(b)   Literacy and Educational Standard

According to 1981 Census, the literacy rate for the district was 48.08 per cent (55.94 per cent for males and 38.94 per cent for females) as against 40.86 per cent (47.16 per cent for males and 33.69 per cent for females) for the Punjab State as a whole. In respect of literacy, the district is ranks fourth in the State.

The number of educational institutions both in the public and private sectors has increased. The following table shows the progress of school education in the district during 1967-68 to 1982-83 :-

Progress of School education in Rupnagar District, 1967-68 to 1982-83

Type of Institution

Number of Institutions

 

1967-68

1972-73

1977-78

1982-83

 

 

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Total

Primary Schools

427*

-

498*

-

864*

-

862*

5*

867*

Middle Schools

32

8

56

9

87

4

69

-

69

High/Higher Secondary Schools

38

8

56

12

80

15

114

7

131

Total

497

16

610

21

1,031

19

1,045

22

1,067

(  Source  : Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1971 and 1978 and District Education Officer, Rupangar  )

*Almost all boys primary schools are co-educational

            A number of educational societies, missions, and philanthropic, endowments, render valuable service in the field of education in the district. These are mentioned as under :-

            (i) Christian Mission :-  The Christian Mission has done pioneering work in the promotion of education in the district. Reverend G.A. Smith of London Baptist Mission was the first missionary to start a school for boys. This was at Kharar in 1891. The school was raised to the level of high school in 1910. Lager in 1925, a school for girls, viz. Handerson Memorial Girls’ Primary School was opened here by a Newzealander Miss Mathews in the memory of her aunt Miss Handerson. It was upgraded to a high school in 1955. In 1975, and English-medium primary wing was also added. These schools are managed by the United Church of North India, the headquarters of which are in Ludhiana.

            (ii) Sanatan Dharam Sabha :- The Sanatan Dharam Sabha is running two high schools for boys, one each at Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib, and one for girl at Rupangar.

            (iii) The Ayra Samaj :-  Arya Samaj plays an important role in the promotion of education. It is running a number of educational institutions of middle and high/high secondary level in the district.

            (iv) Singh Sabha and other Sikh Societies :-  A number of schools and colleges are maintained by these societies at various places in the district. These include 3 colleges, one each at Anandpur Sahib, Morinda, and Bela (Chamkaur Sahib), besides a large number of high/higher secondary schools.

            Women’s Education :-  The age-old prejudice against female education in Indian society has considerably declined. The Compulsory Elementary Education Act, 1960, makes obligatory on parents to send their girls in the age-group of 6 years and above to schools.

            According to the 1982 Census, the rate of literacy of females as a percentage of the total population in the district was 38.94, as against the State’s 33.39. As on 30 September 1982, there were as many as 35,952 girls studying in primary schools. Besides the co-educational schools, there were 16 high and 1 higher secondary schools for girls in the district, and the number of girl students in these schools was 17,331 and 2,961 respectively. There are 2 degree colleges for girls, one each at Morinda and Padiala.The remaining colleges in the district are co-educational.

            Education of Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes :-  The Scheduled Castes and other Backward Classes, especially those inhabiting the rural areas, have not traditionally been enthusiastic in conducting their children. The introduction of free and compulsory primary education had greatly influenced their approach. The Government has assumed various facilities to encourage education among the members of these classes. Education upto M.A. level is free for them in government educational institutions. In private educational institutions also students belonging to these classes are given certain amenities. These include the reimbursement of examination fee in respect of different examinations to students belonging to the Scheduled Castes. Free books, stipends, and scholarships are awarded to these students in all educational institutions under the various schemes sponsored by the Sate and Central Government. Seats are reserved for them in various professional and technical institutions. Students desirous of getting higher education in law, medicine and engineering are given grants for the purchase of costly books. With a view to preparing the candidates belonging to these communities for competitive examinations, viz. the I.A.S., the I.P.S. and other allied central services, a Zonal  Coaching Centre was established in the Punjab University, Chandigarh in 1967, which was shifted to the Punjab University, Patiala in 1970.

            The financial assistance given to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and other Backward Classes in the district during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below :-

Year

Stipend (Rs.)

Number of students benefited

1973-74

2,10,139

2,707

1974-75

2,19,178

3.081

1975-76

94,930

1,268

1976-77

12,85,418

12,401

1977-78

13,48,285

46,774

1978-79

15,13,520

20,302

1978-80

19,09,501

20,788

1980-81

17,73,900

17,404

1980-82

17,45,015

18,223

1982-83

16,52,681

19,716

(  Source  :  District Education Officer, Rupangar  )

            The number of Scheduled Castes students studying in different schools in the district, as on 30 September, 1982, was as under :-

Type of Institution

Number of Scheduled Castes Students

 

Boys

Girls

Total

Primary Schools (Classes I to V)

13,000

10,000

23,000

Middle Schools (Classes VI to VIII)

5,000

2,000

7,000

High/Higher Secondary Schools (Classes IX to XI)

2,000

1,000

3,000

(  Source :  Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1983)

 

Role of Local Bodies in the Field of Education

            Prior to the provincialization of school in October 1957, the Zila Parishad (Formerly District Board) and the local bodies managed a large number of schools. The local bodies have had played vital role in the promotion of education. On the provincialization of these schools, these bodies were required to pay annually a specified contribution to the Government for their maintenance.

Medium of Instruction

            According to the Sachar Formula introduced in the State in 1949, the teaching of Punjabi as the first language and as a medium of instruction began from the first class and Hindi as the second language was introduced from the fourth class. This was replaced, on 2 July 1969, by a Three language formula under which Punjabi was made the first compulsory language as medium of instruction in Government schools at all levels. Besides, Hindi was made compulsory from the fourth class onwards. The teaching of English was made compulsory from the sixth class. The privately managed schools have been given the option to retain Punjabi and Hindi as medium of instruction, but such schools as opt for Hindi are required to teach Punjabi as a compulsory language. This solution, while ensuring compulsory instruction in Punjabi in all the schools in the State, has enabled the Hindi medium schools to continue teaching through that medium and has also ensured that all the schools goers in the State are conversant with both the languages, as also with English.

 

Educational Set-up

            At the district level, the District Education Officer (Secondary), Rupnagar is controlling and supervising all middle, high and higher secondary schools in the district. He functions under the control of the Director of Public Instruction (Secondary Schools), Punjab, through the Circle Education Officer, Nabha. He is assisted by 2 Deputy Education Officer, 1 Administrative Officer, besides other ministerial staff. With the separation of the primary win on 1 April 1978, the control of the primary schools has been entrusted to the District Education Office (Primary), who functions under the administrative control of the Director of Public Instructions (Primary Schools). He is assisted by 14 Primary Block Education Officer, besides other ministerial staff. Both the District Education Officer are also assisted by 1 District Science Supervisor, 1 Assistant Education Officer (Sports), 1 Vocational Guide Councellor and 1 Co-ordinator.

(c)    General Education

Pre-Primary Schools

            It has been the endeavour of the Government to bring every child within the fold of education. As one step, all the revenue villages in the district have been provided with primary schools. The Government is now paying attention towards pre-primary education for the children in the age group of 3-6. The aim at this stage is to inculcate social sense rather than attain formal instruction. A number of nursery and junior model schools (government and private) function in the district. Block Development authorities also run a number of balwadis. The Government had also sponsored various schemes for the development of the personality of the children through their participation in dramatics and allied activities.

Primary and Basic Schools :

            The Government introduced free primary education during the Third Five-year Plan (1961-66) for the age group of 6-7 in 1961-62, extending it to the age groups 7-8 in 1962-63, 8-9 in 1963-64, 9-10 in 1964-65 and 10-11 in 1965-66. The Central Government proposed to provide facilities for all children in the age group of 6-11 by the end of the Fifth Five year Plan (1969-70 to 1974-75) under the scheme “Expansion of Educational Facilities age group 6-11”. A number of Government primary schools have been opened and a large number of posts of J.B.T. teachers have been created to cope up with the additional enrolment in primary classes. Keeping in view the administrative requirements in the expansion of education, the Directorate of School Education was bifurcated in the year 1977-78 into two independent Directorates of Secondary Education and Primary Education.

            The total number of primary/basic primary schools both government and private in the district, as on 30 September 1982, was 867 with 77,753 (41801 boys and 35,952 girls) scholars. The number of teachers, as on 30 September 1982, in the schools was 2,686 (1,291 males and 1,395 females).

            The details of the educational institutions and scholars at primary stage in the district are given in Appendix on page 367.

Secondary Schools :

            Secondary education is promoted by educational institutions run by the Government as well by the privately managed organizations. The department of education gives liberal grants to the privately managed recognized educational institutions. The Central Government have laid down that the enrolment of children of age group 11-14 should be cent per cent by the end of the Sixth Five Year Plant (1980-81 to 1984-85). To meet the urgent demand for high classes, a number of middle schools have been upgraded to high standard and a few Government girls high schools have been opened under the scheme “Expansion of Educational Facilities Age Group 14-17” Physical Education has been made a compulsory subject in the schools.

            As on 30 September 1982 there were 11 higher secondary schools, 120 high schools and 69 middle schools in the district. The number of scholars studying in these schools were 8,674 (5,713 boys and 2,961 girls), 44,187 (26,856 boys and 17,331 girls) and 7,676 (4,730 boys and 2,946 girls), respectively. The number of teachers in the high/higher secondary schools and middle schools were 1,076 (619 males and 457 females) and 1,688 (913 males and 775 females) respectively.

            The details of educational institutions and scholars at the secondary stage in the district, as on 30 September 1982, are given in Appendix on page 365.

Higher Education

            During the year 1982-83, there were 7 arts and science colleges in the district, one each at Rupnagar, Anandpur Sahib, Morinda, Bhago Majra, Bela. Naya Nangal, and Padiala. All these colleges are affiliated to the Punjabi University, Patiala. Of these, the colleges at Morinda and Padiala are exclusively for women. All others are co-educational.

            There is a fairly standardised system of education in the district’s five colleges. All of them offer degree courses in the arts and humanities, with the college in Rupnagar and Anandpur Sahib, also offering science courses, at the level of pre-engineering, pre-medical and graduation. The college in Rupangar introduced post-graduate (Masters) classes in English and Political Science in the year 1975-76. The colleges also provide training under the N.C.C. and the N.S.S., which are Central scheme for co-curricular education. The number of students in Government College, Rupnagar, Guru Teg Bahadur Khalsa College, Anandpur Sahib, Baba Zorawar Singh Fateh Singh Girls Khalsa College, Morinda, Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Singh Memorial College, Bela (Chamkaur Sahib), Shaheed Kanshi Ram Memorial College, Bhago Majra, Shivalik  College, Naya Nangal and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Khalsa College for Women, Padiala-Kurali during 1982-83 was 1,497,378,189,159,150,835,127, respectively. The college in Rupnagar has hostels for both boys and girls.

            The Shivalik College, Naya Nangal has some different special features and is more oriented towards vocational education. It has introduced Astronomy and Space Science as subject in B.Sc from the session 1981-82.

            Sri Dashmesh Academy, Anandpur Sahib :-  Located in the foothills, at a distance of 4 km east of Gurudwara Keshgarh Sahib, Sri Dasmesh Academy was founded on 24 September 1978. The site of the Academy extending over 83 hectares (205 acres) in picturesque and serene. The temple of Naina Devi overlooks the campus.

            The Academy started its maiden session in July 1980 with 152 boys in the classes III, IV and V. It aims at providing special facilities to the children of members of the armed forces, especially the lower ranks and prepares them for an eventually career in the armed services. Sixty per cent seats are reserved for the children and grand children of ex-service men, serving personnel of three Armed Forces and para military forces (Punjab domicile). Out of this, 40 per cent are reserved for the sons of JCOs’ and below and their equivalent ranks from other services, 8 per cent for the sons of Inspectors and below from para military forces. 10 per cent for the Commissioned Officer of Armed Forces and 2 per cent for officer of the para military forces of the ranks of DSP and above. The second emphasis in the Academy is on children from the rural areas of Punjab, about 80 per cent of the children hailing from the villages. The children of JCOs’ and below and their equivalent are given free education including board and lodging. The children of Commissioned Officer of armed forces and DSP and above from para-military forces are given a 50 per cent concession in school fees.

            The Academy provides general education up to the higher secondary level, i.e. 12 years course, with a bias on scientific knowledge. Its special aims are :  to create among the students a strong sense of duty and discipline; to develop qualities of leadership among the students, to help the students develop an integrated personality with a capacity to adjust to varying situations; to develop in the students spiritual and moral values and to create awareness of cultural heritage; and to provide adequate facilities in the way of sports and outdoor activities.

            The Academy is residential and is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi, for All India Senior School Examination. The medium of instruction is English but students are encouraged to maintain a good standard in Hindi and Punjabi which they have to study till class X. The Academy has a modern and spacious library building overlooking the water feature with a well stocked books and reading material suited for all ages and standards. The Academy hospital is under the control of a Medical officer, who is assisted by qualified nursing staff. 

            The number of students on rolls of the Academy, during 1981-82 and 1982-83 was 282, and 340, respectively.

            The financial investment in the school came from the state Government and the Punjab Defence and Security Relief Fund.

(d)   Professional and Technical Education

There is only one Junior Basic Training Institutions functioning at Nangar Township in the district.

College of Physical Education

Shaheed Kanshi Ram College of Physical Education at Bhago Majra (Kharar) is the only non-government affiliated college of Physical Education in the State. Established on 16 September 1976, it is a co-educational institute. In the beginning, admission to certificate course in Physical Education was started, and admission to degree course was introduced in 1978-79. The duration of Diploma in Physical Education is of one year.

The number of students on the rolls of the college, during 1982-83, in E.P.Ed., and D.P.Ed. was 121 and 20, resprectively.

Technical Education

Technical education plays an important role in the industrial development of the country. In Rupangar District, industrial training institutes are located in two towns, Rupangar and Nangal. In the industrial institutes, training is imparted to the students in various trades and crafts such as agro-mechanic, motor mechanic, carpentry, stenography, needle work, tailoring, etc.

(e)   Physical Education

Physical education and games have been made compulsory subjects in the middle and high/higher secondary schools of the State since 1974. These are elective subjects and are thus part and parcel of the school curriculum. Inter-school tournaments are also held separately for higher secondary/high/middle and primary schools. The Government allocates funds for the purchase of sports-equipment for schools. Where necessary, schools are given grants to buy land for playgrounds.

In the colleges, physical education is directed and guided by the Director of Physical Education. In schools, it is organized under the guidance of Directors of Physical Education as well as Physical Training Instructors.

At the district level, the District Education Officer is assisted by an Assistant District Education Officer for the promotion of physical education. He supervise and guides physical education in the schools. Annual physico-medical tests are compulsory for all students.

Some other schemes of separate departments also promote the physical fitness and education :-

1.                  Schemes of the State Sports Department.

2.                  National Fitness Corps sponsored by the Government of India.

3.                  National Cadet Corps.

4.                  Bharat Scouts and Guides

(1) Schemes of the State Sports Departments :-  The Punjab Government had created an independent Sports Departments in 1961 under the administrative control of a Director of Sports . After the reorganization of Punjab in November 1966, the Department was merged with the Education Department. The Department was again made an independent Directorate from 2 September 1975.

The Department has been endeavouring to have complete team of coaches in major game at all district headquarters. The District Sports Officer, Rupnagar, also supervises the activities of the games in addition to doing coaching work. He is assisted by 8 Coaches, 6 posted at Rupnagar and one each at Nangal and Morinda. A Boat Club is also functioning under the District Sports Officer, Rupnagar. Those who reach the retraining standard are also provided with all facilities during training. Besides improving the standard of sports at the school and college levels in the State, special sports wings have been attached to some of the schools and colleges for training in sports techniques. The trainees receive free board and lodging there.

A sports competition at Anandpur Sahib is help every year on Hola Mohalla festival, where wrestlers are selected for traditional honours.

Special certificates of grading entitle the outstanding sports men/women to special consideration in admission in the medical and technical institutions.

The following sports associations are functioning in the district :-

(a)                District Hockey Association

(b)               District Footbal Association

(c)                District Volleyball Association

(d)               District Athletics Association

(e)                District Basketball Association

(f)                 District Badminton Association

(g)                District Swimming Association

(h)                District Handball Association

(i)                  District Table Tennis Association

(j)                 District Wrestling Association

(k)               District Weight-lifting Association

(l)                  District Gymnastic Association

(m)              District Kabbadi Association

(n)                District Rifle-shooting Association

District Olympic Association, Rupnagar

            This association has been functioning in the district since November 1966. It controls all the sports associations in the district. Its objectives are to promote, organize, control and co-ordinate sports and game activities. The Deputy Commissioner is the ex-officio President of the association. The other members of this association are elected.

            An important function of  this association is to give financial help to the other associations. It also organises tournaments and help the talented sportsmen/players. It also helps to send the students from both the government and private institutions to Manali (Himachal Pradesh) for mountaineering training.

            (2)        National Fitness Corps :-  As a result of the recommendations of the Kunzru Committee, the Department of National Fitness Corps was started in 1963 by merging National Discipline Scheme, Auxiliary Cadet Corps and Physical Education. Prior to this, it was known as National Discipline Scheme which was started in 1954. Its main aim is to develop the all around personality of the students. The scheme aims at imparting discipline among boys and girls. It also provides health education and cultural activities. It inculcates in the students an interest in games. It aims to imparting training among the students, both boys and girls, in drill, lezim, tippri, gymnastic, physical training and action songs. These activities inculcate discipline, self-confidence, patriotism, steadiness and national integration among the students.

            As on 31 March 1983, the total number of students under the scheme in the Rupnagar District was 84,877 (45,276 boys and 39,601 girls).

            (3)        National Cadet Corps :-  It was introduced by the Government of India in 1948 in order to stimulate the interest of youth in the defence of the country and inculcate the sense of responsibility and discipline among them. With its motto ‘Unity and Discipline’, the National Cadet Corps has been serving a useful purpose, especially in the border areas. The main aim of National Cadet Corps is to develop quality of leadership, comradeship, spirit of sportsmanship and the ideal of service. It is also engaged in creating force of disciplined and trained man power which may assist the country at the time of National Emergency. It also provides training for students with a view to developing in them officer-like qualities. It imparts military training on various subjects like drill both with the without arms, weapon training, map reading, signal training, field craft, civil defence, first aid, hygiene, sanitation, organization and social service. Besides, it organizes camps to provide an opportunity to introduce cadets to outdoor and community life.

            The number of cadets in the National Cadet Corps in the Rupnagar District, as on 31 March 1983, was as under :-

 

Boys

Girls

Total

Senior Division

200

41

241

Junior Division

1,500

-

1,500

 

            (4)        Bharat Scouts and Guides :-  The two associations “The Hindustan Scouts Association” and “Boy Scouts Association” were merged on 7 November 1950 as Bharat Scouts and Guides. A third association “The All India Girl Guides” also joined this newly created association on 15 August 1951. This organizations trains boys and girls in the principles and practice of scout movement. The activities of this movement include training camps, refresher courses, week-end camps, sight-seeing hiking trips, etc. The children are also taught first-aid. This association teaches its trainees, belief in God, discipline, co-operation, self help and self confidence, thereby promoting their physical, mental, moral and spiritual development.

            The Bharat Scouts and Guides, Punjab, had its State Headquarters at Chandigarh, and a training centre at Tara Devi (Himachal Pradesh). There is a District Association in every district. The total strength of scouts and guides in the Rupnagar District, as on 31 March 1983 was 3,200.

(f)     Cultivation of Fine Arts

There is no separate institution in the district for imparting training in fine arts like music, dancing, and painting. However, music as a subject is taught in some girls schools and colleges in the district.

(g)   Education for the Handicapped

Home for the Mentally Retarded Children, Nangal :-  The Home for Mentally Retarded Children was stared by the Bharat Sewak Samaj at Nangal in 1968. It was taken over by the Social Welfare Department in 1975. It is a residential institution where both boys and girls are admitted. All expenses are met by the Social Welfare Department

The aim of the institution is to educate and train the mentally retarded children in the age group between 5 to 16 years in a specialized manner. Children whose parents’ income is less than Rs. 6,000 per annum, are admitted in the institution on the recommendation.

The number of sanctioned seats for the home is 50.

(h)   Adult Literacy, Social Education and Measures for the Diffusion of Culture among the Masses

Before Independence, adult literacy received a high priority in all national programmes, but in the years following partition, its importance waned until 1978-79 when the central Government launched a Rs. 200 crores National Scheme for adult literacy. In Punjab, the Union Education Ministry selected the Shaheed Kanshi Ram Educational Trust, Kharar, for implementing this scheme. A grant of Rs. 98,000 was sanctioned for 60 Adult Education Centres in March 1979. Since may 1979, these centres have been functioning in 35 villages of Kharar Block. Thirty five centres are exclusively for women who have shown greater enthusiasm than men. A large number of men and women receive instruction at these centres and within a year of training they are expected to acquire literacy proficiency equal to third primary class. Kharar Block in the Rupnagar District leads the State in the progress of the Adult literacy Programme.

As many as 48 Adult Education Centres (8 under Nehru Yuvak Kendra and 40 under National Adult Education Programme through Nehru Yuvak Kender) for male and female youths were organized for a spell of six months to one year each in different villages of the district. These centres were supervised by the trained National Service Volunteers.

(i)     Cultural and Literacy Societies and Periodicals

The schools and colleges have a number of social, cultural and literacy societies. The cultural and literacy societies, functioning in the district, are mentioned below :-

Cultural Societies :-  The Ram Lila Committee and Mahavir Dramatic Club function at Rupnagar. The Ram Lila Committee stages Ram Lila every year on Dussehra with enthusiasm. Its membership is about 300. Mahavir  Dramatic Club, Rupnagar, was established in 1970. It also stages Ram Lila. Besides, it stages dramas on different occasions during the year.

Literary Societies

Literary societies promote the cause of literature by encouraging young writers through the constructive criticism of their writings and by publishing their works. These also arrange Kavi darbars (poetical  symposia), literary meeting and seminars. Among the literary societies  functions in the district, the following deserve mention :-

1.         Zila Likhari Sabha, Rupnagar :-  It was establised in 1968 to encourage literary output. The Sabha holds meetings frequently, where healthy discussions are held on the writing of the members and invitees. It organizes poetical symposia, literary meetings, seminars, paper reading or particular topics and helps works of new writer published. In 1974, it organized a State level kavi darbar at Rupnagar in which a large number of renowned poets participated.

2.         Dalit Likhari Sabha, Punjab (Regd.) Village Sihon Majra :-  It aims at helping writers belonging to the weaker sections of society.

(j)     Libraries and Museums

Libraries :

            The facility of public libraries and reading rooms is available  in almost all the towns in the district.. Most schools and colleges have their own libraries. All the municipalities and notified area committees in the district maintain libraries and reading-rooms for public use. After the introduction of Panchayati Raj in the State, most of the panchayats have opened libraries. In Rupnagar District, 50 panchayats run libraries and reading rooms for the promotion of education and general knowledge among the people in the rural areas. These libraries  subscribe to a number of books, and periodicals. Apart from the above , the following public libraries also functions in the district.

            District Library, Rupnagar :-  Established in 1970-71, the District Library, Rupnagar, is under the control of the Education Department. As on 31 March 1983, it had 11,757 books.

            Nehru Yuvak Kendra Library, Rupnagar :-  Established in 1973, it is a small library with about 1,500 books and a reading room with a few monthlies, and daily newspapers. Each youth club affiliated to Nehru Yuvak Kendra is ex-officia a member of the library. In addition to this, a mobile library with 10 boxes containing 50 to 60 books each is organized for clubs/centres being run by the Kendra.

Museums :-

            Guru Tegh Bahadur Museum Anandpur Sahib :-  Situated near Gurudwara Keshgarh Sahib, the museum is exclusively devoted to the life and teachings of the Sikh Gurus. Built at a cost of Rs. 12 lakhs, the building has been fitted with transparent fibre domes so as to let in natural light. The walls are lined with light grey marble. There are 24 oil paintings depicting important events connected with the lives of Sikh Gurus, martyrs and followers.

(Vide page355/356)

APPENDIX

Educational Institutions and Scholars at Secondary/ Primary stages in the Rupnagar District

as on 30 September, 1982    

Schools

Number of Institutions

Number of Scholars

 

Government

Private

Total

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

 

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

 

 

 

 

Higher Secondary Schools

3

1

7

-

10

1

11

5,713

2,961

8,674

High Schools

86

9

18

7

104

16

120

26,856

17,331

44,187

Middle Schools

65

-

4

-

69

-

69

4,730

2,946

7,676

Primary Schools

861

4

1

1

862

5

867

41,801

35,951

77,753

Total

1,015

14

30

8

1,045

22

1,067

79,100

59,190

1,38,290

 

CHAPTER XVI

 

MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

 

(a)        The indigenous system of medicine k nown as Ayarveda has been prevalent in the district from early times. This branch of medicine was very popular in the those days due to the availability cheapness and efficacy of indigenous drungs. Another branch of indigenous medicine of later origin started with the advent of the Muslim rule in this part of the country, is the Unani. In the course of time, both the Ayurveda and Unani systems intermingled. Eventtually the Unani system of medicine became more popular in the urban areas, while perople now the Ayurvedic system was prevalent in the rural areas. The field of medicine in early in times was shared by the Vaids of Ayurveda, the Hakims of the Unains and a good number fo quacks and faith healers.

            The allopathic system of medicine was introduced in this region with the advent of the British rule in the middle of the nineteenth century. In the course of time, Homeeopathy however, did not enjoy State patronage under them.

            According to the Ambala District Gazetteer of  1892-93, the only two dispensaries in the part now forming Rupnagar District were those at Ropar and Kharar Both were under the control of the Civil Surgeon. The Ambala District Gazetteer of 1923-24 mentions that the municipal town of Ropar maintained a charitable hospital. At Kharar, some medical work was also done by the Baptist Mission.

            With the spread of education and scientific treatment, the methods of faith cure and quackery are resorted to by fewer people now. Homeopathy is being practised by a few practitioners in towns. The Government is also giving recognition to the indigenous systems. The number of Ayurvedic/Unani dispensaries in the district increased from 9 (8 Ayurvedic and 1 Unani) in 1967 to 34 (32 Ayurvedic and 2 Unani) on April 1983, each under the charge of a qualified Vaid or Hakim. They are under the administrative control of the Director of Ayurveda, Punjab, Chandigarh.

 

            After Independence, many new dispensaries were opened in the district The conversion of the rural dispensaries into primary health centres and opening of family planning cetres were features of the Five-Year Plans. Maternity and Child Health Centres have been opened at Rupnagar, Nangal Township, Kurali , Bhago Majra, Mehtotan, Chandpur Bela and Morinda. The number of hospital/ primary health centres/ dispensaries in the district increased from 24 in 1967 to 107 on 1 April 1983.

 

            Accordingly to the 1971 Census, Naya Nangal town was provided with the maximum medical facilities in the district. There were in the all 222 beds in the medical institutions in all the  towns of the district, the average being 2.69 beds per thousand population. Naya Nangal township had the a hospital with 80 beds, 3 dispensaries, maintained by the National Fertilizers Limited, Naya Nangal, and a family planning   centre without any bed facilities. On the other hand, Kurali had the lowest numbers of beds of thousand population, i.e. 0.41.

           

            On an average, there were 2.97 medical institutions per 100 sq. km. in the rural areas of the district when the corresponding figure  for the State was only 2.69. Kharar Tahsil leads in this areas, the position is better than in the rural areas.

 

            As on 1 April 1983, Rupnagar town had 1 hospital with 100 beds, 1 Urban slum area dispensary with 4 beds, 1 police dispensary with 6 beds, 1 T.B. cente, 1 maternity and child health centre and 1 Ayurvedic dispensary.

 

 

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