The following statement gives the details of income from additional land revenue in the Rupnagar District during 1974-75 to 1982-83 :-

Year

Income (Rs.)

1974-75

1,70,271

1975-76

1,65,995

1976-77

1,65,097

1977-78

1,60,721

1978-79

1,48,982

1979-80

1,47,299

1980-81

1,42,655

1981-82

1,49,373

1982-83

1,33,268

( Source  : Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar)

 

            Special Cesses :-  Besides the land revenue, the following cesses are levied on the landowners in the district :-

Village Officers’ Cess

            Formerly, the village officers’ cess used to include patwar cess also. In the earlier period of settlements, a normal rate of patwar cess was considered to be 6 pies (3 paise) per rupee of the land revenue which is equivalent to a surcharge of 31/8 per cent, an additional quarter of half per cent being taken on account of Patwari’s stationery. But later on, the cess was found to be too light to meet the expenditure which the new standard of revenue work demanded and the rate was increased to about 6¼ per cent. The patwar cess was entirely remitted in 1906, when the State took over chare of Patwaris and only pachotra, as the name implies, amounting to 5 per cent land revenue, was charged as the commission for the lambardar whereas, the cost of the Zaildari and Sufedposhi agencies was met by setting aside 1 per cent of the land revenue.

            With the abolition of Zaildari and Sufedposhi agencies in 1948, only pachotra at the rate of 5 per cent of land revenue is being charges as the village officers’ cess.

Local Rate

            It has grown from small beginnings. It was usual in early settlements to levy a road cess at 1 per cent of the land revenue and subsequently an education cess amounting to 1 per cent and a postal cess amounting to ½ per cent were added. Buy, by the Punjab Local Rate Act (XX) of 1871, a local rate amounting to 6¼ per cent of the land revenue was imposes. The local rate was raised by the Punjab Rates Act (V) on 1878 from 6¼ per cent to 81/3 per cent for giving relief to the famine-stiken people.

            With the passage of the Punjab District Board Act (XX) of 1883, the road, education and postal cesses were merged into local rate, and the legal limit of the rate was raised to 12½ per cent of the land revenue and the owners’ rate and under this Act, the whole of the local rate was credited to the District Board. Later, it was reduced to 6¼ per cent but again raised to 12½ per cent in 1945. It further raised to 25 per cent from kharif 1947 and to 50 per cent from kharif 1948.

            At present, the local rate is levied under section 61 of the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishad Act, 1961, at the rate of 50 per cent of the land revenue. The proceeds of local rates levied in the area of a panchayat samiti are allotted to that panchayat samiti and as such proceeds do not part of the consolidated funds of the State. The idea is that such resources should be utilisable for local developments works.

            The table below shows amount of local rate collection in Rupnagar District, during the period 1973-74 to 1982-83 :-

Year ending Rabi

Local Rate Collections

(Rs.)

Year ending Rabi

Local Rate Collections

(Rs.)

1973-74

3,77,950

1978-79

3,79,412

1974-75

3,76,157

1979-80

3,80,636

1975-76

3,75,300

1980-81

3,75,346

1976-77

3,76,343

1981-82

3,81,492

1977-78

3,80,090

1982-83

3,75,560

( Source  : Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar)

Surcharge on Land Revenue

            The assessment of land revenue in the settlement of 1915-20 was made chiefly on the basis of prices then prevailing. The years’ term of the settlement has long since expired. Since then the prices of various crops have increased. The net assets of land and an increase in the assessment of land revenue has fallen due. It was not possible for the Government to conduct regular settlement owing to administrative difficulties as it needed more revenue immediately to meet the ever increasing expenditure on development. It was, therefore, decided that a surcharge should be imposed on the  existing land revenue.

Accordingly, the Punjab Land Revenue (Surcharge) Act, 1954, was enacted for the levy of surcharge with effect from the rabi harvest of the agricultural year 1953-54. Under the Act, every landowner who pays land revenue in excess of ten rupees is liable to pay a surcharge thereon to the extent of one-quarter of land revenue if the amount payable by him as land revenue does not exceed thirty rupees, and two-fifths of the land revenue where amount payable by him exceeds thirty rupees. The surcharge on the land revenue under the Act has been abolished. This Act has been repealed with effect from kharif crop of agricultural year 1974-75.

            The income from surcharge in the Rupnagar District, during 1973-74 and 1974-75 was Rs. 47,844 and Rs. 8,425 respectively.

Special Charge on Land Revenue

            As the surcharge levied from 1954 proved to be inadequate to meet the heavy financial obligations created by the various development schemes, it becomes necessary to augment the State revenue in every possible manner. Hence, a special charge was levied under the Punjab Land Revenue (Special Charge) Act, 1958, with effect from rabi harvest of agricultural year 1957-58. The rate of special charge was based on the income tax pattern, with different slabs for different categories of landowners. The special charges on the land revenue have also been abolished with effect from kharif crop of the agricultural year 1974-75.

            The income from special charge on land revenue in the Rupnagar District during 1973-74 and 1974-75 was Rs. 25,028 and Rs. 4,873, respectively.

Abiana

            Abiana is a water rate charged on the area irrigated by canals. The income from this source in the Rupnagar District during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below :-

Year

Income from Abiana (Rs.)

1973-74

3,61,779

1974-75

6,14,111

1975-76

8,82,371

1976-77

11,03,788

1977-78

6,82,250

1978-79

7,47,472

1979-80

13,94,443

1980-81

1,74,803

1981-82

9,56,886

1982-83

9,23,102

( Source  :  Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar)

(a)   Land Reforms

A sound policy of land reforms is one of the important components of the strategy of Green Revolution. The policy has two aims : to increase agricultural production and social justice. It has been seen that the best production is obtained in farms which are cultivated by the proprietors themselves and the most inefficient farms are those which are cultivated by cultivator to invest in land for improvement and development.

Land is an indispensable input in the agricultural production process. Several factors, such as employment, the level and distribution of incomes and the State policy, influence the structure of land holdings. The agricultural production process depends on the system of rights and obligations of the holders of land to its use and there is a close relationship between the land system and the efficiency in agricultural production.

Often the land ownership and use systems lag behind the socio-economic and political objectives of a welfare State, especially when a society changes from a colonical rule to a sovereign and democratic State. This is what happened in India after Independence in 1947. Under such change, land reforms normally involve re-arrangement of ownership and operational rights another such institutions associated with land. Primarily, any set of land reforms should aim at removing impediments in agrarian structure and secondly create conditions for evolving an agrarian economy with high levels of efficiency and productivity.

After Independence, the Government immediately felt the necessity of introducing suitable land reforms. It initiated a policy of extend the security of tenures to tenants and coincide ownership with the actual cultivation. To eliminate inter-mediateris and provide adequate security against eviction and enhancement of rents, the Government enacted the following laws :-

(1)               The East Punjab Utilization of Land Act, 1949.

(2)               The Punjab Abilition of Ala Malkiyat and Talukdari  Rights Act, 1952.

(3)               The Punjab Occupancy Tenants (Vesting of Proprietary Rights), Act, 1952.

(4)               The Punjab Security of Land Tenures Act, 1953.

(5)               The Punjab Bhoodan Yagan Act, 1955.

(6)               The Punjab Resumption of Jagirs Act, 1957.

(7)               The Punjab Village Common Lands (Regulation) Act, 1961.

(8)               The Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972.

(9)               The Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972 as amended by the Punjab Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1973.

The Punjab Abolition of Ala Malkiyat and Talukdari Rights Act, 1952, extinguishable all rights, title and interest of an ala malik in the land held under him by an adna malik, and required the latter to pay compensation to the former. The Punjab Occupancy Tenants (Vesting of Proprietary Rights) Act, 1952, declared all the occupancy tenants as owners of land. With a view to reducing inequalities of income and wealth sufficiently, the Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972, was passed and it was amended in 1973 by the Punjab Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1973. In order to carry out the objectives of the Act, the Punjab Reforms Rules, 1973, were framed. The Punjab Utilization of Surplus Areas Scheme, 1973, was also framed under the provisions of the Act for utilizing the surplus areas. Surplus land available under the old Punjab and PEPSU laws for allotment is being distributed to landless agricultural workers, members of the Schedules Castes and Backward Classes and tenants who own no land or an area less than two hectares of the  first quality land.

The distribution of land among various classes of cultivators / landlords in the Rupnagar District, during 1978-79 to 1982-83, is given below :-

Class of Cultivators / Landlords

Year

(Area in hectars)

 

1978-79

1979-80

1980-81

1981-82

1982-83

Tenants at will

64

52

21

65

1

Owners

200

140

80

80

-

Tenants with rights of Occupancy

320

128

-

-

-

Total

584

320

101

145

1

( Source  :  Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar)

            Security of Land Tenures :-  The Punjab Security of Land Tenures Act, 1953, provides for the security of land tenures and other incidental matters. It seeks to consolidate and amend the law relating to land tenures in the Punjab. It is a consolidating measure replacing the Punjab Tenants (Security Tenure) Act, 1950, and the President’s Act of 1951, in the light of administrative difficulties and experience gained as a result of working of the two Acts. Such of the provisions as were considered inexpedient have been removed and others for which provision was considered necessary included. The measure applies also to the land allotted under the Administration of Evacuee Property Act, 1950.

            By 31 March 1978, 505 cases of surplus area were decided and 1,217 hectares of land were declared surplus in the Rupnagar District. By the same date, 587 eligible tenants were settled on 260 hectares of surplus area.

            Utilization of Lands :-  In pursuance of Government policy to utilize the maximum available culturable area of land, the East Punjab Utilization of Lands Act, 1949, was enacted. Under this act, a notice is served on every landowner who allows his land to remain uncultivated for six or more consecutive harvests and the land thus taken over is leased out to others for a term ranging from 7 to 30 years, priority being given to the Harijans. That no land has been taken over and leased out to the tenants in the Rupnagar District, upto 31 March 1978 indicates that the cultivators have themselves brought all the cultivable area under plough.

            Consolidation of Holdings :-  Fragmentation of holdings is one of the major causes of low agricultural productivity in our country. Consolidation of holdings was, therefore, started to stop or restrict subdivision of fields and to prevent fragmentation. Punjab took the lead in starting voluntary consolidation through co-operative societies which were set up under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1912 and the work was started in 1920. The consolidation was initiated on voluntary basis through pursuation and publicity. As there was no legal compulsion in the matter, progress was initially slow. The Punjab Government, therefore, passes the Consolidation of Holdings Act, 1936, which made consolidation compulsory, if two third of landowners agreed to it. After the Independence (1947), the East Punjab Holdings (Consolidation and Prevention of Fragmentation), Act, 1948, was passed which made consolidation of holdings compulsory. A separate Consolidation Department was created in 1949.

            The work of consolidation of holdings was started in 1950 and is still continuing. Tahsilwise area consilidated in the Rupnagar District up to March 1978, is given below :-

Tahsil

 

Area Consolidated (in Acres)

Rupnagar

 

1,54,807

Kharar

 

1,56,272

Anandpur Sahib

 

1,48,343

 

Total

4,59,422

            Apart from consolidating the holdings of the farmers, the scheme provided an opportunity for replanning the countryside which included planning the location for schools, hospitals and roads. Land was also reserved for community buildings, such as community centres, places of worship and playgrounds.

            Rural Wages and Condition of Agricultural Labour :-  As in the rest of the State the condition of agricultural labour in Rupnagar District is poor. This category of labour is not organized. Although wages for agricultural labour have increased during the past few years, yet favourable conditions of work or benefits of service do not exist.

            The wages paid to agricultural and skilled labourers (men) in one selected village, viz. Mianpur in tahsil Rupnagar are given in the following statement :-

Daily wages paid to Agricultural and skilled labourers (Males) in a selected village, Mianpur in Tahsil and District Rupnagar, 1974 to 1983

Year

Agricultural Labour

Skilled Labour

 

For ploughing (Rs.)

For sowing (Rs.)

For weeding (Rs.)

For harvesting (Rs.)

 

**For picking of cotton (Rs.)

For other agricultural operations (Rs.)

Blacksmith (Rs.)

Carpenter (Rs.)

1974

7.60

7.59

7.61

7.95

6.50

7.62

14.00

14.00

1975

8.00

8.70

8.21

7.96

5.38

8.17

14.67

14.67

1976

9.13

9.10

9.14

9.33

4.25

9.05

15.32

15.32

1977

9.45

9.50

9.43

9.66

4.33

9.50

19.46

19.46

1978

10.05

9.94

10.00

12.00

4.50

9.96

21.96

21.96

1979

11.14

11.11

11.16

13.50

-

11.17

23.50

23.50

1980

11.54

11.12

11.56

11.50

-

11.54

23.62

23.62

1981

12.28

11.30

11.50

14.00

11.50

11.05

25.14

25.14

1982

14.00

14.00

14.00

14.00

-

14.00

24.75

24.75

1983

14.65

14.53

14.81

13.05

-

14.70

30.67

30.67

( Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1974 to 1983 )

*For normal working day of eight hours

**For female workers

 

(b)   Other Sources of Revenue, State and Central)

In order to meet the growing expenditure on development activities, the State of Central Governments augment their financial resources by tapping additional sources of revenue. The other sources of revenue, State and Central, are as under :-

(i)                 Other Sources of State Revenue

In addition to land revenue, there are other sources from which the State derives its revenue. These are : Stamp Duty, Registration Fee, Excise Tax, Sales Tax, Passenger and Goods Tax, Entertainment Tax, Entertainment Duty, Central Sales Tax, Electricity Duty and Copying Fee.

Stamp Duty :-  This is levied under the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, which was amended by the Indian Stamp (Punjab First Amendment) Act, 1929. The latest amendment in the Act was made vide Punjab Government Act No. 1 of 1974. Stamp revenue is derived from the sale of non-judicial stamps. The Act requires the Collector (Deputy Commissioner) to ensure that all documents such as for transfer of land are properly stamped according to a schedule.

The total income realised in the district from the sale of non-judicial and miscellaneous stamps during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is shown in the following table :-

Year

Non-Judicial Stamps

(Rs.)

Miscellaneous Stamps

(Rs.)

Total

(Rs.)

1973-74

28.14,564

95,993

29,10,557

1974-75

41,34,560

1,10,528

42,45,088

1975-76

44,69,847

1,14,208

45,84,055

1976-77

48,10,080

2,20,056

50,30,136

1977-78

64,05,040

2,41,952

66,46,992

1978-79

74,62,568

57,37,312

1,31,99,880

1979-80

84,99,648

45,75,755

1,30,75,403

1980-81

1,11,89,221

48,96,802

1,60,86,023

1981-82

1,38,57,345

49,81,560

1,88,38,905

1982-83

1,82,87,881

54,78,932

2,07,66,813

(Source  :  Treasury Officer, Rupnagar)

            Registration Fee :-  The Indian Registration Act, 1908, requires compulsory registration of all documents pertaining to immovable property and provided optional registration in case of other documents. As a rule, fees are levied for the registration of all documents but the State Government have exempted or partially exempted levy of registration fee in respect of (i) documents pertaining to societies registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, and Land Mortgage Banks, (ii) mortgage deeds executed by Government servants in respect of advances for house building. (iii) encumbrance certificates issued in connection with loans under the Agriculturists Loan Act.

            The following statement shows the number of registered documents, value of property transferred and receipts in the district from 1973-74 to 1982-83 :-

Number and Description of Registered Documents and Value of property transferred in the Rupnagar, District, 1973-74 to 1982-83

Year

No. of registration of property

 

 

Aggregate value of property transferred (000Rs)

 

No. of Registra-tion Officers

Immovable Property

Movable property

Grand Total

Immovable Property

Movable Property

Total

Total Receipts (000 Rs.)

 

 

Compulsory

Optional

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

1973-74

5

10,023

3

10,026

276

10,302

58,488

140

58,628

716

1974-75

5

10,020

2

10,022

329

10,351

89,260

-

89,260

797

1975-76

5

10,311

-

10,311

399

10,710

74,869

212

75,081

847

1976-77

5

10,374

1

10,374

507

10,881

97,728

425

98,153

1,052

1977-78

5

12,226

-

12,226

-

12,226

1,22,658

-

1,22,658

1,049

1978-79

6

11,892

4

11,896

545

12,441

1,13,954

1

1,13,955

1,100

1979-80

6

12,899

3

12,902

619

13,521

1,37,188

161

1,37,349

1,300

1980-81

6

12,798

7

13,805

748

14,503

2,19,795

@

2,19,795

1,155

1981-82

6

13,669

9

13,678

1,322

15,000

1,59,355

5

1,59,360

1,163

1982-83

6

13,813

6

13,819

869

14,688

1,81,360

25

1,81,385

5,147

( Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1974 to 1983 )

@Below 500

            Excise Tax :- For the administration of Excise and Taxation Acts, the district in March 1978 was under the charge of Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, who was assisted by 6 Excise and Taxation Officers. He was further assisted by 7 Inspectors on the excise side and 13 Inspectors on the taxation side.

            Excise is realised on items covered by the following  State and Central Acts : The Indian Opium Act, 1878; The Punjab Excise Act, 1914; The Punjab Local Option Act, 1923; The Dangerous Drugs Act, 1930; The Punjab Mullasses Control Act, 1948; The Indian Power Alcohol Act, 1948; The Medicine and Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act, 1955; and the Spirituous Preparation (Excise Duties) Act, 1955.

            Sales Tax :- As a source of revenue, Sales Tax occupies a distinct position in tax structure. It is not only productive front the pint of revenue but had the additional merit of flexibility. By changing the coverage and the rate of tax, the yield can be adjusted to the revenue needs of the State. It is levied under the Punjab General Tax Act, 1948, which repealed the Punjab General Sales Tax Act, 1941, on May 1948.

            Passengers and Goods Tax :-  The Punjab Passengers and Goods Taxation Act, 1952, was enforced on 1 August, 1952. The Act provided that a tax shall be levied on all fares and freights in respect of passengers carried and goods transported in motor vehicles in the State. The rate of tax has been enhanced from time to time. With effect from 18 July, 1969, passengers tax is levied at the rate of 35 per cent of the fare and in the case of contract carriage the tax is charged at the lump sum rate per annum fixed for each type of vehicle.

            Section 3(1) of the Act provides for levy tax on freight in respect of goods transported by public vehicles at the rate of 35 per cent of the freight. However, keeping in view the difficulties of the illiterate truck operators with regard to maintenance of accounts, required under section 4 of the Act, the State Government has allowed the operators to pay a lump sum composition fee in view of tax chargeable on the freight accordingly. With effect from 1 July 1982, the lump sum rate of tax has been raised to Rs. 1,100 per public carrier per annum.

            Entertainment Tax :-  The Punjab Entertainment Tax (Cinematographs Show) Act 1964 came into force on 4 May 1954. The tax is levied on every show on the number of occupied seats of a cinema hall. The rate of Entertainment Tax is Rs. 12 and Rs. 6 per show per hundred occupied seats for category A (Cinema in municipalities of the first class and cantonment class), category B (cinema in municipalities of second class and category C (Municipalities of third class, notified areas and any other areas not falling in category A and B) respectively. Such tax in no charged proportionately for a fraction of 100 seats. The tax in no case shall exceed the maximum limit which has been fixed Rs. 150 per show, vide Punjab Ordinance No. 4 fo 1978.

            Entertainment Duty :-  The Punjab Entertainment Duty Act 1936 was repealed by the Punjab Entertainment Duty Act 1955 on 4 November 1955. The duty is levied on the admission to any entertainment to which persons are ordinarily admitted on payment. The duty is also payable on complimentary tickets. The rates of duty change from time to time. The rate of entertainment duty including that of complimentary tickets, is 125 per cent of the admission charges except 40 per cent of the total number of seats in the cinema hall nearer the screen which are subject to duty at the rate of 100 per cent.

            Central Sales Tax :-  The Central Sales Tax Act, 1956, provides for levy on sales effected in course of inter-State trade and commerce. It was passed to achieve uniformity in sales tax in different States. The States have been authorised to administer this tax on behalf of the Government of India and the entire collections are appropriated by them.

            Electricity Duty :-  This is levied under the Punjab Electricity (Duty) Act, 1950, to meet the additional financial burdens undertaken by the State on account of introduction of free education and provincialisation of local body schools. The duty is levied on the energy supplied by the Punjab State Electricity Board to a consumers or a licensee and it is collected by the Board alongwith  the consumption bills. The Electricity Duty is delivered by the Board to the State Government.

            Copying Fee :-  This fee is levied under the Punjab Copying Fees Act, 1936, for copies or orders, etc. supplied to the public. The charges vary for supplying copies on ordinary and urgent basis.

            The collections from the above mentioned taxes in the Rupnagar District, during 1977-78 to 1982-83, are shown in the following statement :

Collection from other sources of State Revenue in Rupnagar District, 1977-78 to 1982-83

S.No

Tax

1977-78

(Rs.)

1978-79

(Rs.)

1979-80

(Rs.)

1980-81

(Rs.)

1981-82

(Rs.)

1982-83

(Rs.)

1.

Stamp Duty

2,64,92,808

77,63,325

90,43,074

1,18,53,933

1,45,90,329

1,67,27,374

2.

Registration Fee

11,49,890

10,63,180

11,76,072

12,23,386

12,21,493

13,73,286

3.

Excise Tax

2,64,92,808

3,00,35,000

3,92,27,000

4,09,25,000

4,87,31,000

6,14,29,000

4.

Sales Tax

2,07,07,272

3,16,89,000

2,98,86,000

4,06,42,000

6,11,63,000

7,36,58,000

5.

Passenger and Goods Tax

1,92,67,575

1,97,71,000

2,25,80,000

2,82,36,000

3,62,05,000

3,88,06,000

6.

Entertainment Tax

54,480

10,86,000

13,77,000

15,05,000

15,65,000

21,69,000

7.

Entertainment Duty

8,75,179

-

-

-

-

-

8.

Central Sales Tax

1,13,65,839

41,37,000

87,88,800

1,51,59,000

2,07,76,000

2,43,03,000

9.

Electricity Duty

47,18,558

2,62,11,114

5,86,59,254

1,84,45,141

2,77,15,530

4,15,40,611

10.

Copying Fee

18,369

16,709

20,253

24,735

27,767

25,253

 

( Source  :        Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Rupnagar; Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar; Executive Engineers, Punjab State Electricity Board in the Rupnagar District and Chief Electrical Inspector to Government, Punjab, Patiala )

(ii)               Central Sources of Revenue

Important items of central revenue are :  Central Excise Duties, Income Tax, Gift Tax and Estate Duty. Some particulars about these revenues, in so far as they concern Rupangar District are given asunder :-

Central Excise Duties :-  The main sources of the Central Excise Duties in the district are  :  sugar, vanaspati, products, cotton yearn, woollen yarn, woollen fabric, tractors, T.V. sets, dry cell batteries, strach, etc.

The duties are realized under the Gold Control Act, 1962, and the Central Excise and Salt Act, 1944.

Income Tax :-  This is one of the most important direct taxes levied and collected by the Central Government. It is levied under the Indian Income Tax Act, 1922, which was replaced by the Income Tax Act of 1961 on 1 April 1962. The rates of income tax vary from year to year in accordance with the Finance Act passed by the Parliament every year.

Wealth Tax :- The Wealth Tax Act, 1957, comes into force from the assessment year 1957-58. It is chargeable on the new wealth of an individual and a Hindu undivided family.

Gift Tax :- The Gift Tax Act, 1958 was enforced on 1 April 1958. The tax is chargeable on the value of gifts made by a donor to a donee during a previous year.

Estate Duty :-  The Estate Duty Act, 1953, was enforced on 15 October 1953. The duty is leviable on the estates of those dying after this date. Proceedings for this levy are to be initiated within 5 years of the death, but not time limit has been fixed for the completion of assessment. For levy of estate duty, Rupnagat District falls under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Controller of Estate Duty, Patiala.

The collections from the central sources of revenue in the Rupnagar District, during 1973-74 to 1982-83 are given below :-

Year

Central Excise Duty

Income Tax

Wealth Tax

Gift Tax

Estate Duty

(000 Rs.)

1973-74

19,549

-

-

-

26,300

1974-75

21,542

-

-

-

15,800

1975-76

36,285

-

-

-

17,900

1976-77

42,755

4,530

51

6

16,300

1977-78

48,428

4,688

28

11

13,100

1978-79

25,263

6,309

116

14

28

1979-80

37,740

6,005

101

14

141

1980-81

45,507

6,870

109

16

26

1981-82

56,390

7,148

152

18

121

1982-83

71,476

10,350

155

12

217

(Source  :         Superintendents, Central Excise and Customs, Kharar and S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali), Income Tax Offficer, Rupnagar and Assistant Controllers of Estate Duty, Patiala and Chandigahr.

 

CHAPTER – XII

LAW AND ORDER AND JUSTICE

(a)   Incidence of Crime in the District

            The Rupnagar District came into existence on 1 November 1966 as a result of the reorganization of the Punjab State. According to the Amabala District Gazetteer, 1923-24, some of the Jat villages of Rupnagar and Kharar tahsils had a bad name for crimes of violence generally originating in disputes concerning land and women. The crime statistics for the years 1974-83 however, indicate more crimes like murder, burglary, theft and cheating, and there have been few cases of robbery, rioting and cattle lifting. No case of decoity and traffic in women was reported in the district during these years. The district is, thus, more or less immune from heinous crimes.

            In 1983, crimes under the heads : murder, robbery, burglary, rioting, cattle lifting and theft generally showed a downward trend as compared to the previous years’ crime statistics. A comparative study of crime incidence reveals that the law and order situation in the district remained satisfactory.

            An idea regarding the trend of various crimes, etc. in the district during 1974-83 may be had from the following table :-

Number of reported cases relating to various crimes, etc. in the Rupnagar District 1974 to 1983

Year

Murder

Decoity

Robbery

Burglary

Rioting

Theft

Cattle lifting

Traffic in Women

Cheating

Offences under the Local and Special Laws

Other

Total

1974

17

-

2

32

6

61

3

-

4

830

170

1,125

1975

20

-

-

38

3

57

-

-

6

821

196

1,143

1976

25

-

3

48

2

75

6

-

8

939

208

1,314

1977

15

-

4

73

1

95

3

-

15

753

338

1,297

1978

12

-

-

58

1

95

1

-

11

740

325

1,243

1979

18

-

1

58

1

89

3

-

17

647

292

1,126

1980

19

-

-

41

8

88

1

-

22

546

317

1,042

1981

14

-

2

40

2

77

-

-

15

619

332

1,101

1982

10

-

1

54

6

75

1

-

15

660

309

1,131

1983

19

-

1

59

1

57

-

1

48

678

411

1,275

(Source  :  Superintendent of  Police, Rupnagar )

            The important categories of crime are described as under :-

            Murder :-   The important motives behind murder are usually traditional, that is, illicit sexual relations, domestic quarrels, blood fueds, land disputed, lure of property, canal-water disputes, personal enmity and party factions. Fortuitous crime is sometimes committed over minor and trifling issues in a sudden outburst of anger. There was fluctuation in the incidence of this crime in the district during 1974 to 1983, the minimum number of such cases being 10 in 1982 and the maximum 25 in 1976.

            Dacoity :- No case of dacoity was reported in the district during 974 to 1983.

            Robbery :-   No case of robbery was reported during the period for 1978 and 1980. In robbery, there is the presence of imminent fear of violence. The number of cases reported in the district in 1974, 1976 and 1777 was 2,3, and 4, respectively. Thereafter it had downward trend.

            Burglary :-  Burglary is legally defined as an act of breaking into a house to commit theft. This crime is common both in the urban and rural areas of the district. There was much fluctuation in the incidence of this crime during 1974-83, the minimum number of cases being 32 in 1974 and the maximum 73 in 1977.

            Rioting :-  Rioting takes place when an unlawful assemble of persons resorts to violent means which leads to arson and looting. During the years during the period 1974 to 1983, the minimum number of cases was one in the year 1977, 1978, 199 and 1983 and the maximum 8 in 1980.

            Theft :-  The incidence or ordinary theft has drawn an upward trend in the district and mostly the increase has been reported from the urban areas of the district. Thefts in the rural areas take place in small numbers because the village abadis are small and the inhabitants know one another. There was a little fluctuation in the incidence of this crime in the district during 1974-83, the minimum number of cases being 57 in 1975, and 1983 and maximum 95 in 1977 and 1978.

            Cattle Lifting :-  This crime is mostly prevalent in the rural areas and its incidence has shown an downward trend. During 1974-83, there have been 1-6 cases of cattle lifting a year in the district.

            Traffic in Women :-   No case of traffic in women was reported in the district during 1974-82. There was only one case during 1983.

            Cheating :-  Cheating means a willful misrepresentation of a definite fact with intention to defraud. The incidence of this crime varied from 4 to 48 from 1974 to 1983, the highest being 48 in 1983.

            Offences under Local and Special Laws :-  Under this head, the crimes include cases of public nuisance and those of under the Indian Arms Act, 1878, the Punjab Excise Act, 1914, the Opium Act, 1878, the Public Gambling Act, 1867, the Essential Commodities Act, 1955, the Indian Railways Act, 1890, and the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947. There had been fluctuation in the number of crimes under this head during 1974-83, the minimum number being 546 in 1980 and maximum 939 in 1976.

            Incidence of Motor Vehicle Accidents :-  With the expansion of vehicular traffic, incidence of road accidents in the district has been on the increase. The number of prosecutions launched for traffic offences under the Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1939, during 1974-83 are given below :-

Year

No. of prosecution launched

1974

2,933

1975

1,785

1976

1,832

1977

2,735

1978

2,628

1979

2,753

1980

1,893

1981

1,913

1982

3,569

1983

4,530

                        Road Traffic :-  Besides the Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1939, the Indian Penal Code, the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911, and the Municipal Bye-Laws, the Stage Carriage Act, 1861, the Police Act, 1888, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1890, the Punjab Motor Vehicles Taxation Act, 1925 and the Hackney Carriage Act, 1879, regulate the road traffic.

            The prosecution launched in the district under  the various Act, during 1974 to 1983, are given in the following statement :-

Prosecution launched under various Acts in the Rupnagar District, 1974 to 1983 :-

Name of Act

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

Indian Penal Code

201

206

217

263

464

386

311

346

331

419

Municipal Act and Municipal

Bye-Laws

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Stage Carriage Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Police Act

21

34

42

44

36

46

22

32

33

48

Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Punjab Motor Vehicles Taxation Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hackney Carriage Act

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

            (Source  :   Superintendent of Police, Rupnagar )

History and Organization of Police

History of Police :-

            In India, the law enforcement organization has been traditionally associated with the administration of justice.

            In Punjab State, the modern system of police was introduced by the British after the annexation of the Punjab in 1849 and the police administration was streamlined with the appointment of a separate officer at the district level, viz. the Superintendent of Police. The structure and working of the police has undergone modifications in line with the recommendations of various authorities appointed by the government from time to time. These include the Police Commission of 1925, the Punjab Police Commission of 1962. The Punjab Police Rules, 1934, lay down the guidelines for the administration and working of the police department at various levels.

Organization of the District Police :-

            As per the Police Rules, the Superintendent of Police of a district works under the general guidance and supervision of the Deputy Commissioner in so far as maintenance of law and order in the district in concerned. The Superintendent of Police is accountable in the performance of his duties, so far as management and discipline of the police force and prevention and control of crime in the district is concerned, to the Deputy Inspector-General of Police. For the Superintendent of Police, Rupnagar, the next superior authority is the D.I.G. of Police, Patiala Range in whose jurisidiction the district of Rupnagar falls. He is assisted by 4 Deputy Superintendents of Police, 7 Inspectors, 26 Sub-Inspectors, 44 Assistant Sub-Inspectors, 183 Head Constables and 913 constables.

            The strength of Police in the district as on 31 March 1983 was as follows :-

Police strength in Rupnagar District, as on 31 March 1983.

 

 

 

 

Superintendent of Police

Deputy Superintendent of Police

Inspectors

Sub-

Inspectors

Assistant Sub-Inspectors

Head Constables

Constables

Permanent

1

4

6

25

42

105

731

Temporary

-

-

-

-

1

72

114

Armed Police

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ist, 2nd and 3rd (Armed Reserves )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permanent

-

-

1

1

1

6

48

Temporary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mounted Police

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permanent

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Temporary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Prosecution Staff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permanent

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

Temporary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

( Source  :  Superintendent of Police, Rupnagar )

            As on 31 March 1983, the number of police stations and police posts along with the villages attaches, in each tahsil sub-division was as under :-

 

Tahsil/Sub-Division

Police Stations

No. of villages attached

Police Posts

No.of villages attached

Rupnagar

1. Rupnagar

186

-

-

 

2. Morinda

77

-

-

 

2. Chamkaur Sahib

109

-

-

Kharar

1. Kharar

128

-

-

 

2. Kurali

103

-

-

 

3. Mubarikpur

56

Gharuan

25

 

4.S.A.S. Nagar

14

-

-

Anandpur Sahib

1.Anandpur Sahib

76

Naya Nangal

40

 

2.Nurpur Bedi

106

-

-

 

3.Nangar

60

-

-

 

            Civil Police :-  The Civil Police is posted at the public stations / police posts. There are 10 police stations and 2 police posts in the district. The Station House Officer is in charge of each police stations. He is normally assisted by one or more Assistant Sub-Inspectors, a Head Constables, a Moharrir and a number of Constables. The Station House Officer maintains peace and order and investigates offences committed in his area.

            Railway Police :- Since the Railway Police is a part of the State Organization, working under the Assistant Inspector General, Government Railway Police, Punjab, with headquarters at Patiala, it is not allotted to any district in particular. The jurisdiction of Railway Police is confined to ‘Railway Limits’ i.e., all ground and  buildings marks, provided that all offences committed in or in close proximity to dewelling houses or barracks shall be taken cognizance of and investigated by the District Police.

            There is only one outpost of the Railway Police in the District, viz. at Rupnagar, where one Head Constables and three Constables are posted.

            Para Military Forces :-   In times of crisis, as when terrorist activity is in evidence, additional manpower can temporarily be drawn from the Central Government. The sources which have been available from Rupnagar District are the Central Reserve Police Force, and the Border Security Force. These security forces are however, borrowed only for limited periods of time, and for certain specified objectives. When such forces are inducted, they function under the operational control of the district police, but for administrative purposes are controlled by their own unit security organizations is required at all times.

            Excise Police Staff :- The staff strength of Excise Police in the district consists of 2 Head Constables and 12 Constables. The whole of the staff is on deputation from the main strength of the Police Department. The functions of this staff is to check crime relating to infringement of Excise laws.

            Village police :-  The Chowkidar is at the lowest rung of the police organization. He helps the village headman in the maintenance of peace and security in the village. Traditionally, the Chowkidars’ duty was to help in the detection of crimes and to report the occurrence of any crime in the village to the concerned authorities. In recent years, the role and status of the chowkidar has been considerable relegated.

            Punjab Home Guards :-  A Home Guard Unit was started in the Rupnagar District in January 1973. Its main functions are to serve as an auxiliary to the police and help in maintaining internal security; to help community in any kind of emergency like air-raid, fire, flood, epidemic, etc. and to provide essential services such as motor transport pioneer and carrying groups, fire bridges, nursing, first-aid, operations of water and power supply installations.

            There is a District Commander, Punjab Home Guards at Rupnaar, who is assisted by 3 Company Commanders, 8 Platoon Commanders, 1 Wireless Operator and 8 Instructors, besides other miscellaneous Class III and Class IV staff.

            There are eight rural companies in the district comprising one company in each block. These companies are organised and imparted training by the Training Centre, Punjab Home Guards, Rupnagar, which is commanded by a Company Commander. The officer incharge of two urban companies at Nangal is a Platoon Commander, Civil defence work at Nangal is done by the Store Superintendent (Company Commander), Nangal and he is assited by a Civil Defence Instructor (Platoon Commander).

            Besides, the Home Guards Volunteers are imparted training through various camps held from time to time throughout the year. The members of urban companies of Home Guards at Nangal are given intensive training in civil defence in addition to Home Guard training. The women section of Urban Home Guard at Nangal is imparted specialised training in nursing and first-aid.

 

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