(i)                             Soils, Climate and Crops

Soils :-  The  soils of the district vary in texture generally from loam to silty clay loam except along the Satluj River and chos where some sandy patches may be found. The soils are low to medium in organic carbon and available nitrogen and respond to the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Similarly, the soils of this district need the application of phosphatic fertilizers. The available potassium in the soils is generally medium to high. However, 15 per cent of soils are deficient in potassium and are likely to respond to its application. Almost one-third of the soils are deficient in available zinc.

Chamkaur Sahib and Kharar blocks  have sodic soils. In Chamkaur Sahib Block, the water table is high on the northern side of the Sirhind Canal. The underground water in Kharar Block is available in limited quantity. The water contains high residual sodium carbonates.

The soils have high water retention capacity, The intake rate of some soils is low. The soils if Anandpur Sahib and Rupnagar blocks are undulating.

Major and Subsidiary Crops :-  The crops grown in the district are divided into two main categories, viz., Kharif (sauni) or autumn harvest and rabi (hari) or spring harvest. The kharif or rainfed crops are sown in monsoon from June to August and harvesting lasts from September to November. The rabi or irrigated crops are usually sown in October-November and harvested from mid March to mid May. Any crop which does not strictly within these two harvests is known as zaid (extra) crop. For example, toria (an oilseed) matures late in December and is classed as ziad (extra) kharif. Similarly, melons are harvested late in June and classed as zaid (extra) rabi.

The major kharif crops in the district are maize, paddy, groundnut and sugarcane, while minor one are cotton, pulses such as mash, massar, moong and vegetables such as chillies, ladyfinger and brinjal. The major rabi crops are wheat and gram, while minor ones are potatoes, barely, oil-seeds (rape and mustard, linseed, sesamum) and winter vegetable such as cauliflower, peas, cabbage, turnip, radish, carrot, tomatoes, etc.

The particulars of the areas under different crops and their total production in the district from1973-74 to 1982-83 are given in Appendices I and II at the end of the chapter at pages 161 and 162. A brief description of the important crops is given below :-

Wheat

            Wheat is the premier cereal crop of the district. It is a rabi crop grown all over the district. It is the staple diet of the people and its cultivation is keeping pace with the growing demand. The best time for its sowing is from middle of October to the end of November, but the late varieties can be sown upto the end of December. The harvesting start generally the day of Baisakhi, the 13th April. In 1982-83, wheat was grown over 75 thousand hectares in the district, yielding a production of 208 thousand metric tons.

Maize

            Maize is an important kharif crop of the district and forms the staple diet of the people, especially in winter when it is available in sufficient quantities. During the year 1982-83, maize was grown over 32 thousand hectares yielding 36 tones metric tons.

            Maize is sown from June to August and harvested in October and November. The current varieties of maize are desi, Ganga No.5, Vija and Ageti-76. Of these’Ageti-76’ is the latest recommended variety. Some enterprising farmers manage to obtain two successive crops of maize in the single kharif season

Paddy

            Paddy which occupies the third place among cereals in the district is a kharif crop. A few years back, rice was not an important crop in Punjab because it did not constitute the main food of the people. People usually took it only an additional dish on ceremonial occasions. In the last few years, production of paddy has become quite widespread due to two major factors, increasing in demand from other States in the country and more efficient production through modern methods. Nurseries for paddy are sown in May and June and transplantation in done in the end of June and July. The crop is harvested during October-November.

            The area under paddy cultivation in the district during 1982-83 was 21 thousand hectares, which produced 72 thousand metric tone of rice.

Bajra

            It is a minor kharif crop, sown in June-July and harvested in October-November.

Jowar

            It is also a minor kharif crop. It is suitable for low rainfed area, since it can withstand drought.

Barley

            Barley is not an important crop of the district. It is minor rabi cereal crop, sown from October to early January and harvested in early April. It requires less water and fertilizers than wheat. During 1982—83, 3.2 thousand hectares of cropped area in the district produced 5 thousand metric tones of barley.

Pulses

            The important pluses grown in the district are gram, massar, mash, and moong. Moong is less popular in the district and is sown as a secondary mixed crop, with juwar and bajra. Gram is the most important pulse of the district. The area under this crop during 1982-83 was 1 thousand hectares and the production was below 500 metric tones.

Berseem

            Berseem is an important rabi fodder crop, sown between the last week of September and first week of October. Berseem gives high yield of nutritious and palatable fodder in repeated cuttings throughout the winter and early summer, that is, from November to May.

Sugarcane

            This is a major cash crops of the district and is mostly grown in the tahsils of Rupnagar and Kharar. It is planted from the end of February to the middle of April and harvested between November to April. The crop requires heavy manuring and fairly large quantity of water.

            The area under sugarcane, during 1982-83, was 10 thousand hectares which produced 63 thousand metric tons of gur.

Cotton

            Cotton is a minor kharif cash crop to the district. It is sown between April and May and picking begins at the end of September and lasts for two months. The areas under cotton (both desi and American) during 1982-83 was only 2.35 thousand hectares.

Oil-seeds

            Among the oil seeds grown in the district, the most important are groundnut, sesamum, rape and mustard. Seasmum and rape and mustard are grown all over the district either as a pure crop or mixed with other crops. Groundnut is the major cash crop of the district. It is sown in June-July and harvested in October-November. The area under groundnut in the district during 1982-83 was 3.9 thousand hectares which produced 2 thousand metric tons of groundnut.

            Vegetables :-  Agro-climatically, the Rupnagar District is most suitable for vegetable cultivation. The weather is mild, as compared to other districts of the State (except Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur which also lie at the foothills). Some parts of the Kharar Tahsil are specially known for raising tomatoes in the State for supply in winter months. The districts gaining importance for production of potatoes. The area covered under potato crop in the district in 1982-83 was 1.2 thousand hectares.

            The total area under the vegetables including potatoes in the district, in 1982-83 are 2,000 hectares. The following vegetables are sown in the district :-

Summer vegetables :- Lady finger (bhindi), bottle gourd  (ghia-kaddu), ashgourd (petha), pumpkin (halwa kaddu), brinjal round and long (baingan), tomato (tamatar),  much melon,  (sarda            kharbuza),
long melon (tar), squash melon (tinda), bitter gourd (karela), spond-gourd (ghia), water melon (tarbuz), chilli (mirch) arum (arvi) and sweet potato (shakkarkandi).

Winter vegetables:- Cauliflower (phul gobhi), cabbage (band gobhi), potato (alu), carrot (gajar), radish (muli), turnip (shalgam) spinach (palak), fenugreek (methi), onion (piaz), garlic (lassan), peas (mattar) and capsicum (simla mirch).

Fruit Crops and Gardens :- Efficient fruit cultivators is known to yield good return. ‘The major fruit crop in Rupnagar District are mango, citrus and peaches and pear. The most important fruit crop of the district is mango. It is cultivated throughout the district. In 1982-83, it occupied an area of 407 hectares, which is 27.8 per cent of the area under mango crop in the State as a whole. The area under fruits in the district, during 1982-83, was 679 hectares.

Cultivation of grapes has not yet become popular in the district even though the State Government encourages farmers by advancing liberal loans for growing grapes.

(ii)               Farmers’ Training Camps

The programme of farmer’s training and education was introduced in the district in1971-72 as a centrally sponsored scheme. The District Training Officer, Rupnangar, is responsible for the efficient training of the scheme in the district.  The main object of the scheme is to increase agricultural production and also to popularise multiple cropping by involving a large number of farmers in the High Yielding Varieties Programme and other agricultural activities. Under the scheme, farmers’ training camps are arranged at district, block and village levels before the commencement of each kharif and rabi season. The extension staff and progressive farmers are imparted training in the seminars attended by the exports of Punjab Agricultural University and Agriculture Department, Punjab. During these camps, practical demonstration of seed treatment drill sowing and efficient application of fertilizers are given. Information on improved agricultural practices is also disseminated through other mass media, such as the radio and T.V.

(iii)             District Rural Development Agency, Rupnagar

The District Rural Development Agency, previously knows as MAFALA/SFDA is a registered body under the Registration of Societies Act, 1860. The main objects of Agency are to work for the uplift of the weaker sections of the society like small farmers, marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans and other economically weaker sections of the society possessing the yellow cards issued by the State Government. The main functions of the District Rural Development Agency, Rupnagar are to arrange subsidised loans for weaker sections of the society through various commercial, co-operative and regional rural banks operating in the district. The State Government and the Government of India provide Rs. 8 lakhs annually per block on 50:50 basis to subsidise the loans. The beneficiaries covered under the rural development schemes are entitled for the grant of subsidy at the rate of 25 per cent in case of small farmers and 33˝ per cent in case of marginal farmers or others against the loan. The interest on the loan is also paid by the State Government.

(iv)             Agricultural Co-operative

The Co-operative Movement has played an important role in the supply of finance, in crop production and in the development of land and water resources. To fit them for this role, structural changes have been made in the co-operative structure and procedures have been modified to link credit with production on the one hand and with supplies with marketing on the other.

The Co-operative Movement in India was introduced as a sequel to rural indebtedness and the first legislation was the Co-operative Credit Societies Act of 1904 which provided only for formation of agricultural credit societies in the rural areas. Special stress was laid on rural rather on urban credit in view of the greater importance of the farmers in India. There was a rapid growth in the number and activities of the societies between 1906 and 1911, but the Act of 1904 was found insufficient to meet the growing needs of movement. The Co-operative Societies Act of 1912 was, therefore, passes which recognized three kinds of central societies in addition to the primary societies recognized by the Act of 1904. The Act also recognized co-operation in fields other than credit. Developments in the co-operative system during this century are the subject of specialised study, and are not dealt with at length here.

(i1)       Primary Agricultural Credit / Service Societies :-  Finance is the crucial input for agriculture as it is for industry. The farmers require short term finance for purchase of seeds, manures and chemical fertilizers, insecticides and weedicides and other operational expenses, medium term loans for purchase of livestock, installation of tube well, etc and long term loans for purchase of costly agricultural machines, land, redemption of land and for making other permanent improvements on it. For all these purposes, the farmers traditionally depended on money-lenders. But now, most of the requirements of funds are met by the primary agricultural credit societies at cheaper rates of interest.

In the Punjab State, the short term and medium term credit structure is based on the three tier system, i.e., Apex Co-operative Bank at State level, Central Co-operative Banks at district/tahsil level and Primary Agricultural Credit/Service Societies at the village level. The main objectives of the primary agricultural credit/service societies are the supply of agricultural credit, the distribution of essential consumers commodities and the provision of storage and marketing facilities.

The following table shows the loans advanced by Primary / Agricultural Credit Service Societies along with recovery in the Rupnagar District, during 1973-74 to 1982-83 :-

Year

Amount Advanced

Recovery

1973-74

480.05

229.82

1974-75

575.09

175.55

1975-76

224.43

198.88

1976-77

209.63

219.92

1977-78

217.47

242.35

1978-79

273.17

271.22

1979-80

509.95

402.89

1980-81

568.26

498.17

1981-82

884.95

744.63

1982-83

1,018.14

908.14

(  Source  :  Assistant Registrar, Co-operative Societies Rupnagar  )

            There is the Punjab State Co-operative Supply and Marketing Federation (MARKFED) at the state level, wholesale societies at the district level and the marketing societies at the market level. The federation was registered as an apex co-operative marketing societies for Punjab in September 1954 with the primary objective of building integrated structure for remunerative marketing of agricultural produce and for supplying inputs to the farmers.

            In 1982-83, there were 6 agricultural co-operative marketing societies, in the district with a total membership of 3,973.

Co-operative Farming Societies

            A Co-operative farming society is a voluntary organization based on the ideals of self help and mutual aid. It is primarily intended to benefit the small farmers and landless cultivators. The members pool their lands and cultivate it jointly, but the proprietorship rests with the owners. They also pool their operative farming societies in the district.

Other Societies

            Besides, the above, there are a number of other co-operative societies in the agriculture and allied fields. Their number in the district during 1981-82 was as under :-

S.No.

Type of Society

Number

1.

Co-operative Milk Supply Societies

  89

2.

Co-operative Weaver; Societies

  58

3.

Co-operative Consumers’ Societies

    6

4.

Co-operative Housing Societies

102

(v)               Progress of Scientific Agriculture

Agriculture made rapid progress in Punjab particularly after the mid sixties in the wake of new technology. This progress has been made possible by the use of new seeds, fallow cultivation and increased use of such inputs as fertilizers, pesticides and through a degree of mechanisation. The progress in scientific agriculture achieved in the district in various spheres is desired below :-

Agriculture Implements :-  With the adoption of intensive agriculture and multiple cropping pattern, it has become essential to ensure timely and proper farm operations, that can only be achieved by using efficient and well adopted machinery and implements. It is necessary to remove the handicaps like poor and delayed seed beds, land preparation and sowing lack of uniform fertilizers placement, poor distribution of irrigation or protected harvesting and threshing operations. The farmers of  the district are increasingly using improved agricultural implements like tractors, disc-harrows, seed-drill, see-cum-fertilizer drills. bund-formers, potato-planters, bar-barrows tillers, leveller, etc. The wooden plough has been completely replaced by the iron plough and the pneumatic tyre has taken the place of the wooden cart wheel.

The tractor constitutes a tremendous source of farm power and reduces the quantum of labour and time span normally involved in various agricultural operations. As a power unit,  the tractor has progressed from its original primary use as a substitute for bullocks to its present position designed for multiple use. It is used both for  agricultural operations and for transporting agricultural produce. There has been a great spurt in the demand for tractors in the district during the last decade or so. The number of tractors in the district rose form 140 in 1966 to 2,618 in 1982-83. The tractor is rapidly replacing the age-old conventional motive power, the bullocks. However, draught animals are kept in addition to tractor for doing some particular jobs.

The old type of agricultural implements still in common use are hal (plough), sohaga (wooden plank), khurpa or ramba (hoe), datri (sickle), kassi (spade), panjali (yoke), pore (seed drill), jandra (used for making small ridges in irrigated areas) and toka (fodder cutter).

Technology for producing the common agricultural implements is quite widespread, and such items as threshers, maize shellers, seed-cum-fertilizers drills, ploughs of various kinds and trailors for tractors are manufactured by local entrepreneur in the district.

Seeds :-  The importance of quality seeds in production is well recognised. Government agencies promote the adoption of good seeds, through campaigns in the mass media. The Punjab Seeds Corporation, the National Seeds Corporation and  some private agencies also assist the farmers in the supply and distribution of various kinds of seeds. The Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana plays a significant roel in this field in research as well as production. The Punjab Improved Seeds and Seedling Act, 1950 makes it incumbent on cultivators in any notified area, to use only approved varieties of seeds in production.

In 1982-83, there was one seed farm set up by the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana at Rupnagar in the district.

High yielding Varieties :-  The use of improved and high yielding varieties of seeds is the most important factor in increasing agricultural production.  The improved and high yielding varieties of different crops sown in the district are given below :-

Name of Crop

Variety

Wheat

V.G. 357, P.V.-18., Sonalika, W.L. 410 and C.306

Maize

Ganga No. 5, Vijay and Ageti-76

Paddy

I.R.-8, P.R.-106, Jaya, Palman-579 and Basmati-370

Sugarcane

Go.J. 64, Co.J.58, Co.975, Co.1158, Co.J.67, Co.J.46, Co.1148

Gram

C-225 and G-543

Potato

Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Shakti, Kufri Sandhuri and Kufri Sheetman.

            The area under high yielding varieties of wheat, maize, sugarcane, paddy, gram and potatoes in the district, during 1978-79 to 1982-83 is given below :-

Name of the Crop

Year

 

1978-79

1979-80

1980-81

1981-82

1982-83

Wheat

67

70

72

76

73

Maize

18

20

21

23

20

Sugarcane

14

12

10

10

10

Paddy

14

16

22

21

20

Gram

5

4

4.5

2

1

Potato

2.3

1.4

2

1.8

1.4

(  Source  : Chief Agricultural Officer, Rupnagar  )

            The percentage of area under high yielding varieties to the total cropped area in the district for wheat, rice and maize, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below :-

Name of the Crop

Year

 

1973-74

1978-79

1978-80

1980-81

1981-82

1982-83

Wheat

57.14

100

100

100

100

97.33

Rice

62.50

93.33

94.11

100

100

95.23

Maize

2.70

54.54

54.54

58.33

62.16

62.50

(  Statistical Hand Book of Punjab, 1974-75 and Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1979 to 1983  )

            Crop Rotation :-  If a single crop is grown in the same field from year to year, it exhausts the soil of certain nutrients taken up by the crop, eventually rendering the soil deficient in some nutrients. The method of interspersing in consecutive seasons different crops which use different nutrients in the soil, is called crop rotation. The method is commonly in use in the district.

            The rotation of crops generally popular among the farmers of this district is maize-wheat, cotton-wheat, maize-senji-sugarcaen, maize-potato-sugarcane, rice-wheat, groundnut-wheat and maize-gram.

            Fallow Cultivation :- The cultivation of land which was deliberately left fallow for one or more seasons to enable it to regain its fertility is called fallow cultivation. With the progress of scientific methods of cultivation an expansion in irrigational facilities, this method is losing its importance. In 1982-83, only some 4 thousand hectares of land was left as fallow land in the district.

            Fertilizers and Manures :-  Next to water and improved seeds, manures and chemical fertilizers are the most important inputs for increasing crop yield. In recent years, the use of manures and fertilizers had increased considerably in the district. Urban wastes, including night soil are being extensively used as farm manure. Green manuring is also being extensively done in the district to increase the fertility of the soil.

Chemical Fertilizers

            These are inorganic materials of a concentrated nature, applied mainly to increase the supply of one or more of the essential nutrients such as nitorgen, phosphorus, potash, etc. Fertilizers contains these elements in the form of soluble or readily available  chemical compounds. This distinction is, however, not very rigid. In common parlance, the fertilizers are called ‘chemical’, ‘artificial’. or ‘inorganic’ manures.

            The following table shows the use of chemical fertilizers in the district during the period 1973-73 to 1982-83 :-

Year

Fertilizers uses

 

N

P

K

Total

1973-74

3,680

1,305

34

5,019

1974-75

5,045

960

489

6,494

1975-76

5,845

1,230

235

7,310

1976-77

6,006

1,883

295

8,184

1977-78

7,661

2,223

577

10,461

1978-79

8,534

3,205

522

12,661

1979-80

10,041

2,258

411

13,810

1980-81

11,272

3,460

390

14,122

1981-82

12,780

3,587

645

17,412

1982-83

14,037

5,226

1,102

20,365

(  Source  :  Chief Agricultural Officer, Rupnagar)

Local Resources of Manure

            Rural Compost and Cattle Dung Manure :-  From very early times, man had been using cattle dung and farm wastes to increase the production of crops. Good farm yard manure is a valuable organic soil nutrient which also improves the physical conditions of the very light or very heavy or deteriorated soils. It consists mainly of vegetable substances mixed with animal dung and urine. The East Punjab Conservation of Manures Act, 1949 (Amended in 1950) provides for the setting up of manure conservation committee and empowers the State Government to notify particular area for the purpose of conserving manures. The Rural Compost Scheme framed according to the Act was made permanent in the State in October 1966.

            The rural compost prepared in the district during the last ten years, i.e. from 1973-74 to 1982-82 is given below :-

Year

Rural Compost prepared (Metric tons)

1973-74

6,50,000

1974-75

7,00,000

1975-76

7,30,000

1976-77

7,60,000

1977-78

8,00,000

1978-79

8,40,000

1979-80

8,38,000

1980-81

8,89,000

1981-82

11,42,000

1982-83

13,73,600

 

(  Source  : Field Manure Officer, Punjab, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar)

            Green Manuring :-  Green Manuring is a method of improvement fertility by adding nitrogen from plants directly into the soil. This practice improves the soil texture by the addition of humus or organic matter. Further, it creates better conditions for the increase of useful bacteria in the soil. The water holding capacity of soil also increases. The locally popular green manure crops are guara or cluster been, dhaincha dn saun-hemp.

            The scheme for the extension of green manuring in the State was introduced in April 1961. The total area under green manuring in the direct, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below :-

Year

Area under Green Manuring ( in hectares )

1973-74

10,500

1974-75

11,000

1975-76

11,450

1976-77

12,000

1977-78

12,400

1978-79

13,865

1979-80

13,840

1980-81

14,930

1981-82

15,200

1982-83

17,900

(  Source  :  Field Manure Officer, Punjab, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar)

            Town Compost :-  Urban wastes are a potential sources of plant food ingredients. The Town Compost Scheme was introduced in the State in 1944. Under this scheme, all town wastes are  collected and allowed to decompose in trenches, yielding organic manure of high quality, which is sold to the cultivators. The quantity of town compost prepared in the district, during 1973-74 to 1982-83, is given below :

Crops Pests and Diceases

Wheat

1

Termites

 

2

Wheat rusts

 

3

Karnal burnt

Maize

1

Maize borer

 

2

Hairy caterpilla\e\ar

 

3

Pyrilla

Gram

1

Blight

 

2

Wilt

 

3

Gram caterpillar

Rice

1

Grass hopper

 

2

Leaf hopper

 

3

Rice stem borer

Sugarcane

1

Top borer

 

2

Gurdaspur borer

 

3

Black bug

 

4

Pyrilla

 

5

Shoot borer

Groundnut

1

Tika disease

 

2

Root rot

Vegetable Pest and Diseases

Potato

1

Aphid

 

2

Early blight

 

3

Late blight

 

4

Virus diseases

 

5

Potato cutworm

Tomato

1

Jassid and whitefly

 

2

Fruit borer

 

3

Early blight

 

4

Leaf curl mosaic

Cabbage/Cauliflower

1

Stem borer

 

2

Tobacco caterpillar

 

3

Diamond-back moth

Pea

1

Pea thips

 

2

Pea aphid

 

3

Pea stem-fly

 

4

Wilt

Fruit Pest and Diseases

Mango

1

Mango-mealy-bug

 

2

Mango hopper

 

3

Stem borer

 

4

Rer ants

 

5

Mango shoot borer

 

6

Leaf blight

 

7

Black tip

 

8

Mango malformation

Citrus

1

Citrus pyrilla

 

2

Bark eating catterpillar

 

3

Citrus numatode

 

4

Canker

 

5

Gummosis

Guava

1

Fruit fly

 

2

Wild

            Obnoxious Weeds :-  Weeds are unwanted plants, which are not sown by man, growing and competing with crop plant for moisture, light and food nutrients, and thus reducing the yields of the main corp. Weeds increase the cost of cultivation, impair the quality of soil and reduce the market value of the farm produce. Some weeds harbour insect, fungal, and virus pests that attack crop plants. Some weeds are poisonous to human beings and livestock. In Rupnagar District, the common weeds which grow during summer (kharif weeds) are motha or dila, bark grass, dabh or kussor grass, itset bhakhra and the weed which grow during winter are called rabi weeds as bathu, paizi, pohli, maini, etc.

            The Destructive Insect and Pests Act, 1941, of the Government of India provides for the protection of crops, seeds and seedlings etc. from destructive insect pests and fungai diseases. The East Punjab Agricultural Pests and Diseases and Obnoxious Weeds Act, 1949, provides for the punishment in case where offender are held responsible for the spread of certain pests, disease and weeds.

(a)   Animal Husbandary, Poultry and Fisheries

Cattle and buffaloes play an important role in the economy of the district. These animals are a major source of draught power in agricultural operations and transportation, and also yield milk and other products. For formers, cattle are a valuable form of wealth. Large quantities of animal byproducts such as bones hides blood, guts, etc., and valuable organic manure are also provided by these animals.

The following table shows the number of livestock in the district from 1966 to 1977 :-   

 

Livestock and Poultry in the Rupnagar District

1966 to 1977

 

Particulars

1966

1972

1977

1.

Livestock

3,672

3,171

3,542

 

Cattle

1,318

1,066

1,016

 

Buffaloes

1,450

1,415

1,796

 

Horses and Ponies

7

29

100

 

Donkeys

46

21

36

 

Mules

1

2

4

 

Sheep

13

16

46

 

Goats

675

645

441

 

Camels

31

10

4

 

Pigs

77

67

99

2.

Poultry

1,983

1,940

5,089

(  Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1970, 1978, and 1982  )

            At the district level, there is an Assistant Director, Animal Husbandry Rupnagar, who is under the administrative control of the Director, Animal Husbandry, Punjab, Chandigarh. He is assisted by 44 Veterinary Assistant Surgeons, 49 Stock Assistants and Veterinary Pharmacists and some lower staff.

(i)                 Animal Health and  Animal Breeding Wing

At the district level, the Animal Husbandry Department comprises two wings, viz. Animal Health and Animal Breeding.

Animal Health Wing :- The main activities of the wing are : the treatment of sick animals, the control and prevention of contagious diseases among animals, the castration of useless male stock for the improvement of breeds, the supply of bulls of improved breeds, the maintenance of stallions for horse and mule breeding and the holding of cattle shows and the encouragement of improved breeding through all possible means. These activities are carried out through 42 veterinary hospitals, 21 veterinary dispensaries and 1 veterinary touring dispensary.

Animal Breeding Wing :-  Prior to 31 march 1982, the breeding work in the Rupnagar District was looked after the Project Officer, Intensive Cattle Development Project, Ludhiana. Now it is under the control of Assistant Director (Animal Husbandry), Rupnagar. In order to improve milk production of indigenous cattle, the breeding operations are carried out by obtaining fresh semen from artificial insemination centres where testes bulls are kept.

The main activities of this wing are : to establish and maintain the breeding efficiency of bulls; to supply quality semen to the key village units and intensive cattle development units for artificial insemination, to organize camps for increasing the productive efficiency of the cows and buffaloes, to hold camps for calf health, to organize calf rallies in village, and to propagate methods of enhanced high quality fodder production. These activities are carried through 3 Key Village Block under the charge of trained Veterinary Assistant Surgeons, 18 Key Village Units and 15 Intensive Cattle Development Programme Units under the charge of trained Stock Assistants. The particulars of these institutions for artificial insemination in the district are as under :-

Key Village Block / Artificial

Insemination Centre

Year of Opening

 

Key Village Units

attached

Rupnagar

1971-72

1

Bheora

 

 

2

Malikpur

 

 

3

Bhadthal

 

 

4

Lodhal

 

 

5

Jhalian Kalan

 

 

6

Ghanaula

 

 

7

Laudhi Majra

Morinda

1962-63

1

Lutheri

 

 

2

Gaggarwal

 

 

3

Bazidpur

 

 

4

Marauli Kalan

 

 

5

Dhangrali

 

 

6

Bur Majra

 

 

7

Bhalyaien

 

 

8

Bhaku Majra

Kharar

1971-72

1

Kumbra

 

 

2

Sohana

 

 

3

Ban Majra

 

List of Intensive Cattle Development Units

Serial No.

Name of Intensive Cattle Development Unit, Village

Year of opening

1

Baroudi

1971-72

2

Dumna

1971-72

3

Kainaur

1971-72

4

Kurali

1971-72

5

Sehon Majra

1971-72

6

Tiwar

1971-72

7

Behrampur

1972-73

8

Chintgarh

1972-73

9

Dhamana

1972-73

10

Kulya

1972-73

11

Behrampur Bet

1976-77

12

Kiratput Sahib (Check Post)

1976-77

13

Rasankeri

1976-77

14

Shingariwala

 

15

Nangal Abiana

 

Cattle Fairs and Shows

            The cattle fairs and shows bring together cattle breeders and buyers. The cattle of best breed and health are also kept for demonstration at these fairs. In 1968, the Punjab Government nationalized the cattle fairs throughout the State by promulgating the Punjab Cattle Fairs (Regulations) Ordinance, subsequently replaced by the Punjab Cattle Fairs (Regulations) Act of 1967. In each district, a Cattle Fair Officer with necessary supporting staff has been provided. In the Rupnagar District, cattle fairs and shows are held every month at Rupnagar, Kurali, Anandpur Sahib and Morinda. In so far as bullocks are concerned, the cattle fair at Rupnagar is the most important throughout the State.

Castration

            With a view to elimination scrub bulls and inferior male stock, systematic castration is undertaken. During 1982-83, 998 animals were castrated in the Rupnagar District. There were 3 bulls centres, one each at Chamkaur Sahib, Khizrabad and Gopalpur in the Disrict.

(ii)               Area under Fodder Crops

If the current population of cattle and buffaloes is to be provided sufficient feed of good quality, fodder production in the district has to be substantially increase. With the introduction of cross-bred animals which demand larger quantities of fodder, forage availability will deteriorate further. Since no extra area is likely to become available for fodder in the district, production per unit of land in a unit of time must be increased through multiple and relay cropping and extra agronomic inputs of seeds, fertilizers and irrigation.

The feeding cost of milk production can be considerable reduced by substituting high quality fodder for concentrates. Jowar (chari) barja, maize, barseem, senji, oats, turnips and guara constitute the main fodder crops grown in the district. The following table shows the area under fodder crops in the district from 1973-74 to 1982-83 :-

(Area in hectares)

Fodder Crops

1973-74

1978-79

1979-80

1980-81

1981-82

1982-83

Kharif Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jawar (Chari)

13,268

8,585

10,248

10,751

12,817

14,538

Guara

215

1,096

612

1,774

1,225

703

Other Foddera

1,746

14,433

10,926

20,416

17,339

2,833

Total

15,229

24,114

21,966

32,941

31,381

18,074

Rabi Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barseem

1,245

4,497

458

3,579

3,443

3,622

Oats (Javi)

-

-

-

-

16

-

Other Fodders

1,981

756

1,997

1,527

1,709

1,049

Total

3,226

5,253

2,455

5,106

5,249

4,671

Grand Total

18,455

29,367

24,421

25,522

22,588

22,745

(  Source  :  Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar  )

 

 

 

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