Integrated Subsidised Housing Scheme for Industrial Workers and Economically Weaker Section of Community- The Punjab Industrial Housing Act, 1956, provides for allotment and administration of houses constructed under the Government of India Itegrated Subsidised Housing Scheme for Industrial Workers and Economically Weaker Section of Community. Houses are allotted to workers in accordance with the provisions of Punjab Industrial Housing Act, 1956 and Punjab Industrial Housing Rules, 1982. Two per cent or orthopaedically handicapped industrial workers who are otherwise eligible for allotment under the rules.

            Under the scheme, 246 houses constructed at S. A. S. Nagar (Mohali) were allotted to the eligible industrial workers in the Rupnagar District up to 31 March 1983.

(b)        Prohibition

            Rupnagar is not a dry district. As on 31 March 1983, there were 68 country liquor vends and 21 foreign liquor vends in the district.

The consumption of exciseable articles in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is as under:

Year

Country Spirit (Proof Litres)

Roreign Spirt (Proof Litres)

Wine and Beer (Bulk Litres)

Opium (Kgs)

Bhang (Kgs)

1973-74

3,90,450

1,03,450

69,682

2.000

-

1974-75

4,05,450

63,361

58,654

2.250

-

1975-76

4,13,580

61,306

70,231

2.000

-

1976-77

4,58,114

76,825

2,98,881

2.500

-

1977-78

5,28,215

87,001

5,52,056

3.205

-

1978-79

4,87,150

80,583

4,11,395

5.000

-

1979-80

4,43,471

1,44,596

3,52,255

3.000

-

1980-81

7,39,553

1,91,959

2,47,024

1.800

-

1981-82

6,00,642

1,63,841

2,75,064

1.500

-

1982-83

7,55,000

3,58,944

1,64,124

3.500

-

(Source : Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1974 to 1978 and Assistant Excise  and Taxation Commissioner, Rupnagar)

            The district falls under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Patiala. The Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Rupnagar, administers the Excise and Opium Acts in the district. He is assisted by 6 Excise Inspectors and other miscellaneous staff.

            The number of cases registered under Excise and Opium Acts in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below:-

 

Year

No. of Cases Registered

 

Excise Act

Opium Act

Total

1973-74

365

163

528

1974-75

397

214

611

1975-76

368

194

562

1976-77

407

278

685

1977-78

346

222

568

1978-79

105

19

124

1979-80

173

13

186

1980-81

103

33

136

1981-82

105

25

130

1982-83

104

11

115

 

(Source: Assistant Excise and Taxation Commissioner, Rupnagar)

 

            After the Independence of the country, the State Government has sponsored various schemes for the social, economic and educational advancement of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.

 

 

Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.

            According to the 1981 Census, the Scheduled Castes population in the Rupnagar District constituted 24.38 per cent of the total population as against 26.87 per cent of the Punjab State as a whole. The number of Scheduled Castes persons in the district was 1,74,729 (94,878 males and 79,851 females). Of these, 1,47,927 persons (80,269 males and 67,758 females) lived in the rural areas and 26,802 (14,609 males and 12,193 females) lived in the urban areas.

            The names of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes inhabiting the Rupnagar District, and their main professions, are given in Appendix at the end of this chapter at page 419.

            Measures adopted for betterment of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.- The Construction of Indian provides for special safeguards for the Backward Classes which include Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, denitrified tribes and other backward classes. The interests of the scheduled Castes have been protected by including them in the Constitutions (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950.  The Constitution provides that no discrimination can be made against them in any shape or form.  Article 15 (A) of the Constitution empowers the States to make special provisions for the advancement of the Scheduled Castes.

            Under the division of powers, welfare of the Hafijans was made the responsibility of the States.  The States enacted legislative measures for the abolition of untouchability and removal of other hardships confronted by them.  The Punjab State took lead in enacting legislation for abolition of untocuhability.  The Punjab Removal of the Religions and Social Disuse abilities Act, 1948, was passed to ensure free and unhindered use of public places by the Harijans.  Further, the Government enacted the untouchability Offices) Act, 1955, which recognized the practice of untouchability, in any forms, as a cognizable offence. 

            The Directive Principles of States Policy empower the States to take special care in promoting the interests of the weaker sections of the society, particularly Scheduled Castes and Castes and Backward Classes, Punjab, Chandigarh, works for the upliftment of these classes in the State.

            At the district level, the District Welfare Officer, Rupnagar is assisted by 3 Tahsil Welfare Officers, posted one each at the tahsil  headquarters, viz.  Rupnagar, Kharar and Anandpur Sahib, 1 Accountant, 2 Assistant, 1 Steno, 5 Clerks, besides other miscellaneous staff.

            Under Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitutions, provision has been made for the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and among others, in Parliament as also in the State Legislatures on population basis.  Initially, reservation was for a period  of 10 years, i.e. upto 1960.  This period has been further extended upto 1990.  In order to provided employment to educated persons of these casts, 25 per cent vacancies have been reserved for the Scheduled Castes, and 5 per cent  for the Backward Classes in all Government departments and establishments.  To ensure proper implementation of the instructions regarding the reservations in services, a special cell has been created in the Department of Social Welfare.  No department can recruit a non-scheduled caste candidate against a post reserved for Scheduled Castes unless a certificate is obtained form the cell to this effect that no suitable Scheduled Caste candidate is available.  The Scheduled Caste candidate also enjoy age relaxation concessions in regard to recruitment to service. 

            The various schemes implemented for the uplift of the Scheduled Castes, Vimukt Jatis and Backward Classes are discussed below:

 

1.         Social Welfare Schemes - The State Social Welfare Department has implemented the following schemes:

            Subsidy for Constructions of New Houses for Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis- The persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Vimkut Jatis generally reside in slims in the urban and rural areas.  They are unable to build better houses due to their poverty.  The State Government has undertaken the progmamme to provided neat and clean housed to the members of these classes who have either no houses of their own or are living in such houses which are not fit for proper living, In order to help them, subsidies are granted for  the construction of new houses.   a subsidy of Rs. 2,000 is granted  to each deserving and needy persons for the purpose.   Unskilled labour sites are to be provided by the beneficiaries themselves. The house built under the scheme consists of a room, varandha, a kitchen and courtyard, with a  total area of 125 or 150 square yards.

            Under the scheme, the beneficiaries are bound not to alienate the properties so acquired by them.  The property rights of houses are fully vested in Government for a period of 20 years, after which the house becomes the property of the beneficiary.  However, the latter enjoys free use of the house during this period.

            The total amount of subsidies granted and the number of beneficiaries under  the scheme, in the district during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given below:

 

Year

. .

Amount

No. of beneficiaries

1973-74

. .

5,400

6

1974-75

. .

-

-

1975-76

. .

98,00

49

1976-77

. .

1,36,000

68

1977-78

. .

3,12,000

156

1978-79

. .

82,000

41

1979-80

. .

96,000

48

1980-81

. .

96,000

48

1981-82

. .

1,04,000

52

1982-83

. .

46,00

23

 

 

 

 

 

           
Previously, this was centrally-sponsored scheme. No provision was made under the scheme by the Government of India during the year 1974-75. In 1975-76, the State Government included this scheme in State sector and raised the subsidy amount from Rs. 900 to Rs. 2,000.

            Subsidy for purchase of Agricultural Land.- The members of the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis generally depend upon agriculture, but most of them have no land of their own. They earn their  livelihood by taking land on  lease or batai  which does not yield enough  produce for the maintenance of an average family.  Keeping in view plight, the Government in 1956-57 formulated a scheme to give subsidy to these classes for the purchase of agricultural land.   Up to 1970-71, subsidy of Rs. 2,000 was given for the purchase of at least 5 acres of  land costing no less than Rs. 4,500. The  rest of the amount was to be arranged by the beneficiary himself.  Considering the steep rise in the prices of agricultural land, the rate of subsidy under this scheme was enhanced from Rs. 2,000 to Rs. 5,000 in 1971-71, and area of land to be purchased was reduced from 5 acres to 3 acres. Each beneficiary has to contribute at last Rs 2,500 from his own resources as heretofore.  Apart from this, a subsidy of Rs 1,000 is also given for construction of house/well in that land and Rs180 for meeting charges of stamp duty payable  for the registration of mortgage deed.

            The amount of subsidies granted and the member of beneficiaries, i.e. persons settled on land under the scheme, in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given ad under:          

 

Year

. .

Amount

No. of beneficiaries

1973-74

. .

6,180

1

1974-75

. .

30,900

5

1975-76

. .

30,900

5

1976-77

. .

43260

7

1977-78

. .

6,180

1

1978-79

. .

10,000

2

1979-80

. .

30,000

6

1980-81

. .

30,000

6

1981-82

. .

30,000

6

1982-83

. .

50,000

10

 


Drinking Water Facilities- Started in 1955-56, the scheme aims at providing drinking water to the Scheduled Castes in the scarcity areas.  It includes construction of diggies, sinking and repairs of wells and installation of hand-pumps, for which subsidy is given.

            The amount of subsidy given and them number of wells repaired and hand-pumps installed in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given as under:

 

Year

. .

Amount

No. of beneficiaries

1973-74

. .

46,350

49

1974-75

. .

29,600

52

1975-76

. .

38,300

63

1976-77

. .

38,300

63

1977-78

. .

53,600

77

1978-79

. .

26,800

41

1979-80

. .

33,500

53

1980-81

. .

31,000

32

1981-82

. .

34,100

37

1982-83

. .

31,000

30

Interest Free Loans.- Generally, the persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backwards Classes who successfully complete their academic or professional courses in medicine, law, engineering, architecture, etc.find it difficult to establish themselves  due to lack of financial resources.  To help them to start their business, a scheme was introduced by the Government in 1958-59.  Under this scheme, every such eligible persons was granted and interest free loan of Rs. 2,000.  This  amount was to be recovered in 20 half-yearly equal interments.  Thereafter, the Punjab Government set up the Punjab Scheduled Castes Land Development and Finance Corporation for taking up the task of economic unlift to these classes in the State.  This Corporation  started functioning from 18 January 1971. It has taken a lead in promoting the socio-economic conditions of the members of the Scheduled Castes   by providing them easy credit facilities for trade/occupations,  such as agricultural development, marketing, processing, supply and storage, small-scale industries, construction, transport and several other trades,  In the Rupnagar District , an amount of Rs. 12,73,714 was discussed to 190 loanees by the Corporation during 1977-78.

            In order to make more financial assistance available to the members of the Backward Classes for promoting small-scale industries, agricultural development and construction of houses, the State Government in 1977 established the Punjab Backward Classes Land Development and Finance Corporation.

Construction of Dharamsalas/Chaupals.-This scheme was started in 1960-70 for the construction of dharmshalas/chapalas in rural areas of the State. Under this scheme, a  sum of Rs 7,000 for the construction of a new dharmshalas/chapala  and Rs. 3,000 for the repair of an old kachacha/ dharmshala is granted as a subsidy, where these are neded by the members of Scheduled Castes.  The amount  of grant for each dharmshala  has been raised form Rs 7,000 to Rs 10,000 The aim of this scheme is to provided accommodation to the members of the Scheduled Castes for the solemnization of marriages and conducting social functions.

            The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of dharmshala constructed in district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given below:


 

Year

. .

Amount

No. of beneficiaries

1973-74

. .

5,16,000

97

1974-75

. .

7,39,000

112

1975-76

. .

6,65,000

95

1976-77

. .

7,00,000

104

1977-78

. .

3,06,000

55

1978-79

. .

41,95,000

56

1979-80

. .

3,74,000

76

1980-81

. .

3,02,000

68

1981-82

. .

1,59,000

25

1982-83

. .

61,000

25

 

Environmental Improvement of Harijan Bastis._The Harijan Bastis are generally located in unhealthy areas and are thus breeding ground of files, mosquitoes which results in epidemics. In order to improve the living conditions and environmental sanitation of the bastis, this scheme was started during 1972-73. It includes pavement of streets, and construction of drains for avoiding the formation of dirty ponds of stagnant water which pollute the environment of the bastis.

 

            the amount disbursed and number of bastis of bastis benefited in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given below:

 

Year

Amount disbursed

Number of bastis benefited

1973-74

9,62,021

16

1974-75

10,38,197

22

1975-76

16,42,457

30

1976-77

7,57,045

1

1977-78

7,30,234

14

1978-79

6,71,883

15

1979-80

1,21,520

19

1980-81

63,422

1

1981-82

65,000

1

1982-83

4,97,789

5

(Source : District Welfare Officer, Rupnagar)

            Legal Aid._Due to poor economic condition, members of the Scheduled Castes are unable to engage lawyers for their legal protection. In order to protect their interests in criminal, civil and revenue cases and to safeguard their rights agains the landlords and other exploiting classes, this scheme was started in the State in 1958-59. Legal aid is given to these classes in the form of lawyer's fee assessed on the rates fixed by the Deputy Commissioner/Sub Divisional Officer (Civil).

 

            The amount disbursed to the Scheduled Castes under the scheme in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is as under:


 

Year

Amount disbursed

Number of bastis benefited

1973-74

8,133

4

1974-75

--

--

1975-76

220

1

1976-77

--

--

1977-78

--

--

1978-79

608

2

1979-80

--

--

1980-81

500

2

1981-82

--

--

1982-83

1,034

5

 

            Manure Pits Scheme._The scheme was introduced in 1980-81. Under this scheme, one marla land free of cost is given to a Scheduled Caste person who has no place for dumping of domestic waste. The number of beneficiaries in the Rupnagar District during 1980-81 and 1982-83 was 91, 103 and 189, respectively.

 

            Community Centres._With a view to eradicating untouch ability and promoting social intercourse, the scheme of Community Centres was started in the State in 1956-57. Harijan children and women are brought together alongwith others for education and vocational training in community centres set up in villages which are mainly inhabited by the scheduled Castes. The Department of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, Punjab, is running 9 community centres at Shampura (Rupnagar), Zindwari (Anandpur Sahib, Dobet (Anandpur Sahib), Padiala (Kharar), Sialba Mazri (Kharar). Bazheri (Kharar), Kumbra (Kharar), Rasulpur (Rupnagar) and Ghruan (Kharar), in the Rupnagar District. Each community centre is manned by a Lady Social Worker and a Lady Attendant who are usually trained in maternity techniques and as such handle maternity cases free of charge. The programmes are so arranged that the centre is used by the children, men and women at different times of the day. The children of age group '0-6' years are taught cleanliness, songs, games, good behaviour and good habits; and women are taught social education, cooking, first-aid, home nursing, tailoring and embroidery. Arrangements are also made for imparting adult-education to men and women. The Government provides a subsidy of Rs. 2,000 to the village panchayat for the construction of a community centre.

            Subsidy for the purchase of law, medical and engineering books._The books pertaining to law, medical and engineering are generally costly and the students belonging to the Schedules Castes cannot afford to purchase due to their lean financial position. in order to overcome this hardship, this scheme was startd in the State in 1974-75. The grants are given to various institutions for purchase of law, medical and engineering books for being kept in libraries for the use of the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes.

            Opening of Creches for the Children of working mothers. (Sweepers and Seavengers)._This scheme was started in 1976-77 to provide day-care centre for looking after the children in the age group of '0-6' years whose mothers are employed. These creches are run under the supervision of the trained Lady Supervisors assisted by helpers. Each centre accommodates 40 children where free supplementary diet at the rate of Rs.1.25 per child per day is provided. There are two such centre functioning in the Rupnagar District, one each at Kharar and Morinda.

 

            Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme._It is certrally-sponsored scheme and is operated by the State Education Department. Under this scheme, scholarships are awarded to the Scheduled Castes students at the college level. They are also given the benefit under the scheme in the Government technical professional institutions. These students are also allowed refund of examination fee, if any, only once for each examination.

 

            Award of Scholarship and Re-imbursement of Fees._The students belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes are awarded scholarships and are reimbursed tuition fee under the State Harijan Welfare Scheme. Scholarship and reimbursement of tuition fee is allowed to al the Scheduled Castes and Bachward Classes students for 9th, 10th and 11th classes at the rate of Rs. 10 per month for Ist and 2nd Divisioners and Rs. 6 per month to others. The students belonging to these classes whose parents' income is Rs. 15,000 per annum or below derive benefit under this scheme. The Vimukt Jatis students are paid stipend right from Ist Primary class.

            Coaching Centre for competitive Examination._To ensureproper and adequate representation of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes candidates in I.A.S., I.P.S. and Allied Services etc. a Zonal Coaching Centre was established in the Punjab University, chandigarh on 24 April 1967 to provide coaching to the candidates appearing in the examinations for the higher posts. the Centre was later on shiftd to the Punjabi University. Patiala during 1970-71.

            Employment Cell._The Punjab Government have set up a special employment cell in the Directorate of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes to assist the unemployment persons belonging o these castes to get suitable jibs in various departments. No vacancy or post which is reserved for members of the Scheduled Castes/Backward Classes can be filled or unreserved without obtaining a non-availability certificate from on 1 January 1974. Up to 31 March 1983 2,357 unemployed persons were registered and 130 were provided with employemtn.

 

II. Industrial Training Schemes

 

            In order to train the members of Scheduled Caste and Vimukt Jatis in various engineering and non-engineering trades, the Industrial Training Department, Punjab, is running industrial training centres for Scheduled Castes at various places in the State, apart from the general reservation for them in other technical institutions. The main objective of this scheme is to increase the earning capacity of the underprivileged. Under this scheme, stipends at the rate of Rs. 45 per mensem are awarded to all the trainees belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Vimukt Jatis and Rs. 35 per mensem to the students belonging o the Backward Classes. However, there is no such industrial training centre in the Rupnagar District.

 

(d) Other Social Welfare Activities

 

            A number of social welfare schemes are being run by the Social Welfare Department, Punjab for providing institutional and non-institutional service to the economically and socially weaker sections of the society. Of these, the following schemes may be mentioned.

 

            Old-Age Pension Scheme._Started in January 1964, this is a major scheme of the Social Welfare Department. Under the scheme, aged infirm and the destitute persons above 65 years in case of men and above 60 years in case of women, with no mean of livelihood and no earning sons, are provided monetary assistance. Persons suffering from permanent disability are allowed relasation of 10 years in lower
age-limit. Started with a meagre pension of Rs. 15 per month per head, the rate of pension was increased to Rs. 25 per month per head with effect from July 1968. The position was again reviewed by the Government and from 1 March 1973, the rate of pension was increased to Rs. 50 per month per head.

 

            The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are given below:

 


Year

Amount disbursed

Number of bastis benefited

1973-74

8,20,250

1,930

1974-75

15,39,878

3,649

1975-76

17,58,150

3,907

1976-77

18,37,200

4,593

1977-78

21,32,855

5,063

1978-79

..

..

1979-80

..

..

1980-81

15,00,000

2,500

1981-82

25,40,000

3,963

1982-83

16,99,000

2,833

(Source: Director Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh and District Social Welfare, Officer, Rupnagar)

            Financial Assistance to Widow and Destitute Women.-This scheme was started in the State in January 1968. Under this scheme, monetary help is provided to needy widows and destitute women below the age of 60 years who are left with out any means of subsistance after the demise of their husbands or are physically or mentally incapable of earning a livelihood. Keeping in view the increased cost of living, the rate of assistance was raised from Rs. 20 per month to Rs. 50 per month per head from March 1973.

            The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, as given as under:

 

Year

Amount disbursed

Number of bastis benefited

1973-74

31,349

110

1974-75

1,21,278

503

1975-76

3,11,083

624

1976-77

3,90,972

780

1977-78

5,59,440

926

1978-79

..

..

1979-80

..

..

1980-81

3,09,970

1,042

1981-82

8,60,000

1,233

1982-83

4,34,000

726

(Source : Director Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh and District, Social Welfare, Officer Department)

 

 

            Financial Assistance to Dependent Children._This scheme was started in the State in March 1968. It aims at providing relief to orphan and destitute children under the age of 16 years who have either lost their parents or whose parents are unable to maintain them due to some incurable disease or permanent physical disability.

            In case of more than one deserving child in a family, preference in the grant of financial assistance, is given to the school-going children in order to encourage parents to educate them. The rate of financial assistance which was previously Rs. 20 per month was increased to Rs. 50 per month per child with effect from 1 March 1974.

            The amount disbursed under the scheme and the number of beneficiaries in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, are as under:

Year

Amount disbursed

Number of bastis benefited

1973-74

3,170

23

1974-75

27,700

90

1975-76

88,650

187

1976-77

1,41,750

334

1977-78

7,30,234

459

1978-79

6,71,883

..

1979-80

1,21,520

..

1980-81

63,422

242

1981-82

65,000

714

1982-83

4,97,789

457

(Source : Director Social Welfare, Punjab, Chandigarh and District Social Welfare, Officer, Rupnagar)

            (e) Public Trust Charitable Endowment and Muslim Wakfs

 

            Public and Charitable endowments play a significant part in the life of the society. They cover almost all aspects of life, especially social, religious and educational. Many educational institutions, hospitals, dharamshalas and other social welfare institutions are either started or are assisted in their administration and maintenance with funds donated by philanthropists. In some case, revenue free lands are also attached to these organizations.

            The public trusts functioning in the district are described below:

            Swami Chinmaya Nand Trust, Badali:-        This trust was founded in 1979 by Swami Chinmaynand for the development of sanyus Asharam and Sanatan Dharam. The effairs of the trust are managed by nine trustees.

            Pohlo Singh Shamsher Singh Memorial Trust, Anandpur Sahib,-This trust was founded in 1973 by Man Singh Khalsa The building of the trust is used as a serai. The affairs of the trust are managedd by the founder himself.

            Bhai Jaita Ji (Bawa Jiwan Singh) Trust, Anandpur Sahib:-  Founded in 1976 this trust preaches the teaching of Regh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs. In the building of the trust, a primary school is housed.

            Muslim Wakls :- Besides, there 705 Muslim Wakfs at different places in the district with properties attached to some of them. These properties were maintained by Custodian Department, Government of India , up to 1961 when their administration was entrusted to the Punjab Wakf Board, with headquarters at Ambala Cantt. The adminstration of the Wakfs is regulated by the Central Wakf, Act, 1954.

            The income from the Wakf properties in the Rupnagar District was Rs. 46094 during the year 1982-83 This amount is spent for the upkeep of these institutions, for charitable purposes. and for the promotion of education of the Muslim community. A large amount is also spent for the celebration of Urs on the important dargahs.

            The staff of the Wakf Board consists of one Aukaf Officer and one Rent Collector, both posted at Rupnagar, who are responsible for the maintenance and collection of revenue of all the Wakf properties in the district.

            The prominent daragah' in the Rupnagar District is Datgah Hafiz Mohammad Mussa Saheb located in the village of Manikpur Sharif which is about 10 km from Jurali. It has three-storeyed entrance gate with a number of rooms. The Urs of this dargha is celebrated annually under the management of the Punjab Wakf Board. 

 

APPENDIX

Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes

( Inhabiting the Rupnagar District)

Serial No.

Name of Caste

Main professions

1.

Ad Dharmi

Agriculture Labour shoemaking, weaving and service

2

Balmiki, Chura or Bhangi

Agriculture Labour scavenging and skinning of dead animals and service.

3.

Bazigar

Sheep and goat trade and labour

4.

Chamar, Rasdasi and Ravidasi

Agriculture labour shoemaking leather tanning, flying of dead animals weaving and service

5.

Mazhabi

Agriculture labour and service

6.

Bengala

Jugglery- not residing permanently

7.

Sansi

Agriculture and labour

8.

Kuch Bandh

Making of winnowing baskets

 

 

 

Backward Classes

 

1.

Chhimba

Tailoring

2.

Kahar

Labour

3.

Kumbhar

Clay-pottery and donkey transport.

4.

Lohar

Blacksmithy and Agriculture

5.

Nai or Barber

Haircutting and shaving

6.

Jhiwar

Labour

7.

Christian

Service

 

(Source: District Welfare Officer, Rupnagar)


CHAPTER XVIII

PUBLIC LIFE AND COLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

 

(a)                Representation of the District in the State and the Union Legislations :

Historical Background : - The British Government realized that lack of touch between the ruler and the ruled was the main cause of the 1857 Uprising. The Government, therefore passed the Indian Councils Act, 1961 which introduced the representative principle in the country. Consequently, Indians were associated with legislative work. Since this Act failed to satisfy the aspirations of the Indians, the Indian Councils Act of 1892 was passes which actually marked the effective beginning of representative Government. Under the Indian Councils Act of 1909, popularly known as Morley-Minto Reforms, the principle of election was largely recognized, which was further extended under the Act of 1919. The Act of  1935 was  a landmark in this direction which provided with a new constitutional status designated as ‘Provincial  Autonomy’. It implied that the provinces were to have an independent and autonomous status and responsible Government of their own. According to the provisions of the 1935 Act, the First General Elections in the country were held in January 1937, and the second and the last in March 1946. No elections could be held in between due to Second World War (1939-35)

General Elections held under the Constitution of India :- Under the Government of India Act, 1935, the principle of universal adult franchise was introduced with limitations as it entitled only 14 per cent of the population to vote. Apart from this, the communal representation was another feature of the said Act. This principle was fully recognized under the new Constitution of India. Article 326 of the Constitution provided that the elections of the Lok Sabha (House of People), and to Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) of every State shall be on the basis of universal adult franchise. Every Indian citizen who attains the age of 21 years and eligible otherwise is entitled to vote. Till 1980, seven general election have been held in the country. The success of these elections is testimony that the Indian masses have adjusted themselves to a democratic way of life.

India is a Union of  States and Territories. The Constitution provides that the members of each State Legislative Assemble shall be chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the State. The number of seats in a particular State Assemble is fixed by the Parliament according to the Representation of Peoples Act, 1951.

At present, the Punjab State has a 117 member Unicameral Legislature- the Vidhan Sabha. An Indian citizen not less than 25 years of age and possessing such other qualifications as prescribed in the Representation of People Act, 1951, is eligible to be chosen to be a member of the State Legislative.

Rupnagar was carved out as a new district on 1 November 1966 under the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. Prior to it, the areas comprising the district formed parts of the Ambala and Hoshiarpur districts. Since the constituencies in the district were re-demarcated, it is not possible to give information regarding the first three General Elections. The information regarding Fourth General Elections and onwards is given as under :-

Fourth General Elections, 1967 :-  The Fourth General Elections, held in 1967 were the first in the new State of Punjab after its re-organization on 1 November 1966. The constituencies delimited in 1965 were subjected to further delimitation in November 1966. Out of the total population of 4,71,594 (1961 Census) of the district, the number of electors was 2,71,972. As in the last general elections, the polling in all the constituencies was held under the marking system of voting and completed in one day on 19 February 1967.

Lok Sabha Constituency

            There was only one Parliamentary Constituency in the district viz., Ropar, which was reserved for the Schedules Castes. From this constituency, the Congress candidate was elected. The total number of electors in this constituency was 4,75,394. The total number of valid votes polled by each of the contesting parties was as under :-

Name of Party

Total No. of Valid votes polled

Percentage

Congress

1,27,986

38.09

Akali Dal (Sant Group)

1,23,914

36,89

Jan Sangh

48,057

14.31

Akali Dal (Master Group)

35,973

10.71

Total

3,35,930

100.00

(  Source  : Chief Electoral Officer, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

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