CHAPTER VIII

MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS

            Rupnagar is primarily a rural district and the principal occupations of the majority of the people are agriculture and manual labour. Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of the district. However, the urban population of the district is mostly non-agriculturists and depends upon industry, commerce, transport and miscellaneous services. Other professions include Government or semi Government and persons employed in education, law, engineering, medical, personal and domestic services, etc.

            According to the 1981 Census, the total population of the district was 7,16,662 (3,85,087 males and 3,31,575 females). The percentage of workers to the total population of the district was 28.82 per cent. Out of total working force of the district, 35.1 per cent are engaged as cultivators, 16.4 per cent as agricultural labourers, 3.4. per cent in household industry (including manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs) and 45.1 percent in other work. Thus the economy of the district continues to be predominantly agricultrual.

(a)   Public Administration

With the expansion of the development activity sponsored by the Government, there has been an appreciable increase in the number of Government employees in recent years. There has been a similar expansion among the employees of Co-operatives, Local Bodies and Corporate Institutions. As on 31 March 1983, there were 13,819 Punjab Government employees in the district, as compared to 8,910 on 31 March 1975.

Security of service, pension and other amenities enjoyed by the Government employees attract people to the Government service. The Central, State and Local Government provide various amenities to their employees in the form of dearness allowance, house rent allowance, provident fund benefits and free medical aid. Loans are advanced  by the Government to Government servants for construction houses, purchasing vehicles, etc. Residential accommodation to the extent available is also provided to the employees at nominal rent. Female employees are entitled to maternity leave. The State Government has allowed additional financial relief to its employees so as to bring them on par with the Central Government employees in regard to the grant of dearness allowance and other benefits. The Government gives rent-free accommodation to the police officials. The railway authorities provide quarters for their employees on nominal rent and issue free and privilege passes for travel to the employees and their families. They are also provided with uniforms. Class IV employees under the State and Central Government are also given free liveries.

Public Employees’ Organizations :- The following public employees’ organizations function in the district. These have been formed by the employees of the different departments to look after their service interests. The workers employed in the municipalities and other similar institutions have also formed their own associations and union.

1.                  Bhakra Management Board Karamchari Sangh, Nangal.

2.                  Nangal Bhakra Mazdoor Sangh, Nangal Township.

3.                  Punjab Livestock Assistants’s Union, Morinda.

4.                  Fertilizer Karamchari Sangh, Naya Nangal.

5.                  Nangal Fertilizer Worker’s Union, Naya Nangal.

6.                  Scheduled Casted, Scheduled Tribes and Backward Classes, F.C.I., Employees’ Federation, Naya Nangal.

7.                  Scheduled Castes Employees’ Federation, Naya Nagal.

8.                  Bizli Karmachari Sangh, Nangal Township.

9.                  Anandpur Sahib Hydel Project Workers’ Union, Nangal Township.

10.              Ropar Central Co-operative Bank Employees’ Union, Rupnagar.

11.              Land Evaluation Officer of Punjab, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali).

12.              Municipal Employees; Union, Kharar.

13.              Municipal Employees’ Union, Rupnagar.

14.              Municipal Employees’ Union, Nangal Township.

15.              From Municipal Employees’ Union, Kharar.

16.              Municipal Employees’ Union, Kurali.

17.              Municipal Employees’ Union, Morinda.

18.              Nangal Bhakra National Sweepers’ Union, Nangal Township.

19.              Nagarpalika Safai Mazdoor Sangh, Rupnagar.

20.              Nangal Fertilizer Para-medical Employees’ Union, Nangal.

21.              Morinda Co-operative Sugar Mill Worker’s Union, Morinda.

22.              Punjab Tractor Workers’ Union, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali)

23.              Punjstar Standard Employees’ Union, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali).

(b)   Professions

The white collar professional include teachers, doctors, lawyers, engineers, artists, writers, etc. A brief description is given below :-

Educational Services :-  The district has made good progress in the field of education. Additional primary, middle, high and higher secondary schools are being opened every year. In order to cope with the increased work, the administrative and supervisory machinery has also been strengthened from time to time. Started in the year 1891, the London Baptist Mission School, Kharar, is one of the oldest institutions of its type in the area. The oldest college in the district is the Government College at Rupnagar, which was started in 1945. As on 30 September, 1982, there were 8 colleges, 131 high/higher secondary schools, 69 middle schools and 867 primary/basic primary schools in the district. The number of teachers, as on 30 September 1982, in the schools was 2,686.

The pay scales of the schools teachers/college teachers are now fairly attractive. The non-availability of residential accommodation for teachers in the rural areas handicaps their appointment in the remote areas. Most of the teachers have to reside in the urban areas and their need to commute between home and school hampers the curricular as well extra-curricular activities of the children.

Medical and Health Services :-  These services employ person in Public Health and Medical Departments, Government and also in semi Government institution, organization and individuals such as hospitals, nursing homes, maternity and child welfare clinics. Unani, Ayurvedic, Allopathic and Homeopathic practitioners are also employed in maternity services. With the spread of education and increased medical facilities in the urban as well as in rural areas of the district, the people are able to conveniently visit hospitals and dispensaries. As on 1 April, 1983, there were 107 hospitals/primary health centres/dispensaries, 7 family welfare centres, 7 maternity and child health contres and 34 Ayurvedic/Unani institutions in the district. Besides, there are also a large number of private medical practitioners, who generally have their own clinics an dispense their own prescriptions.

For animal health and breeding, there is a network of veterinary hospitals and dispensaries in the district. As on 1 April 1983, there were 42 veterinary hospitals, 21 veterinary dispensaries, 1 veterinary touring dispensary and 3 artificial insemination centres in the district.

Legal Services :-  These services include barristers, advocates pleaders and munchis. Consequently upon an increase in litigation, this profession has attracted a good number of persons during recent years. Besides, a number of law graduates are employed  various departments of the Government. There are three bar associations in the district, one each at Rupnagar, Kharar and Anandpur Sahib.

Engineering Services :-  Government engineers are engaged by the Public Works Departments of Buildings and Roads, Public Health and Irrigation, and electrical engineers by the Punjab State Electricity Board. The details of the person employed in engineering services in various Government Departments have been given in Chapter XIII, ‘Other Departments’. Besides, there are a number of engineers, including mechanical engineer who are engaged in allied professions as contractors, architects or consulting engineers.

Personal Services :-  Barbers, washersmen, launderers, dry-cleaners, tailors, carpenters, cobblers, blacksmiths, weavers, water-carries and the like constitute this group. These services employ a considerable number of persons as described below :-

Barbers :-  The old practice of family barber (nai) visiting the houses of the customers is still in vogue in the rural areas. In the urban areas; hairdressing saloons and beauty shops are becoming popular, In urban areas, the practices of visiting  the houses of their customers by the barbers has disappeared, as the customers, too, find it convenient and cheaper to visit saloons/shops for a shave or haircut. Generally, the barbers charge Rs. 3 to 4 for a haircut and Rs. 100 to Rs. 1.50 for a shave. The charges for hairdressing / dying, vary according to the hair style.

In the rural areas, the barbers act as messenger for conveying messages on religious ceremonies, besides attending to their clients and customers at their houses. They have in important role at the time of marriage. The wife of the barber, called nain does some sort of periodical hair cleaning and hairdressing of the women folk of the families to which the barber is attached. The barber gets his remuneration in cash as well as in kind at the time of harvesting.

Wahermen :-  With the growth of unbanisation, washing of clothes has turned out to be a commercial proposition and led to the establishment of laundries in the towns as well as in big villages. The work of washermen had been adversely effected by the laundries. Although the charges of the laundries are higher, their services are more prompt and efficient that those of the washermen. Generally, the laundries employ washermen for washing and ironing of clothes is done at the shops. The washing charges very from 40-6- paise per piece and pressing from 20-30 paise per piece.

There are a number of dry-cleaning shops in the towns. Most of these have set up modern dry-cleaning plants. Their charges very from Rs. 10 to 12 for the dry-cleaning of woollen/terylene suit.

Tailors :-  This is a paying profession and is attraction more and more persons. In urban areas, most tailors have their own establishments each employing two to five persons as full time workers. Some of the tailors generally work near the cloth shops while others set up their machines in the front verandah or somewhere on the premises of the cloth shop itself. Some tailors also work on a commission basis with reputed concerns. The rates charged by the tailors in the urban and rural areas vary.

The old practice of the tailors working at the houses of their customers is still in vogue in the villages on the occasions of marriages. Previously, in the rural areas, the tailors were paid stitching charges in kind, but now-a-days, like their urban counterparts, they are also paid in cash.

Carpenters :-  The carpenters form an important occupational class. They manufacture and repair wooden structures, doors, windows, chairs and other building fixtures. In rural areas, they also make plough, carts, various agricultural implements and domestic articles. Many carpenters manufacture the items of furniture in their residential houses. They get their remuneration in cash as well as in king at the time of harvesting.

Self-employed Persons :-  These menial include weavers, mochis, potters, sweepers, handcart pullers, porters at railway stations and bus stands, vendors and hosiery weavers. In the rural areas, most of them also help their families to perform agricultural operations, social ceremonies, etc. Generally, they reside in the slums and live from hand to mouth.

Domestic Servants :-  These include cooks, housekeepers, maids and other indoor servants. They are to be found all over the district. Most of these servants are illiterate. Generally, they are employed by businessmen and other well-to-do families. The wages of domestic servants vary from Rs. 80-100 per month, in addition to food, clothing and shelter. They frequently change their jobs and generally leave for their families in the villages. However, many small and medium scale industries and hotels have sprung up, and they provide better avenues of employment to domestic servants. Thus, there has been a fall in the number of domestic servants.

In the urban areas, female domestic servants (mais) are also engaged for whole time and part time employment. Usually, windows and other poor women and their children adopt this profession to supplement their income. They are engaged to wash clothes, sweep houses, clean utensils, cook food, etc. Such part-time female servants are paid 40 to 50 rupees per month, in addition to sundry facilities provided by their employers.

(c)    Miscellaneous Services

Transport Services :- The introduction of passenger road transport is an important landmark in the history of transport services. The growth of road transport after Independence has been remarkable due to the increase in the mobility of the people and the development of roads. There are two sub-depots of the Punjab Roadways, one each at Rupnagar and Nangal. Besides, there are 4 private transport companies operating in the district.

      Besides the drives, conductors, cleaners and other related workers in the motor-vehicle companies, a good umber of persons are engaged as rickshaw pullers, tonga drivers, auto-rickshawa drivers, tampo drivers, etc. Some persons are also engaged in plying animal driven carts and hand-driven carts in the district.

      Following modernisation of transport in recent years, the tongas received a set back owing to a keen competitions with richshaws and automobiles. Rickshaws ply in the urban and semi-urban areas and provide a cheaper means of conveyance. Besides, auto-rickshaws, which are much faster, are also catering for the transport requirement s of the people in the district. Moreover, the State Government and various banks advance loans to the rickshaw pullers, taxi drivers, auto-rickshaw drivers to purchase their own vehicles. By and large, tongas have disappeared in the district.

 

CHAPTER IX

ECONOMIC TRENDS

 

            The process of economic development is influenced by various factors, economic, political, social and cultural. The main determinants of economic progress of region include the availability of capital resources, application of modern techniques, an efficient credit system and an adequate system of transport and communication. One of the indicators of development in a country (or a district) is the growth of real income per head of population.

(a)        Pattern of Livelihood, General level of Prices and Wages and Standard of Living

            Pattern of Livelihood.- In the years after Independence, the pattern of livelihood of the people in the district has undergone a radical change, although most of the people still depend on agriculture.  According to the 1981 Census, the percentage of workers to total population of the district was 28.82 per cent About three persons depend upon one worker for their livelihood.  Out of the total working force of the district, 35.1 per cent are engaged as cultivators, 16.4 per cent as agricultural laborers, 3.4 per cent in household industry (including manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs) and 45.1 per cent as other workers.  The economy of the district continues to be predominantly agricultural.

            The classification of workers in the Rupnagar District, according to the 1981Census is shown in the following table:-****

            According to the table, out of  the total population of 17,16,662 person in the district, 2,06,562 were engaged in some kind of  economic activity. The number of non-workers was  4,98,111. The ratio of the workers to non-worker was 28.82 and 71.18, as against the corresponding ration of 29.35 and 70.65 for the State.

            Apart from other factors, the standard of loving of a community is also judged from the way its members are housed. The dwelling in the areas are almost pucca and facilities like bathrooms, latrines, tap water, etc., are available. The houses in modern colonies at Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali), Nangal and Naya Nangal have all the modern amenities. In the rural areas, however, dwellings are kachha  as well as pucca and all modern amenities amenities are not available. In the hilly part of the district, thatched huts are also built. The pucca house, generally have a big room ( dalan) which has no partition . In certain cases, the houses are provided  with a baithak ( drawing room) for guests, etc Cattle fodder is generally kept by the villagers in a separate  portion or haveli built for the purpose of  keeping cattle. Straw  fodder is usually kept in kups ( a type of silo ) in the fields.

            According to the 1981 Census, the total number of occupied residential houses in the district was 1,18,958  (rual 88,491 and urban 30,467). The average number of persons per household was 6.

            Prices and Wages.-  In order to assess the economic condition of the people  belonging to a particular  region , the comparative study of prices and wages is important. Besides, factors like variation and wages is important . Besides,  factors  like variation in the prices of silver and gold, increase in population, conditions  of production , extent of inflation , exports and imports  determine the economy. The changes in season , rainfall and other physical factors are also responsible for  temporary  fluctuation in the prices. From the beginning of  the  20th   century , there has been a marked change in the purchasing  power of the rupee. The price of land rose more then the wages of  labour   in the first two decades. The wages  of labour also rose far in excess  of the overall  cost of production.

            The table below indicates the consumer price index number  for the working class  below indicates the consumer price  index number for the working class  in Nangal for  the period 1969-70 to  1979-80 (Base 1976-100):

 

Year

1969-70

1975-76

1979-80

1980-81

1981-82

1982-83

 

Food Index

127

212

225

138

148

154

General Index

125

215

249

134

145

156

                                    (Statistical Abstract of Punjab 1983, pp 323-24)

 

The table below indicates the  fluctuating tread in the prices of  the main agricultural commodities  in the district during 1978 to 1983:-

 

( In rupees per kg)

Serial No.

Name of

agrivultural

1978*

1979

1980**

1981

1982**

1983**

1.

Wheat

1.35

1.38

1.45

1.58

1.73

1.80

2.

Rice

1.87

2.03

2.07

2.35

2.91

3.37

3.

Moong

4.06

4.84

4.71

5.74

5.08

5.41

4.

Mash

3.82

4.31

3.99

4.53

4.74

5.87

5.

Gram

,,

2.35

3.17

4.78

3.80

3.53

6.

Massar

3.92

3.94

4.09

5.41

4.83

4.98

7.

Potatoes

0.97

0.71

1.43

1.09

1.05

1.71

8.

Onion

0.94

1.87

1.25

1.42

1.68

2.17

                                                                                                                                                                                    (Satatisical Abstarcts of Punjab,1978 to 1983)

 

*Average up to August

**Average up to October

 

            The wages for various workers in the rural areas of the district are paid either in cash or in kind or both. A casual labourer is usually paid in cash whereas the blacksmith, the carpenter, the water-carrier (Jhiwar) or the potter is usually of paying wages in kind is on the wane and people prefer to pay and receive wages n cash.

 

            Under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, minimum wages have been fixed in almost all areas of employment and these are suitably revised from time to time, It has also been decided that for male and female workers in the agricultural sector, the rates of wages fixed on yearly, monthly or daily basis shall be equal for equal work. The minimum wages of different categories of workers in the agricultural and industrial sectors have been increased and linked with the price index. This action is in keeping with the Government's policy of safeguarding the interests of workers.

The  rates of  pay fixed for Class IV Government servants ,working on casual basis in the Rupnagar       District  on 1 April 1983, are  given in Appendix I, on page 253.

 

            Standard of   Living   :-An accepted method of gauging the standard of living in any locality is to survey the income and expenditure of various  people engaged in different occupations. The size determine the standard of living.

            The Economic and  Statistical Organization, Punjab, conducted a survey  regarding the family budgets of forty – four cultivators selected at  random in the  State during the years 1981-82 . The aim of  the survey was to assess  returns to the farmers for their work on the holidays . Three families of villages viz. Haveli, Bajrur and Raipur Kalan in the Rupnagar District were included in the survey . The findings of the survey pertaining to the income and expenditure are shown in the following table:-

Name of the family/village

Net income from all source

Net expenditure

Surplus/Deficit 

 

(Rs)

 

 

Haveli Kalan

22,068.87

15,722.95

+6,345,92

Bajrur

31,530,56

17,416,50

+14,114.06

Raipur Kalan

17,885.87

32,793.23

-14,907.36

 

Family Budgets of  Forty –four Cultivators in the Punjab for the  years 1981-82   (Publications No. 412, issued by the Economic Adviser to Government, Punjab, Chandigarh, in 1982).

            The above figures indicate that the families of Haveli Kalan and Bajupur villages in the Rupnagar District had a surplus budget while Raiopur Kalan had a deficit.  The  survey   also revealed that on an average, a  peasant proprietor's family in the Punjab, spent 60 per cent of its income on food, 6 per cent on fuel, 12 per cent on clothing, 13 per cent on housing , 2 per cent each on medicine and travelling and 1 per cent  each on lighting , religion, amusements and luxuries , education and social.

            The  goods consumed by the families in the three villages were as under:

Name of the

family/village

Total expenditure

(Rs.)

Supplied by the farm

(Rs.)

Percentage

 

 

Purchased From outside

(Rs.)

Percentage

Haveli Kalan .

15,722.95

8,004.02

51

7,178.75

49

Bajrur….

17,416.50

10,501.75

60

6,914.75

40

Rajpur Kalan

32,793.23

20,424.20

62

12,369.03

38

 

            In 1981-82, the per capita income of the Rupnagar District at the then current prices was Rs. 2,984 as compared to Rs. 3,164 for the Punjab State as a whole.

 

(b) Employment

 

            It has been the continuos endeavour of the Government to provide job opportunities for all, especially the weaker and vulnerable sections. The absorption of youth into gainful work through the creation of varied and greater employment opportunities has been an important objective of  all planning and programmes. During the last few years, the employment component has been stressed in all schemes. Furthermore, a number of new programmes have been especially designed and implemented to mitigate unemployment among the youth. These include the Crash Programme for Employment, the Half-Million Jobs Programmes and the Apprenticeship Scheme. A number of employment and self-employment schemes launched by the Industries Department have opened further avenues for self-employment. Labor is also absorbed in the manufacturing units in the public sector as well as the joint and private sectors as discussed Chapter V on 'Industries'.

  

Even with the above efforts, the number of unemployed person registered with the District Employment Exchange at Rupnagar and Nangal Township, has been of the increase, Candidates with training in teaching and technical skills have been generally absorbed in the new jobs. There is a surplus of social study teachers, junior basic

Training teachers, sweepers, watchman, laborers, drivers, steno-typist (English), Punjabi and English typists and other freshers. On the other hand, there is an acute shortage of trained graduated teachers and steno- typists (Punjabi). It is no longer possible for a person with purely a general education such as graduation to fine a job, and it is unfortunate that it is this category of graduates in the arts or humanities which has been showing expansion on the registers of the employment exchanges. In order to attract this alarming trend, the Government is laying more emphasis on vocational training.

            Employment Exchanges. ---- There are two employment exchanges in the district, one at Rupnagar and the other at Nangal Township. The District Employment Exchange, Rupnagar opened in 1967, serves Rupnagar Tahsil and the Kharar Tahsil, except the area falling in Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar.  The main exployers of the area are District Education Officer, Kharar Textile Mills and Panipat Woolens Mills at Kharar.  The District Employment Exchange, Nangal Township opened in 1959, serves the Anandpur Sahib Tahsil. The main employers of the area are Bhakra-Beas Management Board National Fertilizer Limited, Naya Nangal, and Anandpur Sahib Hydel project offices.

            The main functions of the employment Exchanges are: to register applicants and to offer employment assistance; to impart vocational guidance to the youths and adults to select a better career; to collect employment market information to assess the employment trends and impact of Government schemes on employment situation, The statements showing the work done by the District Employment Exchange. Rupnagar, and the District Employment Exchange, Nangal Township, are giver in Appendices II and III on pages 258-259.

            Employment MarketInformation Scheme: -- Under the employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959, and the Rules, Thereunder, every exploder in the public and private sector employing 25 or more workers (except in the agricultural sector) is required to render establishment strength returns to the appropriate employment exchange within thirty days of the close of every quarter. Under the Act, the occupational break-up of the employees is collected in every alternate year from the public and private sectors. From quarterly returns, sectaries changes in the employment are studied i.e. trends in employment and the shortage occupation against which exchanges are not able to make submission for want of suitable candidates. The information at exchange level is submitted to the Directorate for State level compilation. The State level data is supplied to the Punjab State Planning Board and the Directorate General of Employment and Training New Delhi, which is used for manpower planning and various other projections.

            Occupational information from the public and private sectors is used to study the occupation pattern of the employees in industry. Besides occupational information, educational break-up is collected in certain selected occupations.

            A comparative analysis relating to the volume of employment, both in the public and private sectors, in the district, as on 31 December 1982 and 31 December 1983, is given below:

 

Public Sector

 

 

Industrial Division

No. of establishment

No. of emoployees

31 December 1982

31 December 1983

31 December 1982

31 December 1983

Manufacturing

18

22

9,523

10,748

Trade and Commerce

3

3

55

51

Transport, Storage and

Communication

2

2

28

25

 

Services

256

261

16,878

17,607

 (Source: District Employment Officer, Rupnagar)

Private Sector

 

-

 

 

Industrial Division

No. of establishment

No. of emoployees

31 December 1982

31 December 1983

31 December 1982

31 December 1983

Manufacturing

63

72

3,439

3,844

Trade and Commerce

5

5

34

42

Transport, Storage and

Communication

3

2

254

142

 

Services

43

47

1,305

1,146

 (Source: District Employment Officer, Rupnagar)

The above table reveal that the employment increased in manufacturing and services as compared to  other industrial divisions i.e. trade and commerce,   transport strong and communication

Vocational Guidance Scheme:- With a view ti assisting the young school and college leavers and other entrants to the employment market in making their abilities achievements interests, aptitudes and the available job opportunities, a vocational guidance unit with set up  in 1969 in the District Employment  Exchange at Rupnagar. The main aim of this scheme is to provide information regarding various educational and vocational courses ands to emphasise proper adjustment of educational and training to work opportunities.

            The unit provides guidance about the choice if carriers and courses through group guidance  programmes and individual counseling. The Vocational Guidance Officer also visits schools and colleges to give talks to the students on different carreers.

            The following table shows the work done by the Vocational Guidance Unit Rupnagar during 1973-74 to 1982-83:-

Number of individual provided for

Year

Group guidance talk

Individual guidance cases

Individual Information

1973-74

235

96

128

1974-75

390

169

337

1975-76

192

123

351

Year

Group guidance talk

Individual guidance cases

Individual Information

1976-77

200

152

372

1977-78

647

674

219

1978-79

1,298

---

---

1979-80

1,405

173

175

1980-81

589

72

122

1981-82

258

59

18

1982-83

809

168

199

(Source: District Employment Officer, Rupnagar)

 

            Training of Rular Youth for self Employment (TRYSEM).- For the promotion of self  employment opportunities in the rural area  Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM) Scheme was initiated by the Central Government in July 1979 The main thrust of the scheme is equipment the rural youth with necessary skills and technology to enable them to seek self employment . The training course have a practical bias and the concept  of learning  by  doing is followed . The areas of training has been restricted to agriculture , animal husbandry , dairying rural industries  small business, services establishment, etc. Only youth belonging to the families of the targets groups of small and marginal farmers, agriculture laborers rural  artisans and other below the poverty line are eligible. Normally  persons between 18 to 35 years of age are covered and the training is imparted by existing Central and State training institutions/organizations.

           

            A sum of Rs 50 is given as stipend to a trainee and Rs 600 per month to the trainer in case of girls and Rs.50 per trainee per month to the master craftsman in case of boys. An amount of Rs. 50 per trainee is given to the trainer after successful completion of the training.

 

            TRYSEM Scheme was introduced in Rupnagar District in November 1980. Twenty five persons got employment after getting training during 1980-81.  The number of persons trained under this scheme in the district is given in the following table:-

 

Year

No. of persons trained

No. of persons assisted to start their own business out of col.2

No. of Scheduled Castes assisted to start their own business out of col.3

1

2

3

4

1981-82           ..

546

33

10

1982-83           ..

372

96

28

1983-84           ..

275

93

34

(Source: Additional Deputy commissioner (Development), Rupnagar)

            Short Term Relief Measures for Unemployed.-Mitigating the hardships to the educated unemployed has been the primary concern of the Government.  The scheme of paying Rs 40 per mensem to matriclates and under-graduates and Rs 50 per mensem to graduates and above as unemployment allowance was initiated in 1978-79.  This allowance was admissible to persons whose names had been on the Live Register continuously for five years.  However, the period of continuous unemployment for eligibility to such allowance was reduced to three years and rates of allowance were doubled and fixed at Rs. 80 per mensem for matriculates and under-graduates and Rs.100 per mensem for graduates and post-graduates with family income upto Rs.3,600 per annum with effect from 1 April 1981.  As many as 272 unemployed persons were disbursed Rs. 2,34,500 as allowance during 1982-83 as against Rs. 1,49,906 disbursed to 380such persons in 1981-82 in the Rupnagar District.

(c)        Planning and Community Development

            The importance of agricultural production as a means to tackle the problem of food shortage and to provide a firm base for rural as well as industrial development is well recognised.  Increased agricultural production helps to raise the standard of living, provides raw material for industry, and increases the purchasing power of the people in the countryside, thereby creating a demand for consumer goods and indirectly promoting the consumer goods industry.  The various schemes for increasing agricultural production are described in the Chapter IV 'Agiculture and Irrigation.'

            At the national level, in the First Five-Year Plan (1951-56), top priority was given to agriculture and a base was built for further improvement in the succeeding plans.

            Rural Development-The main objects of the rural development programme are: encouragement of community thinking and collective action; generation of progressive outlook among the rural population development of self reliance in the individual and initiative in the village community; ensuring co-ordinated effort on the part of extension services and representatives of the village community; increasing agricultural production ; and expanding employment opportunities for the rural population.  The effort has been to tie up the objectives of community development with other development programme in the rural sector.  All programmes pertaining to development in agriculture animal husbandry, dairying, soil and water conservation, minor irrigation, communication, education, rural health and sanitation, uplift of the weaker segments of society, including women and children, contribute to the same underlying objective of the integrated rural development.

            The Rupnagar District has 6 blocks, viz. Rupnagar, Chamkaur Sabib, Kharar, Majri, Nurpur Bedi and Anandpur Sahib.  As on 31March 1982,883 villages in the district were covered under the programme.  Out of the total population of 7,16,662, the programme served a population of 5,72,702.

            Integrated Rural Development Programme.-Inaugurated in the Punjab State on 22 November 1977, the Integrated Rural Development Programme is aimed at rectifying economic imbalances, especially strengthening rural eonomy to transform the socio-economic life of the countryside.  The main objectives of the programme are; to provide full and gainful employment; to achieve minimum 50 per cent increase in agriculture production; to relieve intensity of cottage, small-scale, agro-based and ancilliary industries; to develop and utilise local resources, and to ensure that weaker sections of the rural society are enabled to participate in the development process.

            Like other districts of the State, the district of Rupnagar has also been covered under the programme.  Starting with, 6 clusters of villages, one in each block was selected. Out of each cluster, one village has been developed as focal point in the district.  The names of the focal villages are Mianpur, Raulu Majra, DaoMajra, Khizrabad, Ajouli and Takhatgarh.

APPENDIX I

Serial No.

Class of menials

Rates of Pay

       per day                              per months

1.

Severm, Dark Runnerm Dak Munshi Mochi, Dhobi Boatman or Ferryman, Packer, Pankha Coolie (Adult), Chowkidar, Beldar ( Adult) Khansama, Mail Mate and Sweeper

 

 

 

 

 

12.00

 

 

 

 

 

340.00

2.

Mail-cum-Chowkidar

12.00

340.00

3.

Cook knowing continental dishes

15.00

340.00

4.

Cook knowing overseas dishes

1.00

400.00

5.

Cartman with pair of bullocks and Cart

30.00

-

6.

Camelman with one Camel

20.00

-

7.

Donkeyman with one donkey

14.00

-

8.

Donkeyman with six donkeys

40.00

-

9.

Man with pair of bullocks

20.00

-

10.

Ploughman with pair of bullocks and plough

21.00

-

11.

Khalasi or Survey Khalasi/Gang Khalasi

12.00

340.00

12.

Frash

10.00

200.00

13.

Hospital Cook or menial in Hospital

-

300.00

14.

Telephone

-

300.00

15.

Belder (boy or minor)

9.00

250.00

16.

Tailor with sewing machine

20.00

425.00

17.

Blacksmith Ist Class

23.00

600.00

18.

Blacksmith 2nd Class

20.00

530.00

19.

Painter Ist Class or Polishman

23.00

600.00

20.

Painter 2nd Class or Polishman

20.00

500.00

21.

Carpenter/Mason Ist Class

23.00

600.00

22.

Carpenter/Mason 2nd Class

20.00

530.00

23.

Carpenter/Mason 3rd Class

15.00

450.00

24.

Skilled labour

16.00

450.00

25.

Unskilled labour

12.00

340.00

26.

A man with the buffaloes

20.00

500.00

27.

For drinking water and dusting office Class IV employees (Part time)

15.00

340.00

28.

Pankha Coolie( Boy)

10.00

250.00

29.

Gangman

12.00

300.00

30.

Flagman

12.00

325.00

31.

Chainman

11,00

300.00

32.

White Washerman

18.00

500.00

33.

Woman labour

8.00

-

34.

Driver heavy vehicles

19.00

600.00

35.

Driver light vehicles

18.00

550.00

36.

Conductor

13.00

-

37.

Cane Weaver

13.00

-

38.

Man with mule/horse

18.00

-

39.

Cook-incharge

13.00

-

40.

Driver Pump-generator

13.00

-

41.

Hammerman

13.00

-

42.

Sweeper-cum-Chowkider

-

340.00

43.

Agricultural labour

13.00

-

44.

Fitter/Turner

13.00

-

45.

Donkeyman with four donkeys

30.00

-

46.

Diver for cleaning the well

13.00

-

47.

Store Coolie

11.00

300.00

48.

Bridge Jamadar

11.00

340.00

49.

Chowkidar in E.N.T. Office

-

110.00

50.

Fisherman without net

11.00

-

51.

Fisherman with net

12.00

-

52.

Cycle repairer

13.00

-

53.

Halwai

18.00

-

54.

Masalchi

10.00

-

55.

Trollyman

11.00

-

56.

Head cook for military/N.C.C. Camp.

15.00

-

57.

Kahar/Bhishti of water carrier

11.00

340.00

58.

Jamadar

12.00

300.00

59.

Bull-dozer Mechanic

18.00

570.00

60.

Clerk/Typist

14.50

415.00

61.

Steno-typist

15.50

440.00

62.

Stenographer

18.00

515.00

63.

Patwari

14.50

415.00

64.

Foreman

25.00

800.00

65.

Senior Mechanic

23.00

750.00

66.

Junior Mechanic

18.00

700.00

67.

Stock Assistant in D.D.C. Punjab

23.00

-

68.

Cattle Yard Assistant-cum-milk recorder

19.00

-

69.

Veterinary Officer

40.00

-

70.

Auto Fitter/Plumber

11.00

340.00

71.

Bar Tender

11.00

-

72.

Livestock Assistant

20.00

-

73.

Tractor Driver

17.00

540.00

74.

Tractor Helper/Clearners

13.50

430.00

75.

Educated Labour for office store work male/female

10.50

-

76.

Washerman

60.00

(Per hundred for all sort of cloths)

77.

Diesel Engine Attendant

11.00

-

78.

Agricultural Labour mate

14.00

-

79.

Buldozer Helper/Work shop and Motor Grader Helper

18.50

470.00

80.

Buldozer Operator

16.00

560.00

81.

Accounts Clerk-cum-Steno typist in the office of Nehru Yuvak Kendra, Rupnagar

20.00

600.00

82.

All part-time employees working for

i)          One hour

ii)         11/2 hours

iii)         2 hours

iv)        21/2 hours

v)         3 hours

vi)        4 hours

vii)        5 hours

viii)       6 hours

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

35.00

55.00

70.00

85.00

100.00

135.00

170.00

200.00

83.

Carpenter

-

375.00

84.

Cook

-

275.00

85.

Assistant Cook

-

250.00

86.

Dhobi

-

250.00

87.

Sweeper

-

125.00

88.

Water Carrier

-

125.00

 


APPENDIX-II

 

Year

Number of registration during the year

Number of vacancies notified

Number of applicants placed in employment during the year

Number of applicants on live register at the end of the year

Monthly number of employees using the exchange

Vacancies carried over at the end of the year

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1973-74

9,143

2,193

1,711

7,104

34

424

1974-75

5,780

1,346

1,150

7,607

27

389

1975-76

7,141

1,757

1,120

8,558

20

182

1976-77

7,879

1,535

1,225

10,053

16

178

1977-78

9,389

1,421

1,070

12,397

12

168

1978-79

8,356

927

556

12,182

134

393

1979-80

7,276

761

532

10,979

134

194

1980-81

6,326

609

345

10,175

128

146

1981-82

5,020

773

316

11,808

120

337

1982-83

5,028

634

384

12,524

119

176

 


 

Year

Number of registration during the year

Number of vacancies notified

Number of applicants placed in employment during the year

Number of applicants on live register at the end of the year

Monthly number of employees using the exchange

Vacancies carried over at the end of the year

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1973-74

6,229

1,239

700

5,342

21

787

1974-75

3,969

755

546

5,780

15

607

1975-76

5,117

646

603

6,146

16

228

1976-77

4,733

852

550

6,579

17

120

1977-78

6,261

787

473

7,900

15

165

1978-79

5,001

412

251

7,911

9

95

1979-80

4,910

595

257

8,194

7

86

1980-81

5,918

1,258

968

9,329

8

104

1981-82

4,557

973

659

9,521

8

80

1982-83

5,581

1,023

650

10,873

6

196

 

 

 

Contents         Next