400

6

1974-75

---

---

1975-76

1,72,000

86

1976-77

1,94,000

97

1977-78

2,68,000

134

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Subsidy for the Purchase of Agricultural Land. – This scheme was introduced in the district in 1959-60. At the initial state, under the scheme, a subsidy of Rs 2,000 for the purchase of 5 acres of agricultural land costing not less than Rs 4,500 for the construction of house/well per family was granted to the deserving landless persons belonging to Scheduled Castes. But, due to price-hike in agricultural land, since 1971-72, the amount of subsidy has been increased to Rs 5,000 for the purchase of 3 acres of land costing not less than Rs 7,500 and Rs 1,000 for the construction of house/well in that land. The rest of the amount is to be arranged by the beneficiary himself. Besides, an amount of Rs 180 is also given to each of the beneficiaries as subsidy for meeting charges of stamp duty for registration.

The amount of subsidies granted and the number of beneficiaries, i.e. persons settled on land under the scheme, in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

25,000

5

1974-75

35,000

7

1975-76

55,000

11

1976-77

75,000

15

1977-78

25,000

5

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Drinking Water Facilities. --- This Scheme was introduced in the district in 1952-53. It aims at providing pure drinking water to the members of Scheduled Castes inhabiting the area where there is scarcity of drinking water. Under this scheme, subsidy of Rs 4,000 for the construction of diggies and sinking of new sells, Rs 1,000 for repair of the old ones, and Rs 900 for installation of hand-pumps is given.

The amount of subsidy granted and the number of wells sunk/repaired and hand-pumps installed in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed as subsidy (Rs)

Number of wells sunk/repair and hand-pumps installed 

1973-74

51,400

156

1974-75

51,600

158

1975-76

53,450

149

1976-77

46,600

116

1977-78

51,800

113

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Construction of Dharmshalas/Chaupals. This scheme was introduced by the State Government in 1969-70. Under this scheme, dharmshalas are constructed in bastis of Scheduled Castes to enable them to derive community benefits from these places and arrange social functions, etc. A grant to the extent of Rs 7,000 for the construction of a new dharmshala/chaupal and Rs 2,000 for the repair of an old/kacha dharamshala was granted as subsidy where these were needed by members of the Scheduled Castes. However, the amount of grant for the construction of dharmshalas/chaupals has been increased from Rs 7,000 to Rs 10,000 from the year shalas/chaupals has been increased from Rs 7,000 to Rs 10,000 from the year 1978-79, and for the repair of an old one or for completing an incomplete one, the amount of grant has been increased to Rs 3,000 from Rs 1,000.

The amount disbursed under this scheme and the number of dharmshalas constructed in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of dharmsalas constructed

1973-74

9,37,750

226

1974-75

7,82,500

134

1975-76

8,95,000

122

1976-77

8,16,500

102

1977-78

1,09,000

17

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Environmental Improvement of Harijan Bastis. —For improving the living condition in Scheduled Castes bastis, the State Government introduced this scheme in 1972-73. Under this scheme, grants are given to Hrijans for the payment of streets and construction of surface drains, bath-rooms, children parks, removal of roories and for improving the stagnant and dirty ponds located within the vicinity of the bastis.

The amount disbursed under this scheme in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, is given below:

Year

Amount disbursed  (Rs)

Number of bastis

1973-74

1,66,290

4

1974-75

7,32,254

13

1975-76

5,27,425

7

1976-77

2,05,185

4

1977-78

1,28,865

1

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Grant for the Purchase of Books and Stationery to Scheduled Caste Students of 6th to 8th Class. – This scheme was introduced in 1976-77. The students belonging to Scheduled Castes are generally financially weak and cannot afford to purchase books and stationery to pursue their studies. Under this scheme, books and stationery are supplied to such students of 6th, 7th and 8th classes, free of cost, to continue their studies the department gets books directly from the Punjab School Education Board and distributes them through the District Welfare Officer.

Under this scheme, books amounting to Rs 45,181 and Rs 58,880 were supplied to the students belonging to scheduled castes during 1976-77 and 1977-78, respectively in the Sangrur District.

Pre-Matric Coaching Scheme[P1] . – This centrally sponsored scheme was started in the State in 1976-77. Under this scheme, special coaching is given to the Scheduled Castes students of 9th, 10th and 11th classes of High and Higher Secondary Schools in the elective compulsory subjects, namely, English, Mathematics and Science for six months in a year, from September to February after or before the school hours. This scheme envisages the removal of deficiency of Scheduled Castes students in these subjects to enable them to pass their Matric/Higher Secondary examination with credit so that they may get admission in Medical, Law, and Engineering institutions.

In the Sangrur District, during 1976-77, an amount of Rs 31,765 was spent for coaching sixty students. However, during the year 1977-78 Rs 1,15,540 were spent for coaching 108 students.

Legal Assistance. – This scheme was initiated in 1958-79. The aim of this scheme is to safeguard the interests of the members of Scheduled Castes in criminal, civil, and revenue cases against the landlords and other exploiting classes or persons. Legal aid is given in the form of lawyer’s fee, assessed on the rate fixed by the Deputy Commissioner and Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil).

Opening of Creches for the children of Working Mothers (Sweepers and Scavengers). – Introduced in 1976-77, the scheme aims at providing day-care to those children of Scheduled Castes who are in the age group of 0-6 years and whose mothers go out for work. These crèches are run under the supervision of trained Lady Supervisors assisted by two helpers. On 31 March 1978, six such centers were functioning in the State of which one functions in the district at Malerkotla. This centre can accommodate upto 40 children. Free supplementary diet at the rate of Rs 1.25 per child per day is provided in the centre.

Community Centres. – The main object of setting up community centers is to improve the economic and social conditions of weaker sections. Training in stitching and embroidery is imparted in these centers. Apart from holding adult education classes, pre-school training to children of age group 0-6 years is also arranged at these centers. These centers have been set up for persons from all communities including Scheduled Castes.

On 31 March 1974, 9 Community Centres were functioning in the district at Bhindran, Bhawanigarh, Longowal, Mandvi, Munshiwal, Ranwan, Sanghera, Tibar Basti (Sangrur), Ahan Khera.

Subsidy for the purchase of Law, Medical and Engineering Books. – This scheme was started in 1974-75. Under this scheme, grants are given to various institutions for purchase of books pertaining to law, Medical and Engineering. Books are kept in libraries for use and reference by the students belonging to Scheduled Castes.

Girls’ Hostels. – This centrally sponsored scheme aims at providing hostel facilities to the girl belonging to Scheduled Castes in the recognized educational and other registered social institutions in the State and to grant subsidy for increasing the seats for Scheduled girl students in the existing hostels.

Coaching Centre for Competitive Examinations. – This is a centrally sponsored scheme under which the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are given pre-examination coaching for appearing in the IAS, IFS, IPS and other allied services examination, now called the Civil Services Examination, conducted by the UPSC for this purpose. The Coaching Centre has been functioning in the Punjabi University, Patiala, since 1970-71. Before that the Coaching Centre functioned in the Punjab University, Chandigarh, since its inception on 24 April 1967.

Special Employment Cell. – With a view to providing due representation in services to members of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes and to endure employment to the educated and suitable unemployed persons of these castes and classes, the Punjab Government set up a Special Employment Cell in the Directorate of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in 1970. No vacancy or post which is reserved for member of the Scheduled Castes/Backward Classes can be filed or unreserved without obtaining a non-availability certificate from this Cell. These classes also enjoy age relaxation concessions in regard to recruitment to services.

Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme. – It is a centrally sponsored scheme and is operated by the State Education Department. Under this scheme, scholarships are given to Scheduled Castes students at the college State. They are also given in the Government technical land professional Institution. These students are also allowed the refund of examination fee, if any, only once for each examination.

Award of Scholarships and Reimbursement of Fees. —The Students belonging to Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes whose parents’ income is Rs 6,000 per annum or below are awarded stipends and are reimbursed tuition fees under the State Harijan Welfare Scheme. Scholarships and reimbursement of tuition fee is allowed to all students of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes for the 9th, 10th, and 11th classes at the rate of Rs 10 per month for first and second divisioners and Rs 6 per month to others. The Vimukt Jatis’ students are paid stipend right from the first primary Class.

Stenography Training to the Members of Scheduled Castes. – The scheme was introduced in the State in March 1980. It aims at providing adequate representation to members of Scheduled Castes in the cadre of Stenographers and Steno-typists in the Punjab Civil Secretariat and other offices of the State Government. The persons who are otherwise qualified in the trade are given special training so that they come up to the required standard. The scheme is implemented through the Language Department. A stipend of Rs 100 is given during training to such Scheduled Caste persons who are unemployed. The instructors etc. deputed by the Language Department are also paid suitable honorarium.  

Interest-free Loans to Scheduled Castes Persons Going Abroad for Employment Purposes to Cover Journey and other Incidental Expenses. —This scheme was started on 1 April 1979. It aims at providing interest free loans to the persons belonging to Scheduled Castes who are willing to go abroad for employment purposes, but have no resources to meet passage and other incidental expenses. If they are provided financial help by way of advancing them interest-free loans, they can go abroad and can thus supplement their income. The loan will be granted to the persons who fulfil the conditions/rules prescribed in this behalf. 

The Punjab Scheduled Castes Land Development and Finance Corporation, Chandigarh

The Punjab Government set up the Punjab Scheduled Castes Land Development and Finance Corporation for taking up the task of economic uplift of Scheduled Castes in the State. It started functioning with effect from 18 January 1971. The Corporation has taken a lead in promoting socio-economic uplift of the members of Scheduled Castes by providing them easy credit facilities for trades/occupations such as agricultural development, marketing, processing, supply and storage, small-scale industries, construction, transport and several other trades. The loans are given free of interest up to Rs 3,000. This limit is raised up to Rs 5,000 if the loanee is an educated unemployed. The rate is an educated unemployed. It is 3 per cent for loans from Rs 3,000 to Rs 10,000, 4 per cent from Rs 10,001 to Rs 20,000, 5 per cent from Rs 20,000, 5 per cent from Rs 20,001 to Rs 30,000 and 7 per cent above Rs 30,000.  

These loans re recoverable in a period ranging from 21/2 year to 10 years in quarterly/half-yearly/yearly instalments, depending upon the trade/profession for which the loan has been taken.

Grant of Loans under the Low Income Group Housing Scheme. – Under this scheme, loans re granted for construction of houses to low income group people having annual income not exceeding Rs 7,200 if such houses are required for their bonafide residential use. The scheme provides that the accommodation in each such house must be atleast 220 sq. feet and shall normally not exceed 1,200 sq. feet and costly structures shall be avoided. The maximum amount of loan admissible is Rs 12,500 per houses. The loan is recoverable in 25 years in 50 half-yearly equate instalments; 25 percent of loans under this scheme are reserved for the members of Scheduled Castes and 5 percent of the Backward Classes.

Grant of Loans under the Middle Income Group Housing Scheme. – Under this scheme, loans re granted for construction of houses to low income group people having annual income not exceeding Rs 18000 if such houses are required for their bonafide residential use. Under this scheme the minimum floor area of such a house is 400 sq. feet but there is no limit on the maximum floor area, the total cost a house should not however exceed Rs. 35000 in any case. The maximum amount of loan admissible is Rs 25000 per houses. The loan is recoverable in 25 years in 50 half-yearly equate instalments; 25 percent of loans under this scheme are also reserved for the members of Scheduled Castes and 5 percent of the Backward Classes.

 

Free House Sites to the Landless Workers in Rural Areas. – Under this scheme to provide house sites to landless agricultural worker in rural areas, plots measuring 100 sq. yards are allotted t families in the State, including those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes under this scheme. However, about 71 per cent of the total plots have allotted to the members of Scheduled Castes.

The members of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are given loan by various commercial banks @ Rs 2,100 per house for the construction of houses on the aforesaid plots in terms of the instructions issued by the Reserve Bank of India. These loans bear interest at the rate of 4 per cent annum recoverable in 10 years.

Construction of Houses by the Punjab Housing Development Board for Scheduled Castes. – The Punjab Housing Development Board has been provided with funds or construction of houses for Scheduled Castes on the free sites in rural areas. The construction of each house will cost Rs 4,000 out of which 75 per cent will be subsidy and 25 per cent will be loan bearing interest @ 4 per cent per annum and recoverable from the beneficiary in monthly instalments of Rs 10 over a period of 10 years.

II. Industrial Training Scheme

The Technical Education and Industrial Training Department, Punjab, has sponsored various schemes for imparting training to members of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in various engineering and non-engineering trades, apart from the general reservation for them in all other technical and industrial institutions. The main object of the scheme to increase earning capacity of the underprivileged classes of society to raise their standard of living. Under this scheme, stipends at the rate of Rs 45 per month are awarded to all trainees belonging to Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis, and Rs 35 per month to the students belonging to Backward Classes. However, no such industrial Training centre was functioning in the Sangrur District on 31 March 1978.

Representative Institutions

There was no representative institution of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in the district as on 31 March 1978.

(d) Other Social Welfare Activities

For the welfare of economically and socially weaker sections of the society, a number of social welfare schemes are being run by the Social Welfare Department, Punjab, Chandigarh. With the passage of time, budgetary allocation and number of beneficiaries have risen under these schemes. Some of the important schemes together with the amount disbursed and the number of beneficiaries are briefly mentioned here as under:

Old Age Pension Scheme[P2] . -- This is the most important scheme of the social Welfare Department. It was started in the January 1964. Under this scheme, aged, infirm and destitute persons, above 65 years incases of men, and above 60 years in the cases of women, with no means of livelihood and no earning sons are provided monetary assistance of Rs 50 per month which is remitted quarterly, through money order. Persons suffering from permanent disability are allowed the relaxation of 10 years in the lower age-limit.

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:    

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

8,82,025

1,335

1974-75

12,22,312

2,385

1975-76

12,75,129

2,633

1976-77

14,69,064

3,74

1977-78

17,91,700

4,370

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Financial Assistance to Widows and Destitute Women[P3] . This scheme was introduced in the State in 1968 with a view to providing financial assistance to the needy and destitute women below the age of 60 years. The assistance under the scheme is given to those women who are left without any means of subsistence after the demise of their husband or whose husbands are physically or mentally incapable of earnings livelihood. Keeping in view the increased coat of living, the rate of assistance was raised from Rs 25 per month to Rs 50 per month, w.e.f. 1 March 1973. 

Amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78 are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

24,000

72

1974-75

64,388

263

1975-76

1,67,642

347

1976-77

2,28,934

468

1977-78

3,45,046

736

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Financial Assistance to the Dependent Children[P4] . This scheme came into force in March 1968. It aims at providing relief to orphan and destitute children under the age of 16 years, who have either lost their parents or whose parents are unable to maintain them due to some incurable disease or permanent physical disability.

In the case of more than one deserving child in a family, preference, in the grant of financial assistance, is given to school-going children. The rate of financial assistance has been increased from Rs 20 per month to 50 month per child w.e.f. 1 March, 1974.

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

1,800

8

1974-75

5,250

12

1975-76

36,350

97

1976-77

75,500

173

1977-78

98,000

223

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Special Nutrition Scheme. – The State Government is implementing a centrally sponsored ‘Special Nutrition Scheme’ under which protein diet is provided to children in the age group of 1-6 years and to expectant and nursing mothers, living in urban slum areas of the State. The diet is supplied for 300 days in a year.

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below;

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

18,220

1,000

1974-75

20,000

1,000

1975-76

30,000

1,000

1976-77

36,925

1,314

1977-78

29,635

1,080

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Supply of prosthetic Aids to the Handicapped. —This scheme was taken up by the State Government in the year 1968-69. It aims at providing artificial limbs to the orthopaedically handicapped persons, to enable them to lead as normal a life as possible. The Government pays the cost of limbs according to the income of the applicant.   

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

3,260

10

1974-75

2,092

5

1975-76

8,040

22

1976-77

4,340

8

1977-78

718

3

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Financial Assistance to Victims of Chronic Diseases. – This scheme was introduced in 1974-75. It aims at providing financial assistance upto Rs 100 per month per head to patients of chronic diseases who have been discharged from hospitals, to enable them to continue treatment and special diet at home. A person who is suffering from chronic disease like T.B., leprosy etc. or is mentally ill and is not in a position to bear the cost of medicines drugs is also eligible for the grant of financial assistance on the recommendation of the Civil Surgeon of the district, provided the annual income of the family does not exceed Rs 3,000 per annum from all sources.

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, from its inception of 1977-78, is given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1974-75

82

1

1975-76

1,762

3

1996-77

799

2

1977-78

359

1

(Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

Scholarships to the Physically Handicapped Students. – Under this scheme, started in 1970-71, scholarships are provided for under-going various educational courses and vocational training to physically handicapped persons in the age group of 6—30 years who are orthodaedically handicapped, or are deaf and dumb or blind, and the income of whose parents/guardians ranging from Rs 15 to Rs 100 per month according to the standard education/training. 

The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1977-78, are given below:

Year

Amount disbursed (Rs)

Number of beneficiaries

1973-74

540

3

1974-75

1,260

5

1975-76

2,100

7

1976-77

1,080

6

1977-78

 (Source: Director, Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

(e) Public Trusts, Charitable Endowments and Muslim Wakfs

In every Society, there are certain voluntary organisations which endeavour for advancement of the society in various spheres, such as social, religious, educational etc. Public and charitable endowments fall among these categories of organisation. Many educational institutions, hospitals, dharmshalas and other social welfare organisations are either run or materially aided by these endowments. There are certain philanthrophists who make liberal contribution to the funds of these organisations. 

In Sangrur district, there is only one public trust whose brief description is given below:

Biru Mal Gori Shankar Charitable Trust, Ahmedgarh, was founded in 1970 by Sarvshri Bhanumal, Jatinder Nath, Piara Lal, Prem Parkash and Prem Kumar, in memory of their father. The aim of this trust is to run a dharamshala. Its affairs are managed by the above trustees.

Muslim Wakfs. – Besides, there are 1,274 Muslim wakfs at different places in the District with properties attached to some of them. These properties were maintained by the Rehabilitation Department, Government of India, up to 1961, when their administration was entrusted to the Punjab Wakf Board, with headquarters at Ambala Cantonment. The administration of wakfs is regulated by the Central Wakf Act, 1954.

The annual income from, the wakf properties in the district is Rs 46,615 which is spent for the upkeep of these institutions as well as for various charitable purposes and promotion of education.

The Islamia High School at Malerkotla is run by the Punjab Wakf Board. These are 65 teachers and 2,800 students in this institution.

The staff of the Punjab Wakf Board, employed for district Sangrur, during 1977-78, consisted of 1 Aukaf Officer and 2 Rent Collectors posted at Sangrur.

APPENDIX

Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and Vimukt Jatis inhabiting the Sangrur District

Scheduled Castes

S. No.

Name of Caste

Main professions

1

Ramsasi

Shoe-making, service, agriculture, shop-keeping and labour etc.

2

Mazhabi

Agriculture, agricultural labour, animal husbandry, service and labour etc.

3

Balmiki

Scavenging, piggery, service and labour etc.

4

Dhanak

Labour

5

Rehgar-Raigar

Shoe-making and leather tanning

6

Khatik

Tanning and selling of leather, shop-keeping.

7

Bazigar

Sheep and goat grazing, labour and animal husbandry, etc.

 

 

Backward Classes

1

Chhimba

Tailoring and shop-keeping

2

Lohar

Blacksmithy

3

Khaty

House Building and wood-works

4

Marasi

Labour

5

Bhat

Tailoring and labour

6

Bharbhunja

Grain-parching and hawking

7

Jhior

Water-carrying, agriculture and running of hotels etc.

8

Darzi (Tailor)

Tailoring

9

Teli

Extraction (oil ghani) and labour

10

Baragi

Agriculture and performing of certain religious rituals

11

Nai

Hair cutting, shaving, labour and agriculture

12

Bharai

Milk-selling and labour

13

Mochi

Making of shoe, embroidery of shoe

14

Christian

Labour and service

15

Dhobi

Washing and ironing of clothes

16

Kamhar

Pottery and labour

 

 

S. No.

Name of Caste

Main professions

 

 

Vimukt Jatis

1

Sansi

Labour

2

Deha

Labour and shoe-polishing

3

Bangala

To entertain people by snake-charms

4

Borea

Agriculture, labour and gardening

5

Sapele

Snake-charming and begging

6

Kach Bandh

Shoe-polishing and cleaning of ears

7

Chhajghare

Making of winnowing baskets and leather work

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Sangrur)

Contents        Next


 [P1]The scheme has been discontinued from the year 1981-82. 

 [P2]From November 1980, the disbursement under the scheme is made by the district social Welfare Officer, Sangrur.

 [P3]From November 1980, the disbursement under the scheme is made by the District Social Welfare Officer, Sangrur.

 [P4]From November 1980, the disbursement under the scheme is made by the District Social Welfare Officer, Sangrur.

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