GAZETTEER RUPNAGAR

(First Edition 1987)

Contents

 

SN

Subject

  1.  

General

  1.  

History

  1.  

People

  1.  

Agriculture And Irrigation

  1.  

Industries

  1.  

Banking, Trade and Commerce

  1.  

Communication

  1.  

Miscellaneous

  1.  

Economics Trends

  1.  

General Administration

  1.  

Revenue Administration

  1.  

Law and order and Justice

  1.  

Other Departments

  1.  

Local Self Government

  1.  

Education and Culture

  1.  

Medical and Public Health Services

  1.  

Other Social Services

  1.  

Public Life and Voluntary Social Service Organizations

  1.  

Places of interest

 

CHAPTER I

 

GENERAL

 

(a) Introductory

 

(i) Origin of the Name of the District- The district of Rupnagar is named after its district headquarters, the town of Rupnagar. Formerly known as Ropar, the town of Rupnagar is said to have been founded by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th Century and named it after his son Rup Sen. The town is of considerable antiquity. Recent excavations and explorations conducted at Rupnagar indicate that the first civilized folk to settle here were the Harapans, who apparently reached the upper Satluj towards the close of the third millennium B.C.

 

(ii) Location General Statistics, Total Area and Population - Included in the Patiala Division after the reorganization of Punjab in 1966, Rupnagar District falls between north latitude 30"-32' and 30o -24 and east longitude 76o-18' and 760-55'. The district adjoins Una District (Himachal Pradesh) in the north, Hoshiarpur District in the northwest and Ludhiana and Patiala districts in south-west The district comprises three tahsils, Rupnagar, Kharar and Anandpur Sahib, and includes 919 villages (26 of these being uninhabited villages) and 9 towns, namely Rupnagar, Kharar, Chamkaur Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Kurali, Morinda, Nangar Township, Naya -Nangal and Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar.

Rupnagar Town, the district headquarters, is located at a distance of 41 km from Chandigarh. Kurali is the town nearest the district headquarters (16 km), while Naya Nangal is the farthest (63 Km). Passenger and goods transport facilties are available in all the towns of the district. al towns of the district except Kharar, Chamkaur Sahib and SAS Nagar fall on the railway line. The Satluj River passes close (2 to 5 km) to the towns of Nangal, Naya Nangal, Rupnagar and Anandpur Sahib.

The tehsil-wise area of the district for the year 198182 is given below:

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Tehsil Area

(Sq. km.)

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Rupnagar 736.61

Kharar 731.69

Anandpur Sahib 657.91

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District Rupnagar 2,126.21

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(Source : Director, Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar)

 

According to the 1981 Census, the population of the district was 7.16,662, comprising ,85,087 males and 3,31,575 females.

 

(iii) History of the District as an Administrative Unit.-The district of Rupnagar was caved our on 1 November 1966 at the time of reorganisation of the State of Punjab from two portions taken from the districts of Hoshiarpur and Ambala in the old Punjab. The area from old Hoshiarpur District includes 237 villages alongwith the towns of Nangal, Naya Nangal and Anandpur Sahib. Prior to 1966, this was a part of Una, Kharar and Kurali towns of Kharar Tahsil and the entire Tahsil of Ropar. This part was formerly in Ambala District. Ambala District itself had been constituted in 1847 from territories which had lapsed to Government during the period 1809-1846. An Assistant Commissioner was posted in 1849 incharge of the subdivision of Ropar, which then comprised Ropar and Kharar tehsils.

In 1972, 23 villages were transferred from tahsil Fatehgarh Sahib, district Patialal to Kharar Tahsil of the Rupnagar District. subsequently, four more villages of Fatehgarh Sahib Tahsil were transferred to Kharar Tahsil and nine villages of Kharar Tahsil were transferred to Rajpura Tahsil, Patiala District in the year 1974.

 

(iv) Subdivisions, Tahsils and Thanas- According to the 1981 Census, the district comprised 919 villages and 9 towns which constituted three tahsils, viz. Rupnagar (313 villages) Kharar (285 villages) and Anandpur Sahib (235 villages). All the tahsils have since been made subdivisions-Kharar in 1960 and Anandpur Sahib in 1966.

Besides, there are two sub-tahsils, viz. Chamkaur Sahib (formed in 1970) in tahsil Rupnagar and Nurpur Bedi (formed in 1978) in tahsil Anandpur Sahib.

There were 10 police stations and 2 police posts in the district as on 31 March 1983, details of which are given in Chapter XII, 'Law and Order and Justice'.

(b) Topography*

Situated in the eastern and east-central peripheral parts of Punjab, Rupnagar is one of the smallest districts in the State. Despite its small size, the district displays the greatest physiographic diversity. Consistent with its transitional location between the Outer Himalayas and the Punjab plains, the district has a whole range of physiographic features which has made its impact on the characteristics of the human landscape of this region. On the basis of relief, slope, drainage and overlain material, the district may be divided into following five physiographic units: -

1. The Anandpur Dun **

2. The Hilly Tracts

3. The foothill Dissected Palin

4. The Upland Plain

5. The Floodplain of the Satluj

(i) The Anandpur Dun.- The Anandpur Dun is an elongated valley enclosed by the Shiwalik Hills on the south0wwest and the Outer Himalayas on the north-east. It is a part of the dun which intemittently appears between the Shiwalik Hills and the Outer Himalayas elsewhere also. Situated in the northern part of the district, it runs from Nangal in the north to Kakrala village in the south over a distance of about 50 kilometres and has an average width of 10 kilometers. Ranging between 278 and 358 metres above sea level in elevation, it has a north-south gradient of two metres per kilometre. The Satluj Rive enters this valley near Nangal and flows along its longer axis finally to leave it near Rupnagar. The Soan River joins the Satluj in the upper sections of this valley from the north-west and the Sirsa Nadi merges with it in the south from the east. Due to its gentle gradient, the Satluj along with its tributaries runs through a braided course. Elongated stripes of land between the river and the peripheral hills have a general slope towards the Satluj. These parts of the dun are traversed by a large number of seasonal torrents, locally called chos. These seasonal streams descend quickly from the neighbouring hills. With the water rushing in them, they frequently break their low banks and flood the adjoining areas. The chos carry silt and material eroded from the top-soil of their upper reaches and there is an inevitable disposition of soil in the dun. The dun owes some of its fertility to these transported deposits. The overlain material is composed of sand, gravel and loam. In some ways, these features are similar to the physiographic characteristics in a foothill dissected plain. A small area south east of Anandpur Sahib, however, is somewhat different. Here the seasonal streams flow through entrenched courses, giving the area the look of a deeply dissected landscape.

 

(ii) The Hilly Tract :- This physiographic unit has three characteristic divisions : (i) The Eeatern slopes of Katar Dhar; (ii) The Western slopes of Kolhai range and (iii) The Western peripheral fringe of Naina Devi range. The eastern slopes of south-western boundary of Anandpur Sahip Tahsil over a distance of about 36 kilometers, The western slopes of this range fall in Balachaur Tahsil of Hoshiarpur District. Facing Anandpur dun, these hills range in slevation berwwin 300 and 520 meters above sea level. They drain out into the dun. Due to an inadequate vegetation cover and a soft unconsolidated starat, the hills have been badly eroded by a number of streams along with their gullies and rills. A thin cover of land and hard savaana grasses, Thorny byshes and scattered trees is the characteristic vegetation of these hills. The western slopes of Kolhai range of the Shiwaliks running along the eastern and another hilly tract of the district. Stretching in a north-west south-east direction over a distance of about 35 kilometers, the elevation of theis slongated hilly tract ranges between 300 and 570 meters above sea level. The general slope of the land here is from east to west. Thus the small streams and gullies flowing down these slopes drain out onto the foothill plain; Being a part of the Shiwalik Hills, these hills are similar to the Katar Dhar hills. The western peripheral fringe of Naina Devi range runs along the eastern and south-eastern boundary of Anandpur Sahib Tahsil. Facing Anandpur dun, these outer Himalayan slopes range in elevation between 400 and 500 metres above sea level except in the south-east where their height within the district rises to about 1,000 metres. Because of the hard and consolidated nature of their strata and thicker vegetation cover, these slopes are less dissected than the Shiwaliks.

 

(iii) The Foothill Dissected Plain - The Foothill Plain lies to the immediate south-west of the Kolhai range of the Shiwaliks. Running along the Shiwalik Hills over a length of about 30 kilometres and breadth of 7 to 10 Kilometres, it ranges in elevation between 300 and 380 metres. It has anaverage gradient of about ten metres per kilometre from the hills towards the upland plain. A high degree of dissection by a large number of closely spaced seasonal streams, called chos, is the distinguishing feature of this tract. While moving along the main axis of the foothill plain, one encounters a cho practically every kilometre. The surficial material of the cho is a mixture of gravel, sand and loam. The proportion of the gravel is higher nearer the hills. Coarse, light and exposed soils of this transitional plain are less productive than those of the neighbouring upland plain.

(iv) The Upland Plain-This is located to the south-west of the foothill plain both is Rupnagar and Kharar tahsils. Ranging in elevation from 275 to 320 metre above sea level, it has an average north-east to south-west gradient of one metre per kilometre. This is a flat featureless plain. Alluvial in origin, its well drained and easily workable soils have been developed intensively for crop cultivation. Some seasonal streams traverse this tract after merging with each other within the foothill plain. Such streams (nadis or chos) have damaged the adjoining agricultural lands. The spacing of these streams in the upland plain is relatively wide.

(v) Floodplain of the Satluj- This physiographic unit consists of strip running for a distance of about 20 kilometres along the Satluj River from Rupnagar in the east to the western boundary of the district. It continues further west in Ludhiana District. It is only a kilometre or two wide in the east but widens to about 4 kilometres in the western part. Flooding is a special feature of this terrain unit. Every flood leaves behind a layer of alluvium. The renewal of soils maintains the fertility of the land. The Dam built across the Satluj at Bhakra has reduced the frequency and intensity of floods. Many of the areas in the footplain (locally called bet) which were formerly waterlogged have now been reclaimed and developed for cultivation. It is considerably changed the physical landscape of the bet. During the summer monsoons, the sub-soil water in this unit comes close to the surface. Fertile alluvial soils associated with associated with high sub-soil water furnish excellent conditions for rice cultivation.

(c) River System and Water Resources

(i) Main River Tributaries and Canals

River Satluj- Satluj is the most important river of this district. Originating form Mansarowar Lake in Tibet, this perennial river enters Indian territory at Shiaki La (Himachal Pradesh). Flowing across the high Himalyan ranges through gorges and steep valleys, it finally enters Rupnagar District near Nangal- the place where it leaves the Himalayas. From Nangal onward, if flows sluggishly through Anandur Dun for a distance of about 60 kilometers, leaving the dun through an opening across the Shiwalik Hills near Rupnagar and entering the Punjab plain. From here onward, it roughly demarcates the boundary between Rupnagar and Hoshiarpur district for the sea. Although a parennial river, its discharge fluctuates widely with seasons The potential of the river has been largely tapped for development of power and irrigation. A major national project in the form of a gravity dam and reservoir has been established at Bhakra for generating hydroelectric power. Another dam at Nangal and barrages Rupnagar and Harike( Firozpur District) divert their water into canals.

 

Tributaries - Mention may also be made of the Soan River and Sirsa Nadi- two major tributaries of the Satluj-which flow for short distance in the district before merging with the master stream. After flowing through Una-Amb Dun in a north-west to south-east direction for a distance of about 50 kilometers, Soan River enters Rupnagar District near Santhokhgarh village and flows further for 16 kilometers to merge with the Satluj. The Sirsa Nadi, on the other hand, originates near Kalka, flows in the south-east to north-west direction through Nalagarh Dun for distance of about 40 kilometres, enters this district near Banda village and flows further for about 6 kilometres before joining the Satluj. A few other steams descending the western slopes of Naina Devi range, such as Donai Di Khad, Dabatwali Khad Charan Ganga, Misewal Khad and Jundlu Ki Khad traverse the dun for short distances before flowing into the Satluj. The Khadas are gullies which have cut he land quite deep at places in their courses. Apart from the above streams, a fairly large number seasonal streams come down for the Himalayan slopes. Special note may be made of broken plain south-east of Anandpur Sahib where these streams are closely spaced and their courses are entrenched unlike the other seasonal streams of Shiwaliks and the outer ranges of the Himalayas. In general, the characteristics of the Himalayan streams are significantly different from those of the Shiwalik Hills streams.

Known as Khadas in the hills and chos, nadis or raos in the plains, the seasonal streams of the Shiwalik Hills are a special feature of this district. These may be considered two separate categories; (i) The Katar Dhar streams and (ii) the Kolai streams. Both these groups differ less in physical characterristics than in their location and direction of flow.

 

(i) The Katar Dhar Streams- All these streams which originate from the eastern slopes fo the Katar Dhar range form one group. Steep escarpments along their courses are a clear indication of the dissection these streams have brought to the Shivalik Hills. After gathering the water of the rills and gullies in the hills, these streams entered Anandpur Dun.some of these dry up in the porous strata of the dun after flowing a distance of 4 to 5 kilometers. The large ones do reach the Satlug. Their spacing is close(practically one after every kilometer) and the courses are wider (150 to 250 metres) over the dun. Their width declines to 100 metres or less as they move beyond a distance of 5 kilometres from the hills.

(ii) The Kolahi Streams - Originating from the western slopes of Kolhai range facing the Punjab plain, the streams of the second group flow in a north-east to south-west direction in the hills but turn gradually to north-west after flowing for short distances over the foothill plain. However, some of the sourthern streams do continue flowing in the south-west direction. The frequency of their occurrence, however, is almost double that of the Katar Dhar streams near the hills and their courses are longer.

Some of the streams run several kilometers before joining the river. Budhki Nadi, Siswan nadi, Jaintia Devi Ki Rao and Patiali Rao are of this type. After receiving the waters of Sugh Rao and Haripur Nala, Budhki Nadi traverses the Punjab plain for a distance of about 30 kilometres before merging with the Satluj near Choota Sartarpur village. Siswant Nadi is another important seasonal stream of this group. Initially, it flows north-east to south-west, but gradually turns north-west to finally merge with the Satluj near Khizarpur village after traversing a distance of about 40 kilometres over the plaints. Jaintia Devi Ki Rao and Patiali Rao are the two southern streams which flow in north-east-south-west direction ultimately to merge with the Ghaggar River.

The seasonal streams of the Shiwalik Hills prove an economic liability. Their gushing waters, which suddenly swell with rains and dry up soon after, frequently break low banks, bring flood and spread sand and gravel over the agricultural land along their courses. the low productivity of the Shiwalik Hills and the adjacent foothill plain is attributable, among other factors to the action of these streams.

Apart from the natural drainage courses, Nangal Hydel Channel and Sirhind Canal are the two major man-made water channels of the district. Nangal Hydel Channel, which takes its water from Nangal dam, has been used for generating hydro-electric power at Ganguwal and Kotla. It runs along the left bank of the Satluj from Nangal to Rupnagar beyond which it turns south under the name to Bhakra Canal. It has a total length of about 100 kilometres within the district. Sirhind Canal, which takes off from Rupnagar barrage, also flows for about 35 kilometres within the district. Despite their considerable length within the district, these irrigation channels have not been used to any notable extent for irrigation. Only the western parts of the upland plain in rupnagar Tahsil receive some irrigation water. These canals have not been disigned for water transport.

(ii) Underground Water Resources - The depth of the underground water table varies from area to area in the district. In the hills, sub-soil water is more than 15 metres deep. In the foothill plain and the dun, its depth ranges between 10 and 15 metres and in the upland plin between 5 and 10 metres. The depth of the water table at various places is no indication of the extent of aquifers. This is especially true of the hills, the foothill plain and the dun. In these areas, it is very difficult to locate aquifers worth tapping for tubewell irrigation. The groundwater is deep and inadequate. Nevertheless, the availability of water improves as one moves away from the hills. The upland plain has an abundance of good quality sub-soil water at small depths. That is why tubewell irrigation over this terrain unit has been developed extensively. Of all the areas of the district, the floodplain of the Satluj is the richest in groundwater resources.

In this area adjoining the river, the water table does not exceed 5 metres in depth. During the rainy season, the water table rises at some places almost reaching ground level.

 

(d) Geology*

 

(i) Geological Formation

The rock formations in the area include river terraces, gravel beds, alluvial fans and calctufa beds of recent origin and conglometates, sandstones and claystgones of Upper Shiwalik.

The Upper Shiwalik mostly comprises boulder conglomerate beds with poorly to moderately sorted sandstone beds. The conglomerate bands are usually poorly cemented and include cobbles and pebbles with some boulders of quartzite, sandstone and silstone with stray fragments of coarse and fine grained granites, banded quartzite, limestone, trap rock, claystone, carbonaeous phyllite, schist and purple shale.

Sub-recent to Recent deposits include mainly gravel beds, alluvial fans, river terraces and calctufa beds. the regimes of rivers Satluj and soam are occupies by a vast span of alluvium containing sand, silt and clay in various proportions. The nearly horizontal beds of calctufa mixed intimately with calcareous shales and siliceous matter rest over the sub-horizontal beds of coarse grained micaceous and calcareous sandstone and congiomerates of Upper Shiwalik. River terraces and gravel beds constitute and important source for the quartzite fragments.

 

(ii) Mineral Resources

Foundary Sand ._ This has been reported from Khanpur (32o 45' : 76o 38').

Ochre._ The occurrences of Ochre have been reported from near Nangal (32o 22' " 76' 22').

Glass Sand - Pure silica sand suitable for glass industry is not found in the area. However, the white quartzite boulders occurring in the river and nala beds can be crushed to obtain nearly pure silica sand. Bearly 2.3 million tonnes of white quartzite boulders have been estimated upto a depth of one metre from surface in 44 khads and chos in the areas arround Nangal and Mehindpur. Theaverage of 57 samples analysed from these areas has indicated about 98 per cent Sio2(Silicon Dioxide) and 0.19 per centFe2 O3 (Ferric Oxide) in the white quartizite boulders.

The terrace deposits between Manakpur and Brari have been estimated to yield nearly 12.9 million tonnes of white quartzite fragments upto a depth of 1.5 m from surface.

Calcareous Tufa _ The calctufa deposits in the area occur mainly around Khera Kalmot and Mehindpur.

Calctufa around Khera Kalmot occurs in five small isolated patches covering around 11,700 sq.m. of area. The total existing reserves in all these patches are estimated at about 18,000 tonnes, out of which nearly 1,200 tonnes is dolomitic in composition. The average of 55 samples analysed for the five defferent deposits indicated about 46.5 per cent, CaO (Calcium Oxide), 3.2 per cent MgO (Magnesium Oxide) and 7.7 per cent A.I. At Khera Kalmot, the calctufa beds along with the Recent sediments are underlain by the boulder conglomerate of Upper Shiwalik. Both laterally and vertically calcufa grades into calcareous clay and varies considerably in thickness. The average thickness of these beds is around one metre.

The occurrences of calctufa are noted near Mehindpur (31o 18': 76o 18'). The first occurrence is exposed in the Khad section by the side of Mehinpur, where it has been traced for about 280 m with a width of about 30 m. The calctufa bed occurs in a lensoidal form with a maximum thickness of 1.6 m in the central portion and gradually tapering downto 0.3 m on either end. the deposit is underlain by calcareous slip which is about 15 m in thickness. The second deposit is an old abandoned trench about 1 m in depth and located and about 1 km south-east of mehindpur.

The total reserve of calctufa in the Mohindpur area is estimated to be 7,000 tonnes with an average composition of 40.36 per cent CaO, 0.55 per cent MgO and 20.07 per cent acid insolutble. The area is leased to the Nangal Fertilizer Factory.

Clays - Investigation for location of clays of puzzolanic properties has been started by the Geological Survey of India in the Shiwalik Ranges. There are indications of the possibilities of getting good quality clays which may find use in pottery and building material.

 

(iii) Groundwater

From the point of view of groundwater, the Quaternary alluvium occurring in the plains and the intermontane valley of Anandpur Sahib are very important. The rocks of the shiwalik do not hold much promise for large-scale development of groundwater. The depth to groundwater in this district raqnges from 2 to 3 m below ground level (b.g.l.). Very near to Satlun, water level is as shallow as 2 m b.g.l. and as deep as 20 m b.g.l. near the hills. Generally, the shalow tubwells yield a discharge between 300 to 400 litre per minute (1.p.m.) Exploration has been carried out to a maxinum depth of 460 m at Jhingran revealed 9 acquifer zones having a maximum thickness of about 60 m. Discharge of deep tubewells ranges from 310-1984 LPM far a drawdown varrying from 4 m to 12.5 m. Transmissibility ranges from 6.45 x 10' to 2.925 x 10 o LPD/M.

Flowing conditions also occur at Tibba Taprian (Tahsil Anandpur Sahib) and Bari Jhakian (tahsil Rupnagar).

In general, the groundwater movement is towards south-west in the southern part of the district and from east to west to north-west in the northern part of district.

The groundwater in general is alkaline and is suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes.

 

(iv) Seismicity*

The district of Rupnagar lies in an area where earthquake of slight to moderate intensity are occasionally experienced. Of the earthquakes which caused damage to structures at Rupnagar, mention may be made of the Kangra earthquake of 4 April 1905 and Chamba earthquake of 22 June 1945.

 

Tactonic features of the region are such that towards its north lie the great Himalayan boundary fault, Chamba tear in the Ravi River and Ropar tear in Satluj River. These are responsible for causing moderate damage due to earthquakes in that area. Apart from these tears and faults, mention may be made of Nahan and Krol thrusts, the Satlitta Thrust, Hoshiarpur and Jawalamukhi thrusts which also cause earthquakes of slight to moderate intensity in that regions.

Due to the proximity of Rupnagar to the above mentioned thrrusts and faults, the possibility of future earthquakes of the types which struck Kangra in 1905 causing maximum felt intensity slightly more than VII of M.M. scale in this region, cannot be ruled out. This prognosis is further corroborated by the fact that Rupnagar finds its place in Zone IV in I.SI. Seismic Zoning map, where earthquakes of intensity VIII are experienced on M.M. scale.

As per studies made in U.S.A. and other advanced countries, it is revealed that maximum intensity VIII corresponds to an average ground acceleration of 172 Cm /Sec.2. This value depentd largely on ground conditions, i.e. for loose or soft soils, it is high while for hard rock foundation, it is less.

Keeping in view that destructive earthquakes or intensity similar to Kangra earthquake occur after large interval of time, a provision of 10 per cent of g or Ig for horizontal ground acceleration may be considered reasonably safe vis--vis economical consideration, when carrying out some civil construction in this area. This value, however, may be suitable increased when erections of the type like chemical or some atomic thermal plants is to be carried out in this region. For vertical ground acceleration, a general practice is to take 50 per cent of the value of horizontal ground acceleration.

 

(e) Flora

The upper reaches of Shiwaliks, closed under Section 5 of Land Preservation Act, 1900, are better vegetated than the lower reaches generally closed under Section 4 of the Act due to more strict closure. The growing stock in Shiwalik belt consists of scattered Khair (Acacia catechu), Chhal (Anogeisus latifolia), jhingan (Lanea grandis), Kikar (Acacia nilotica) phalahi (Acacia modesta), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), shisham (Dalbergia sisoos), neem (Azadirachta Indica), amb (Mangifera indica), dhak (Butea monosperma) etc., trees in the upper canopy with thin or thick undergrowth of shrubs such as garna (Carissa spinarum), mehnder (Dodona viscasa), mallah (Zizyphus nummularia) gandhala (Marraya koenigil), basuti (Adathoda vasica), jhav(Artemesia spp), hins (Capparis decidua), panwar (Cassia tara), phul buti (Lantana camara), etc. and grasses such as (Saccharum bengalenese).

Bhabbar grass is most important and is used for rope making and paper pulp. Kana and kahi are used for thatch roof making and for pulp making. The rest of the species are mostly fed to the cattle. There are no grass presenvation plot nor any area set apart for grass cultivation. However, they grow in mixture with trees and shrubs naturally. Bhabbar grass is mostly confined to shiwalik and kana and kahi are found near cho beds.

The main species of grass found in the district are bhabbar (Eulkaliopsis binata) dhaulu (Chrys opagon fulvus), palwan (Dicenthrum annulatus) sariala (Heteropogan contortus) khabbal (Cynondon dactylon), khai (Saccharum spontaneum) and kana siluridae : Wallago attu (Schneider) mullee, Family Heteropneutiae: heteroneustes fossilis (Bloch), signi. Family Bagridae: Aorichthys seenghala (Sykes), singi. Family Bagridae : Aorichthys seenghala (Sykes), singhala; Mystus vittatus (Block), Kinger. Order Channiformes, Family Channidae: Channa Punctatus (Bloch) dholla Order Mastacembeliformes, Family Mastacembediae: Mustacembelus armatus (Lacepede), godal, bam.

Strip forest in the plain have mostly artifically raised plantations where the upper canopy has kikar (Acacia nilotica) shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), eucalyptus (Edcalyptus spp), siris (Albizzia lebbek), amb (Mangifera indica) jaman (Syzygium communi) tun (Cedrela toona) neem (Azadiachta indica) in pure or mixed plantations and amaltas (Cassia fistula) jacranda (Jacranda ovalifolia), kachnar (Bauhinca variegata), bottle brush (Callistemon vimnalis) gulmohar (Delomix rigia) amla (Emblica officivalis) etc. in avenue lines along canals and roads scattered trees of bohar (Ficus bengalensis) pipal (Ficus religosa) jhingan (Lanea grandis moharukh (Alanthes excelsa) arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Khajoor (Phoenix sylvestris), semal (Salamalia malbarcia) Sagwan (Tectona grandis), are also met. Under growth consists of shrubs such as garna (Caroissa spinarum) Karir (Caparis decidua) kins (Capris zeylanica) gandhala (Murra ykoenigil), malla (Zizypuhs nummularia) jhau(Artemesia sp.) bhang (Cannabis sativa) jindu (Xanthium stumarium), panwar (Cassiatora), jangli mirch (capsicum fruitscens) akk (Ipomea gossypiolides) etc. and grasses khabal (Dicanthium annulatus dhab (Demostachya bipinata sariala (Heteropogon contortus) Kahi (Saccharum spontaneum ) kana saccharum bengalense), dib (Typha elephantiana).

In agricultural fields, the people have planned eucalyptus trees on the boundaries and in some cases in blocks also. Recently, some person have also planted poplar (poplur deltoides).

 

(f) Fauna

The district is rich in wild life, though the liberal grant of fire arms and shooting licences, reclamation of land and extension of agriculture are reducing their number. The Punjab Wild Life Preservation Act, 1959 and the rules framed there-under aim at the protection and preservation of wild life. The Wild Life (Protection) Act , 1972, has been enforced in the State of Punjab with effect from 1 April 1975, which affords protection to the wild animals and birds. For this purpose, strict vigilance is maintained by the Wild life staff.

 

The different zoological types found in the district are detailed below:

(1) Pisces (Fish). - The different varieties of common fishes available in the district are: Class osteichthyes, Order Cypriniformes, Family Cyprinidae: barilius benedlisis Hantilton, Chilwa, bhareli; Puntius ticto Hamilton Chidhu, Ticto ticker; P. sophore (Hamilton Chidhu; P. chola Hamilton Chidhu; Tor putitora (Hamilton), mahseer; Crossocheilus latius punjabensis Mukerji, telerial; Laeo bata (Hamilton) bata; L. calbasu (Himilton), rohu; Bata bangan; Catla catla (Hamilton), Tail; Cirrhinas mrigala (Hamilton), Marakh. Family cobiotidoe: namacheilus botia (Hamilton), sundali; Lepidocephalus guntea (Hamilton). Order Siluri farmes, Famoly saiala (Heteropogon contortus) dhaula (Chrysopogon fulvus) bhabbar (Eulalipsis sinata) Kahi (Saccharum spontaneum) Kana (Saccharum bengalense) Khawai (Cymbopogon martinii), etc.

(2) Amphibia ( Frogs and toads):- The common frogs in the district are : Family Ranidea: Rana tigrina daudin ( India tiger frog):Rana Tigrina Daudin ( India tiger frog); Ranan limnocharis Boie (indian rice frog), Ranan breviceps Scheider (Indian burrowing frog). Family Bufonidae; Bufo melanostictus Schneinder (Common toad).

(3) Reptilia (Tortoises, Lizards and Snakes)- Two spp. of the tortoises found in the district are : Geoclamys hamiltong Gray; Chitra indica (Gray).

 

Common lizards in the district are : Hemidactylus brooki Gray; flavivridis Riippell found in and outside buildings. Calotes versicolor (Daudin) girgit found in the lawns and hedges and attracts the attention by its brilliant vermilion colour during mating season. It is commonly known as blood-sucker. Uromastix hardwicki (Gray) or sanda may be found in sandy areas. In the areas of thick vegetation, Mabuya macularia (Dum Bibr.) Ophiodactylus tridactylus (Blyth) and Varanus monitor are found. in the district are : family elepidae: Fungarus caerulens (Schneider), common Indian krait family viperidae vipera russelli (Shaw), Russel's viber Echis carnatus (Schneider), phoorsa: Naja naja (Linn.) cobra. Other snakes which are commonly met with are:family Typhlopidae: Typhlops porrectus Stoliczka, blind snake. Family Leptolyphlipidae: Leptotyphlops Blandfordi (Bouleniger). Family Bovidae:Phython molurus Linn.), Indian or python or ajgar, Eryx johnii johnii (Russell) Johns sand boa. Family Colubribe : Lycondon striatus (Shaw), wolf snake, Ptyas mucosus (Linn.) rat snake, Psammophis leithi (Gunther) sand snake.

(4) Aves (Birds)- The common birds found in the district are : order Podicipediformes, family podicipedidae: Podiceps ruficollis capensis Salvaderi, little grebe, Resident. Order Pelecaniformes, Family Phalacrocoracidae; Phalacrocorax niger (vieillot), little cormorant, Resident with local movements. Order Ciconiiformes, Family Ardeidae; Butorides striatus chloriceps (Bonaparte), little green heron, Resident; Ardeola grayii (sykes), Indian pond heron, Resident, shifting locally; bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert), cattle egret, Resident; Egretta alba modesta (Gray), eastern large egret, Resident shifting locally; E. garzetta garzetta (Linnaeus), Little agret, Resident, shifting locally. Family Ciconiidae: Anastomus oscitans (Boddaert), openbil stork, Around tanks, lakes and large streams; Ciconia apiscopus episcopus (Boddaert), white neced stork, Found near water; C. ciconia ciconia (Linnaeus), white stork, winter visitor, C. migra (Linnacus), black stork winter vistior. Order Anseriformes, Family Anatidae; Dendrocygna javvanica (horsfield), lesser whistling tea, Resident, oving locally; D bicolor (Vicillot), large whistling teal, Resident, moving locally Tadorna ferruginea (pallas), Ruddy Shelduct, brahminy duck, winter visitor; T Tadorna (Linnaeus), common shelduck, winter visitor; A crecca crecca Linnaeus, common teal, winter visitor; A. querquedula linnaeus, garganey teal, winter visitor A. clypeata (Linnaeus), shoveller, winter visitor; Nettapus coromandelianus cormandelianus (Gmelin), cotton teal, Resident. Order Falconiformes, family Accipitridea Pernis ptilorhycnhus ruficollis lesson, created honey buzzard, Resident with local movements milvus migrans govinda skys, brahminy kite, Resident haliastus indus indus (boddaert), paiah kite, Resident Accipiter badius dussumieri (Temminck), Indian shikra, Resident Butastur teesa (Franklin) white eyed buzzard eagle, Resident Hieraetus fasciatus fasciatus (Vieillot) bonelliis hawk eagle Resident haliaeetus leucoryphus (Pallas), pallas fishing eagle, Resident and partly migratory Torgos culvus (Scopoli) king vulture, Resident Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus), European black vulture Resident Cyps bengalensis (Gmelin), Indian whitebacked vulture, Resident Neophron percopterus ginginianus (Latham), Indian scavenger culture, Resident circus macrourus (Gmelin), pale harrier, Common winter visitor; C aeruginosus aeruginosus (Linnaeus), Marsh harrier, winter visitor; Circaetus gallicus gallicus (Gmelin), short toed eagle, resident. Family : Falco biormucus jugger Gray, laggor falcon, Resident; F. peregrinus peregrinator sundevall, shaheen falcon, Resident. Order Galliformes, Family Phasianidae: Francolinus pondicerianus interpsitus Hartert, north Indian grey partiridge, Resident; coturnix coromandelica (Gmelin), black breasted or rain guali, Resident, locally migratory perdicula asiatica punjaubi whistler, Punjab jungle bush quail, Resident order guriformes, Family Turnicidae; Turnix tanki tanki blythi, Indian yellow legged button quail, Resident. Family Gruidae : Grus grus lilfordi Sharpe, eastern common crame, Winter visitor; G. antigone antigone (Linnaeus), Indian sarus crane, Resident and moving according to conditions of drought and flood: Gallinula chloropus indica Blyth, Indian moorhen Resident and partly winter visitor; Fulica atra atra Linnaeus, coot, Resident and winter visitor. Order Charadriformes, Family Charadriidae: Vanellus gregarius (Pallas), sociable lapwing, winter visitor V. indicus indicus (Boddaert), read wattled lapwing, Resident: Tringa erythropus (Pallas), dusky redshank, winter visitor; T. stagnatili (Bechastein), little greenshank, winter visitor; T. nebularia (Gunnerus), greendshank, winter visitor; T. glareola linnaeus, spotted sandpiper; T. hypoleucos Linnaeus, common sandpiper,Winter visitor. Family Recurvirostridae; Himantopus himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus), Indian blackwinged stilt. Family Laridae; Sterna aurantia Gray. Indian river tern, Resident S. Acuticauda Gray black bellied tern, Resident. Order Columbiformes, family columbidae; Columba livia intermedia strickland. Indian blue rock pregion resident streptopelia orientalis meena (Skyes), western turtule dove, winter visitor S. decaocto decaocto (Frivaldsky) Indian ring dove, Resident S. transquebarica tranquebarica (Hermann), Indian red turtle dove Resident S. senegalensis cambayensis (Gmelin) senegal dove, mainly resident order psittaciformes family psittacidae psittacla enptria nipalensis (Hodgson), large Indian parakeet, Resident P krameri borealis (Neumann), northern roseringed parakeet, Resident. Order Cuculiformes, Fantily Cuculidae; Clamator jacobinus serratus (Sparrman), pied crested cuckoo, Monsoon visitor; Cuculus varius varius vahl. common hawk cuckoo, Resident Eudynamis scolopacea scolopacea (Linnaeus), Indian koel, Resident Centropus sinensis sinesis (Stephens), common crowpheasant coucal, Resident. Orde rStrigiformes, family strigidae; Bubo bubo benghalensis (Fanklin), Indian great horned or eagle owl. Resident: B Coremandus Coromandus (Latham), dusky-hornidowl, Resident;B, zeylonsis leschenault (Temmincks), brown fish owl, Resident; Athene brama indica (Franklin) northern spotted-owlet, Strix ocella ta grisescens Koelz, northern mottled wood-owl, Resident. Order Caprimulgiformes, family Caprimulgidae; Caprimulgus indicus indicus (Latham), Indian jungle nightjar, Residen and partial local migrant. C. macrurus, albonotatus Tickell, Indian longtailed nightjar, Resident, partially migratory. Order coraciiformes, Family Alcedinidae; Ceryle rudis leucomelanura Reichenbach, Indian pied kingfisher, Resident, Alcedo atthus bengaleniss Gmelin, Indian small blue kingfisher, Resident; Halcyon smyrnensis smyrnensis (Linnaeus), white breastkingfisher, Resident. Family meropidae; Merops superciliosus persicus pallas, blue cheeked bee-eater, Resident; M. philippinus philippinus? Linnaeus, blue tailed bee-eater Resident, locally migratory; M. orientalis orientalis Latham, Indian small green bee-eater, Resident; Nyctyorinis athertoni athertoni (Jardine & Selbly), blue bearded bee eater Resident family coraciidae H caracias benghaleniss benghalensis (Linn.) blue jay blue roller, Resident family Upupidae: Upupaepops epops Linnaeus, European hoopoe, Resident. Family Bucerotidae: tockus birostris (Scopoli), gray bornbill, Resident. Order Piciformes, Family Capitonidae;Megalaima zeylanica caniceps (Franklin), northern green barbet, Resident M. Baemacephala (Muller), copporsmith, Resident. Family picidae Picus myrmecophoneus stresemann little scaly bellied green woodpecker, Resident Dinopinum benghalense benghalense (Linnaeus), northern goldenbacked woodpecker, Resident picoides mahrattensis mahrattensis (Latham), mahratte wood peck Resident........order passeriformes, Family Alaudidae Eremopterix nigriceps affinis (Blyth), black crowned finch lark, Resident, locally migratory. Family Hirundinidae Hirundo smithi fiilifera stephens, Indian wire tailed swallow, winter visitor Hirundo daurica erythropygia skyes, Indian striated swallow, Resident. Family laniidae Lanius execubitor lahtora (Sykes) Indian grey shrike resident with local movements L vittatus vittatus valenciennes, Indian baybacked shrike, Resident with seasonal movements. Family Oriolidae; Oriolus orolus kundoo sykes, Indian golden oriole, Seasonal visitor. Family dicraridae Dicrurs edsimilis albirictus (Hodgson), kingcrow Drongo, Resident. Family Sturni\dae Sturnus roseus (Linnaeus), Rosy pastor, rose coloured starling, Winter visitor; S. vulgaris paltaraskys Finch, cammon Indian starting , Winter visitor; S. Pagodrum(Gmelin), brahminy mynh Pagoda starling, Resident; Acridotheres tristis tristis (Linnaeus) Indianmynah, Resident; A. ginginianus (Latham), bank mynah, Resedent. Family Corvidae: Crovus splendens splendens vieillot, Indian house crow, Resident; C. macrorhynchus culminatus sykes, Indian jungle crow, Resident; C. carax subcrax Severtzov, Panjab raven Resident. Family Campephagidae: Pericrocotus cinnameus peregrinus (Linnaeus northern small minivet, Resident. Family Irenidae: Aegithina tiphia septentrionalis Koelz, northwestern Iora, Resident; Aesuithina nigrolutea (Marshall), Marshall's Iora. Family Pycnonotidae: Pycnonotus leucogenys leucotis (Gould), white-earned bulbul, Resident; P.L. leucogenys (Gray), white-checked bulbul; P.cafer (Linnaeus), red-vented bulbul. Family Muscicapidae: Chrysomma sinense (Gmelin), western goldern-eyed babbler, Resident; Turdoides caudatus caudatus (Dumont), common babbler, Resident; T. earlei sonivius (Koelz), western-striated babbler, Resident; T. earlei sonivius (Koelz),western-striated babbler, Resident, malcoimi (Sykes), large grey-babbler, Resident; Culicicapa ceylonensis calochrysea Oberholser northern greyheaded flycatcher, Winter visitor; Erithacus svecicus suecicus (Linnaeus), northern blue throarobins, Resident; Copsychus saularis saularis (Linnaeus), Indian magpie robin, Resident; saxicola caprata bicolor Sykes, northern-pied bush chat, partial migrant; S. ferra Gray, dark grey bush-chat, Resident; Prinmia socialis stewarti Blyth, northern ashy wren-warbler, Residen; Orthtomus sutornis guzuratus (Lathan), Indian tailor bird, Resident; Saxicoloides fulicata cambainensis (Latham),browbaked Indian robin, Resident. Family Paridae: Parus major Linnaeus, grey tit, Resident subject to local movements; P. monticolus montcolus Vigors, green backed tit, Residentsubject to vertical movements. Family Motacillidae: Anthus novaesee landiae waiei Whistler, northwestern paddyfield pipit, Resident subject to local movements; A. trivialis trivialis (Linnaeus), European tree pipit, Winter visitor; Motacilla citreola citeola pallas, northern yellow headed wagtail, Wintervisitor; M. citreola calcarata Hodgson, blackbacked yellow headed wagtail, Winter visitor; Motacilla caspica caspica (Gmilin), grey wagtail, Winter visitor; Motacilla alba dukhunensis Sykes, Indian white wagtail, winter Visitor; Motacilla alba modesta Gould, masked wagtail, Winter visitor; Motacilla maderaspatensis Gmelin, large pied wagtail, Resident. Family Dicaeidae: Dicaeum agile agile (Tickell), Indian thickbilled flowerpecker; Dicaeum erythrorhnchos erythrorhynchos (Latham), tickells flowerpecker, Resident; D. ignipectus ignipectur (Blyth) firebreasted floweecked, Resident subject to vertical movements. Family Nectarinidae: nectarinia asiatica asiatica (Latham, Indian purple sunbird, Resident, subject to local movements. Family Zosteropidae : Zosterops palpebrosa palpebrosa (Temminck Indian white-eye, Resident. Family ploceidae : Passer domesticus Indicus Jardine and Selby, Indian house sparrow, Resident; Patronia xanthocollis santhocollis Burton, Indian yelowthroated sparrow, Resident; Ploceus philippinus philippinus (Linnaeus, Indian baya, Resident subject to seasonal movements; Estrilda amandeva amandava (Linnaeus, red muni or Waxbill, resident Lonchura malabarica malabarica (Linnaeus, whitethroated munia, Resident; L. punctulata punctulata (Linnaeus), Indian spoottedx munia of finch, Resident. Family L Emberizedae Melophus lathami (Gray), crested bunting, Resident.

(5) Mammals - Common mammals found in the district are: Order Insectivora: Suncus murinus (Linnaeus), grey musk shrew. Order Primates : Macace mulatta (Zimmermann) rhewus macaque of bander; Prsesbytis entellus (Dufresne), common langur. Order RodentiaL Funambulus pennanti Wroughton, five striped palm squiffal; Bandicota bengalensis (Gray and Hardwicke), Indian mole-rat; Rattus fattus (Linnaeus) common rat; Mus musculus Linnaeus, house mouse; Hystrix Indica Kerr, Indian porcupine. Order Lagomorpha Lepus nigricoois (F.Cuvier), Indian hare. Order Carnivora: Viverricula Indica (Desmarest), small Indian civet: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (pallas), common plam civet; Herpestes edwardsi (Geoffroy),common mongoose; H. aurpunctatus (Hodgson), small Indian mongoose; Hyena hyaena (Linnaeus), strped hyena; Cenis aureus Linnaeus, jakal; Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw), Indian fox, Order Artiodactyla: Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas), Nilgai, Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus), blackbuck; and Axis axis (Erxleben), chital.

 

 

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