(d)  Food and Supplies Department

The department is represented at the district level by the District Food and Supplies Controller, Rupnagar, whose office was established in 1966. He is under the supervision and administrative control of the Director, Food and Supplies, Punjab, Chandigarh. He is assisted by 3 District Food and Supplies Officers (one each at Rupnagar, Anandpur Sahib and Kharar), 6 Assistant Food and Supplies Officers, 25 Inspectors, 43 Sub-Inspectors, 1 Head Analyst, 2 Junior Analyst, and miscellaneous lower staff.

The main functions of this office are : procurement of foodgrains; distributions of sugar, rice, wheat/atta, etc. through fair price shops in the urban as well as rural areas; issue permits of other essential commodities, e.g. cement, bricks, coal, kerosene, light diesel oil, etc., issue/renewal of licences for brick-kilns, coal depots, fire-wood, foodgrains, rice milling pulses, edible oils, cotton and yarn, etc. Under the ‘Food for Works Scheme’, the department supplies wheat at subsidized rates to the labourers against their emoluments. Besides, the department maintains its own godowns for storage of foodgrains.

(e)   Finance Department

The department is represented at the district level by the Treasury Officer, Rupnagar. This office was upgraded from a sub-treasury with effect from 1 November 1986 on the reorganization of the State. The Treasury Office is assisted by 4 Assistant Treasury Officer (one each in charge of the sub-treasuries at Nangal, Kharar, Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib), 2 Assistant, Superintendents Treasury, 1 District Treasurer, 5 Assistant Treasurers, and other lower staff.

The main functions of this office are to audit all kinds of bills/cheques, etc. submitted by the Drawing and Disbursing Officer of various departments; to prepare the daily accounts of payments/receipts of State and Central Governments, and to submit the consolidated accounts of the whole district to the Accountant General, Punjab, twice in every month. The Treasury Officer also acts as a Drawing and Disbursing Officer of the pensioners of State/Central Governments. The District Treasury is also a depot of non-judicial, court fee and other kings of stamps.

(f)     Planning Department

The office of District Statistical Office, Rupnagar, was established in 1966. The District Statistical Officer is assisted by two Technical Assistants. His main functions are to collect, analyse, compile and publish statistical data of the various offices at the district level; to conduct ad-hoc socio-economic surveys; to provide technical guidance to other departments for survey work; to collect price data for supplying to the different Central and State agencies; to collect weekly retail prices, to prepare village directory, and to formulate district plans, etc.

(g)   Language Department

The department is represented as the district level by the District Language Officer, Rupnagar, whose office was established in 1962. The District Language Officer is assisted by an Instructor, a Clerk, a part-time Urdu Teacher and a Peon.

The main activities of this office are to assure encouragement to Punjabi in Administration and education along with development of Punjabi language and literature; to impart training in Punjabi shorthand and typewriting; to organize literacy meetings, kavi darbars (poetic symposia) and to dramas and debates; to undertake linguistic survey and to bring out district glossaries of words, idioms, proverbs, folk-tales, folk-songs, customs, rituals, sports, etc.; to recommend financial assistance to literacy men and institutions / organizations; to collect manuscripts and recognize services of writers and artists; to hold and supervise the class in Urdu language; to sell various departmental publications; and to assist the Government officers in translating pamphlets/books in Punjabi. The District Language Officer also visits various government offices/institutions in the districts to guide the staff. Since its inception, this department has been endeavouring the promotion of Punjabi Language.

(h)   Soil Conservation and Engineering Department

The Soil Conservation and Engineering Department is represented in the District by the Assistant Soil Conservation Officer, Rupnagar. His Office was established in September 1973 at Saroya and then shifted to Rupnagar on 1 April 1974. He is assisted by 4 agricultural inspectors, 3 agricultural sub-inspectors/surveyors, 1 draftsman, 2 tracers, 2 patwaris, 2 clerks, besides some other ministerial and class IV staff.

The main functions of the Department are the execution of land improvement schemes which include soil conservation, the improvement of the irrigation system by constructing pucca water channels, the laying of underground irrigation system and installing the sprinkler irrigation system in the fields of the cultivator. It also undertakes the levelling of land, so that proper irrigation can be provided.

 

CHAPTER XIV

LOCAL  SELF-GOVERNMENT

(a)   Evolution of Local Self Government in the District

Local  self-government is a system of management and administration of an area through representatives drawn from the area itself. These representatives are usually elected democratically to the institutions responsible for governing at local level. The local bodies function for towns, e.g., municipal committees, as well as for rural areas, e.g., village panchayats. In Punjab, there is a strong tradition of development of decentralised power at the local level, and the set up of the local self-government bodies had the sanction of specific statutes. The local bodies draw their powers from legislature enactments. The arrangements encourage widest participants of the local population in villages and towns, in the process of government. It also assures proper appreciation of local problems, and accelerated decision making on local issues.

Historical Retrospect :-  India had had self government institutions from the earliest period of recorded history. The village communities, such as, the Sabha and Samiti of the ancient times and the village panchayats of the medieval ages, all flourished as autonomous units and discharged many functions now performed by the present day local bodies. The foundation of the modern system of municipal government in India  as it exists today was laid by the British.

The earliest Act in the Punjab dealing with municipal administration was the Municipal Act, 1867, which was an important step in the development of municipal bodies. The Act was repealed by the Municipal Act, 1873, which aimed at providing for conservancy, local improvements and education in the towns of the Punjab and for levying taxes in them. In 1882, Lord Ripon (1880-84) issued a comprehensive resolution recommending the removal of all the existing defects in the local bodies and also making them instruments of political education. Lord Ripon attempted to develop local self-government as a political instrument of public administration. He suggested that the principle of election should be introduced and the proportion of official members in the institution reduced. In this manner, he wanted to transfer increasing powers to the popular representatives of the people. The reforms proposed by Lord Ripon led to be overhauling of Act IV of 1873 and the Punjab Municipal Act, 1884. The later Act was repealed by the Municipal Act of 1891, which only introduced such changes as experience had proved to be desirable. The Act of 1884, however, continued to be the foundation of the municipal administration in the Punjab.

The Royal Commission of Decentralization, 1909, laid stress on the importance of village panchayats and recommended that the Government control over the local government should be relaxed. The Punjab was the first province to incorporate the Royal Commission’s recommendations in a statute. The Punjab Municipal Act was passed in 1911, which with certain modifications is still the basis of municipal Government in Punjab.

In the period 1919-1937, the British developed a system to be known as dyarchy, which implied government shared by two point authorities or rules. Under these arrangements, official control was gradually relaxed and local bodies were made completely elective. It was desired to establish local self-government, whereby the people would be free to manage their own affairs. The Government of India Act, 1919, prescribed a new scheme of taxes, which could be levied by, or for the local bodies. This measure not only enlarged the sphere to taxation but also enabled the local bodies to feel relatively independent. The Punjab Small Towns Act, 1922 simplified the machinery for the municipal administration of small towns each with a population of less than 10,000. The Punjab, Municipal (Executive Officer) Act, 1931, invested the Provincial Government with powers to appoint Executive Officers in the municipalities.

After Independence of the country, the concept of local self-government was further enlarged. The municipalities were called upon to shoulder greater responsibilities for municipal administration and to improve the physical set-up in the towns. New election rules have been framed to provide free election on the basis of universal adult franchise. Provision has also been made for the reservation of seats in municipalities for the members of the Scheduled Castes.

The term of office of municipal commissioners in the State is five years.

(b)   Organisation and Structure

Functions and Duties of Municipal Committees :-

            Statutorily, the Punjab municipal bodies have two  types of functions, viz. obligatory and optional. Obligatory functions are those which every municipal committee has to perform and if for their performance the committee does not make sufficient provision in its budget, then the State Government compels it to do so, and if the committee fails to perform these functions satisfactorily, then the State Government may suspend or even supersede the committee and assume direct control of its administration. Obligatory functions require action in four main areas, viz., public safety and convenience, the regulation of offensive or dangerous trades, removing of obstructions and projections in public streets, lighting and cleansing of public streets, extinguishing of fires, provision and regulation of slaughter-houses, burail grounds, latrines, picnic spots, drains and sewers, registration of birth and deaths, public vaccination, inoculation, primary education, etc.

            The list of optional functions includes construction and maintenance of public streets, establishing and maintaining public parks, gardens, libraries, museums, dharmshalas, rest houses, lunatic asylums, furthering educational programmes other than primary education, planting and maintaining of roadside trees, arranging for the destruction of stray dogs, maintaining dairy farms and breeding studs, holding of exhibitions, etc.

            As on 31 March 1986, there were 5 municipalities in the district at Rupnagar, Morinda, Kharar, Kurali and Anandpur Sahib. On the basis of classification made by the government, 3 of these fall in Class II and 2 in Class III. Besides, there are 3 notified area committees at Nangal, Naya Nangal and S.A.S. Nagar. The details regarding the income and expenditure of the municipalities during 1978-79 to 1982-83 are given in Appendix at the end of the Chapter. The sources of income of the municipalities include octroi, house tax, toll tax, some taxes on entertainment, and on certain trades and activities, along with some minor taxes.

            Rupnagar, Municipality was first constituted in 1867. It is a Class II municipal committee. The committee had 15 members in all when general elections were held last on 10 June 1979. Two of them were co-opted members.

            According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the municipal limits was 25 sq. km. and its population was 25,165.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include water-supply, street lighting, pakka drains and arrangements for cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The water supply scheme was introduced in July 1961. The committee also maintains about 8.85 km of roads within the municipal limits.

            Municipal Committee Morinda was constituted in 1950. It is a Class II municipal committee. In 1982-83, it had 15 members.

            According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the municipal limits was 3.00 sq. km. and its population was 13,502.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include street lighting, arrangements for cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The committee maintains about 6.5 km or roads within the municipal limits. It also maintains a library along with a reading-room.

            Municipal Committee Kharar was first constituted in 1967. It is Class II committee. The committee had 16 members.

            According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the municipal limits was 4.20 sq. km and its population was 21,807.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include water-supply, street lighting, drainage, and arrangements for the cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The committee maintains about 8 km of roads within the municipal limits. It also maintains a library along with reading-room.

            Municipal Committee Kurali was constituted in 1959. It is a Class II committee. The committee had 14 members.

            According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the municipal limits was 7.40 sq. km. and its population was 12,637.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include water supply, street lighting, pakka drains and arrangements for cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The water-supply scheme was introduced during the year 1978-79 and a sum of Rs. 7 lakhs have been spent on it. Open surface drains  were introduced during the year 1962-63. The committee also maintains about 5 km of roads within the municipal limits.

            Anandpur Sahib Municipality was first constituted in 1867. It is a Class II committee. It had 15 members, four of whom were co-opted.

            According to the 1981 Census, the area of town within the municipal limits was 3.00 sq. km. and its population was 8,571.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include street lighting, pakka drains and arrangements for cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The drainage system was introduced in 1969-70. The committee maintains about 1 km of roads within the municipal limits.

            As explained in another section, the twin towns of Nangal and Naya Nangal were established  along with the Bharka Nangal Project. The character of these towns is different from that of other in the state, in that the population is dependent almost entirely on the functioning of two major projects, the Bhakra Nangar Project and the Fertilizer Factory in Naya Nangal. Of late, the StateGovernment has also set up some public sector companies, such as the Punjab Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd. and the Punjab National Fertilizers Ltd. in Naya Nangal. The two towns are served by two separate notified area committees.

            Formed in 1953, Nangal N.A.C. now had 11 members. According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the limits of the notified area committee was 3.39 sq. km. and its population was 25,523.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include street lighting, drains and arrangements for cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. The drainage system was introduced in 1977. The committee maintains about 36.5 km of roads within its areas. It also maintain  a reading-room.

            Formed in 1961, the N.A.C. Naya Nangal had 7 nominated members. Since 1978-79, it has been running a college and a Model School for primary classes. According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the limits of the notified area committee was 14.92 sq. km. and its population was 10,390.

            The various civic amenities provided by the committee include arrangements for the cleanliness of the town and disposal of refuse. It also maintains a library.

            A Notified Area Committee S.A.S. Nagar was also formed in December 1983. It had 9 nominated members. According to the 1981 Census, the area of the town within the limits of the N.A.S. was 12.40 sq. km. and its population was 32,351.

(c)    Town and Country Planning and Housing

The office of the Divisional Town Planner, Patiala Division, Patiala, was first set up at Chandigarh on 1 April, 1967 which was later on shifted to Patiala and it started functioning on 24 April 1967. Besides the Patiala District, the jurisdiction of the office also extends to the Rupnagar District. The Divisional Town Planner is responsible for initiating programmes of city development and controlling and organising urban development. The office prepares master plans for towns as well as for other areas, which serve as a blueprint for future development.

This office has undertaken the preparation of Master Plans of various Class I and Class II towns in the Rupnagar District. Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali) has been planned as a full-fledged city with its industrial area and other daily amenities and city requirements. The preparation of a comprehensive plan of Chandigarh-Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali) Region as an inter-State Region has been taken up in collaboration with the Government of Haryana and Chandigarh Union Territory, Administration. The Chandigarh-Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali) Regional Plan suggests the location of new industries in the large and medium sectors to achieve industrial dispersal and linkages between graded urban settlements and an integrated programme of rural development. The office has also undertaken pilot studies for the preparation of an Integrated Area  Development Plans of various development blocks including Nurpur Bedi, Majri, Chamkaur Sahib and Kharar blocks of the Rupnagar District.

To make available planned house sites with all public amenities and services in the urban areas, development schemes and new urban estates are planned. Similarly, town planning schemes are also prepared for potential vacant lands within the municipal areas. Besides, through re-development schemes. densities have  been reduced in some areas and non-conforming used discontinued. Residential services have been provided, streets have been widened and the overall environment of the areas has been improved. Buildings and area which have a special character or are of historical significance have been preserved as such. Some of the notable re-development schemes include the improvement of approach areas and environs of the important centres of tourist attraction and pilgrimage such as Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib in the Rupnagar District.

The new mandis are developed so as to provide for grain shops, adequate areas for auction platforms, circulation and parking, service facilities for farmer vehicles, farmer rest houses, godowns, etc. Besides, to check unplanned development and mushroom growth around the cities, large areas around important cities and towns have been notified as “Controlled Areas” under a relevant Act.

Basically, this office renders technical advice to the various departments including municipalities and Improvement Trusts and it co-ordinates with them in the preparation and implementation of developmental works. Town Planning Schemes are prepared under section 192 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911.

Rupnagar Improvement Trust, Rupnagar :-  Formed in November 1972 under the Punjab Town Improvement Act, 1922, the trust has 8 members including the Chairman. The term of their office is three years.

The trust is required to enforce the planned expansion of the town and provide civic amenities. It has undertaken various improvement plans/schemes for the developments of the city, i.e., street schemes and deferred street schemes, development and expansion schemes, housing accommodation schemes, re-housing schemes and slum improvement schemes.

The main sources of the income of the Improvement Trust are  :  sale of trust land after providing the amenities in the schemes and loan from the Government. The income and expenditure of the Rupnagar Improvement Trust, Rupnagar, during the year 1982-83 were Rs. 30,01,000 and Rs. 25,63,000, respectively.

(d)   Panchayati Raj

The panchayats functions as the miniature republics at village level. Important amendments have been carried out in the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, and the Panchayat Samitis and Zila Prishads Act, 1961, to strengthen the working of the Panchayati Raj institutions at all levels. It is envisaged to provide enhanced representation to the weaker sections,

All programmes pertaining to developments in agriculture, animal husbandry, dairying, soil and water conservation minor irrigation, communications, education, rural health and sanitation, uplift of the weaker segments of society, including women and children, contribute to the some underlying objective of integrated rural development. Their successful implementation depends on the Community Development Organization, the principal extension agency which had motivated the rural people and stimulated in them the urge for a better and fuller life. The panchayats formulate some village developments plans and tap local resources for their execution.

Although the structure of Panachayati Raj is established at all levels in all the districts in the state, including Rupnagar, the role of these institutions in Rural Development has in recent years tended to diminish  in importance. The main reason has been that the expanded activities of development have confined different departments to their specialised role. Also improved communication between villages and towns has made rural areas more accessible to departmental specialists in various disciplines, which often makes panchayat involvement in specialised activities redundant. The village local bodies, do, however provide representative leadership, and aid the co-ordination of many development activities at village level.

The Community Development Programmes was established in the State on 2 October 1961. Thereafter, the role of the local institutions had been defined from time to time.

Gram Panchayats :-  The gram panchayats form the base of the pyramid of local government. Most state leaders begin their career as member of panchayats-panch or sarpanch.

The panchayat movement  in Punjab goes back to 1912, when the Panchayat Act, 1912 was passes. The Act established benches to try specified suits, etc. under local and special laws. The Act was repealed by the Punjab Village Panchayat Act, 1921 (Punjab Act III of 1922), which provided for the constitution of panchayats consisting of elected panches holding office for 3 years. The panches were to elect a sarpanch for one year and also a deputy sarpanch. The panchayats were given administrative functions and powers, and judicial powers, both criminal and civil. The Act of 1922 was repealed by the Punjab Village Panchayat Act, 1939 (Punjab Act XI of 1939).

While the object of the 1922 Act was to foster and develop local self-government in the rural areas of the Punjab, the object of the 1939 Act was to consolidate and extend the law relating to the panchayats. The scope of administrative and judicial functions of the panchayats was enlarged. The panchayats were allowed, with the previous sanction of the Government to levy any tax which the Provincial Legislature had power to impose under the Government of India Act, 1935.

The Act of 1939 was repealed by the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952 (Punjab Act IV of 1953) with the object of providing for better administration in the rural areas of Punjab by panchayats. This Act was sponsored in pursuance of the famous Directive Principles of State Policy embodied in Article 40 of the Constitution enjoining upon the State to organise, panchayats and endow them with the necessary authority. Under this Act, the scope of powers-both administrative and judicial-of panchayats was further enlarged; 10 per cent of the land revenue was assigned to panchayats; levy of house tax was made obligatory on every panchayat and provision was made for the establishment of panchayat unions to advise the panchayats within their jurisdiction in the performance of administrative duties. For the first time, provision was made for the election of panches on the basis of universal adult franchise.

The Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, was amended in 1960, as a step towards the establishment of Panchayati Raj in the State. Under the Act, a gram sabha may be constituted for any village or group of contiguous villages with a population of not less than 500,and a gram panchayat is elected for the gram sabha area and not for each village. The panches are elected by the adults entered as voters on the electoral rolls for the State Legislative Assembly in force for the time being and pertaining to the gram panchayat area. There is provision for co-opting women and members of Scheduled Castes in panchayats, where these categories do not gain membership by education, Formerly, each panchayat consisted of 5 to 9 members including sarpanch and a lady panch. Under the new ordinance of the Punjab Government promulgated in June 1978, a village would elect five to eleven panches depending upon its population. This number could go up to thirteen where co-option of members became necessary,

Previously under the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, the panches elected the sarpanch from among themselves. Later on from June 1972, this mode of indirect election was changed into a direct one. Accordingly, the panched as well as the sarpanches were directly elected by the voters. This system of direct election continued till the middle of June 1978 when under the ordinance of Punjab Government, the mode of election was again made indirect. The panchayat may remove a sarpanch by a motion of non-confidence passed by at least two-third of the panches. No such motion can be sponsored without the previous permission of the Director, Rural Development and Panchayats, Punjab, Chandigarh. Members of the panchayat may be removed by the Government on specified grounds. Removal entails disqualification for re-election for a period up to five years.

Under the Act, a gram panchayat is to meet at least once a month at a place within the gram panchayat area. All the decisions of the panchayat are taken by majority and, when the voting is equal, the sarpanch has an additional or casting vote.

At the district headquarters, District Development and Panchayat Officer co-ordinates the working of the panchayats in the district, In order to impart training to the panches and sarpaches of the panchayats in the State, a training scheme has been in operation for some years.

In 1982-83, there were 716 panchayats in the Rupnagar District with a total nembership of 4,918.

Functions

            The panchayat play a vital role in the democratic set-up of the State not only as primary units of local Government but also as basic units of administration. Under the Punjab, Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, the panchayats have also been vested with judicial and executive powers. In criminal cases, they have been given powers to try certain minor offences like petty theft, hurt, affray, and commission of public nuisance. For this purpose, they are under the control of the District Magistrate, who can hear appeals against their orders, and transfer case from one panchayat to another. On the civil and revenues side, the panchayats have been given powers to try certain civil revenue judicial cases and in respect of these cases, they are under the control of the District Judge and the Collector, respectively.

            Besides judicial work, the panchayats look to the requirements of their respective areas in regard to agriculture, education, animal husbandry, public health and sanitation including water supply, works of public utility, game and sports, industries, medical health and relief of the poor. They are expected to arrange 50 per cent of the cost of local development works sponsored by the Development Department, either in cash, kind or labour, and with the help of  the concerned departments, and they have established a number of single teacher primary schools, constructed new school new school buildings, besides providing drinking water arrangements in the schools. They have also provided community listening sets, constructed and repaired panchayat ghars, and undertaken many other development activities at village level, including the planting of trees, arranging playgrounds and children parks, construction of village approach roads, repairing and levelling of public paths, constructions of drains, construction of culverts and pavement of streets, construction, repair and remodelling of wells for drinking water and remodelling and repairing of ponds.

            Various steps have also been taken to strengthen the panchyat organisation. A the village level, trained Gram Sevikas, Bal Sevikas and craft teachers impart training to village women in handicrafts, home management, health and envirionmental sanitation, nutrition, child care, and family planning etc. They manage balwadis for children and organise women and girls into Mahila and Yuvati Mandals, respectively.

            Panchayat Samitis :-  The law relating to the Gram Panchayats / Panchayat Samitis is the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, Punjab Act IV of 1953, as subsequently amended and the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zial Prishads Act, 1961. The structure consists of three tiers, viz. a Panchayat at the village level, a Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and a Zila Parishad at the district level.

            The district is divided into 6 community development blocks. There is one panchayat samiti for each block. According to the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zial Parishads Act, each panchayat samiti consists of 17 members  elected by the Panches and Sarpanches from amongst themselves; two members elected by the co-operative societies; and one member elected by the market committees. Besides, every M.L.A. in whose constituency a samiti fall is automatically an associate members2. Two women and four persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, if not elected otherwise are co-opted as member. One person from amongst any of the Backward Classes is also co-opted as a member. The Sub Divisional Officer (Civil) and the Block Development and Panchayat Officer of the block, work as ex-officio- members, without the right to vote. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman are elected from amongst the elected members and their term of office is five years.

            The panchayat samitis play an important role in the development of he villages. They act as the main extension agency for mobilisation and motivation of rural community for raising agricultural production and economic improvement. The main functions of the panchayat samitis relate to agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, health and rural sanitation, communication, social education, co-operation, village industries, public places and buildings of public utility and other miscellaneous and additional matters. Their activities also include agricultural extension and minor irrigation, health and rural sanitation and nutrition  programmes.

            The main sources of income of the panchayat samitis are  :  local rate, fees derived from school and markets, fee from fairs and shows, rents and profits accruing from properties vested in it, and such money and grants which Government may place at its disposal. Besides, each panchayat samiti can, with the permission of the zial parishad, impose any tax which the State Legislature has power to impose under the Constitution.

Sources of Revenue

            The main sources of income of the panchayats are  :  grant-in-aid from Government, grants-in-aid from local bodies, a percentage of land revenue collection, donations, taxes, duties, cesses and fees, income from village common lands, sale of proceeds of dust, dirt and dung, etc. The fines and penalties which the panchayats impose are also transferred to the funds.

            The income of the panchayats in the Rupnagar District, during 1978-79 to 1982-83, is given below :-

 

Source of income

1978-79

(Rs.)

1979-80

(Rs.)

1980-81

(Rs.)

1981-82

(Rs.)

1982-83

(Rs.)

1.

Grand from Government

 

 

 

 

 

 

i) Grants-in-aids from Government

5,31,766

32,76,272

29,77,476

62,40,378

30,92,827

 

ii) Grants-in-aids from local bodies

1,64,301

1,42,058

1,15,000

2,40,123

2,07,650

2.

Voluntary contributions

35,875

69,946

43,261

1,17,586

5,79,883

3.

House Tax

1,94,573

2,30,092

2,22,740

2,48,957

2,70,551

 

Total

9,26,515

37,18,368

33,58,477

68,47,044

41,50,911

( Source  :  Director, Rural Development and Panchayats, Punjab, Chandigarh)

            Zila Parishads :-   Prior to the formation of zila parishads in the State, the princiapl units of rural local Government were district boards. They were constituted and administered under the Punjab District Boards Act, 1883. Like the municipal committees, district boards were charged generally with the adoption of measures likely to promote the safety, health, welfare, comfort and convenience and interest of the people living within their jurisdiction. The Zila Parishads, Rupnagar was consititued on 1 May 1962, under the Punjab Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads Act, 1961.

            The zila parishads has as its members Chairmen of all the panchayat samitis in the district, two members elected by each panchayat samiti, the M.P. and M.L.A., representing the district or any part thereof, and the Deputy Commissioner. Four women and five members belonging to the Scheduled Castes and two members of the Backward Classes, if not elected otherwise are co-opted as members. The M.Ps, M.L.Aa. and the Deputy Commissioner do not have the right to vote. The Zila Parishad ahs a Chairman and Vice-Chairman, elected by the primary members, Chairman of the panchayat samitis and co-opted members, from amongst themselves, for five years. The Secretary of the Zila Parishads is appointed by the Government.

            The Zila Parishad, Rupnagar was superseded in October 1978 and has not been re-constituted so far. Since the super-session  of the Zila Parishad, the Deputy Commissioner is functioning as its administrator.

            The Zila Parishad, Rupangar, has been entrusted with various development activities required to co-ordinate at district level. Its main functions and activities are to watch and guide financial and budgetary  position of panchayat samitis and to execute construction work through Panchayati Raj Public Works in rural areas. Besides, it runs 2 civil rural dispensaries and 12 civil veterinary hospitals in the district.

            The Zila Parishad, Rupangar, does not impose any tax, The main sources of income are State Government funds allotted to it and local rate. The income and expenditure of the Zila Parishad, Rupnagar, during 1978-79 to 1982-83, are given below :-

 

Year

Income (Rs.)

Expenditure (Rs.)

1978-79

21,25.424

21,28,845

1979-80

33,75,897

20,29,792

1980-81

15,38,213

22,65,566

1981-82

16,75,053

21,01,695

1982-83

25,95,545

27,43,696

( Source  :  Secretary, Zila Parishad, Rupnagar)

 

(Vide Page 334)

APPENDIX

Income and Expenditure of Municipalities in the Rupnagar District in 1978-79 to 1982-83

 

Name of Municipality

Particulars

Years

 

 

 

1978-79

(Rs.000)

1979-80

(Rs.000)

1980-81

(Rs.000)

1981-82

(Rs.000)

1982-83

(Rs.000)

 

Tahsil Rupnagar

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Rupnagar

Income

1,618

1,732

1,858

2,095

2,227

 

 

Expenditure

1,649

1,867

1,764

2,012

2,400

2

Morinda

Income

826

919

1,089

1,051

1,136

 

 

Expenditure

813

904

973

1,178

1,135

 

Tahsil Kharar

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Kharar

Income

957

1,117

924

1,075

1,148

 

 

Expenditure

972

1,045

1,026

1,053

1,105

4

Kurali

Income

871

914

1,307

1,264

1,357

 

 

Expenditure

745

1,020

1,325

1,066

1,624

 

Tahsil Anandpur Sahib

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Anandpur Sahib

Income

271

307

664

714

1,524

 

 

Expenditure

234

316

630

469

726

6

Nangal

Income

862

891

1,045

1,275

1,767

 

 

Expenditure

913

855

907

1,355

1,516

7

Naya Nangal

Income

4,494

3,532

4,619

10,635

12,202

 

 

Expenditure

2,681

3,075

9,977

12,171

12,262

( Source  : Abstracts of Punjab, 1978 to 1983)

 

CHAPTER- XV

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

(a)   Historical Background

Rupnagar is considered educationally a backward district. In the past as distant as the late nineteenth century, the form of education in the district was similar to that in the rest of the State. The Settlement Report of Mr. Wynyard mentions the following six types of indigenous schools in the present territory of the district in 1853 :-

1.                  Maktabs, where Persian was taught.

2.                  Chatsals, where Hindi was taught.

3.                  Pathshalas, where Nagri or Shastri was taught.

4.                  Maktabs, where Arabic was taught.

5.                  Gurmukhi Schools, where Gurmukhi was taught.

6.                  English Schools, where English was taught.

Education in most of these schools concentrated on the study of religious teachings. In the Maktabs, the study of Koran was given prime importance, besides the learning of Persian and Arabic. These Mkatabs, also called Persian Schools, were maintained by the Maulvis, and were not exclusively meant for Muslims but open to all communities. However, these schools were not very popular in the district. Chatsals or Hindi schools were meant for mercantile and trading communities for learning various tachygraphic forms of lande (an accounting script for shopkeeps), Mahajani (for merchants), and sarafi (for bankers). For Sanskrit learning, there were pathshalas. Gurumukhi schools were attached to village gurudwaras or dharamshalas.

With the advancement in human learning, the old system became obsolete and was replaced by well-organized schools maintained by government local bodies and private enterprise. In1891, the London Baptist Mission School was started at Kharar. It was raised to the status of a high school in 1910. Its special features were  ‘agricultural and tailoring classes’, and a ‘co-operative society’ for the purchase of books, stationary, etc. for the students. The Municipal Board, Ropar, also maintained a high school with a grant-in-aid from the Government. There were also vernacular middle schools, one  each at Kharar and Morinda. Besides, there was another angio-vernacular middle school, viz. Khalsa School at Chamkaur Sahib, managed by a religious body.

In addition to a number of primary schools, there were two schools for girls, one at Kharar, managed by the Baptist Mission and the other at Anandpur Sahib, managed by the District Board. There was also an Industrial School at Rupnagar, maintained by the Municipal Board. Academic training was upto the 5th class only, but the school also imparted in training in carpentry and drawing. The oldest college in the district is Government College, Rupnagar, stated in 1945.

After the Independence of the country in 1947, the Government gave priority to the expansion of education with an avowed policy of arranging free and compulsory education. As a result, the educational institutions multiplied. On 1 October, 1957, the Punjab Government took the bold step of provincializing the schools run by local bodies. Education in Government school is free upto the middle standard. In line with the recommendations of the Higher Secondary Education Commission most of the high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the additions of class XI . Four new degree colleges are now functioning in Anandpur Sahib, Chamkaur Sahib, Morinda and Bhago Majra (Kharar). A college of Physical Education in the Punjab State was started at Bhago Majra in 1976. This is the only degree institution in the district run by a private organisation.

There has been rapid increase in the number of educational institutions in the district since 1966, there were 1 college, 46 high/higher secondary schools, 40 middle schools and 427 primary/basic primary schools in the district. In 1982-83, this number rose to 8 colleges (including a College of Physical Education), 131 high/higher secondary schools, 69 middle schools, and 867 primary/basic primary schools.

 

 

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