Resettlement of Displaced Persons on Land



The First Problems



Temporary Allotment of Land



Working of the Group Allotment Scheme



Progress of Temporary Allotment of Land



Decision to Introduce a New Scheme of Allotment



Stages in Rural Resettlement



Consolidation of Temporary Allotment



Financial Assistance



Special Leases to Larger Holders



Administrative Organisation



Quashi-Permanent Settlement



Rights Conferred Pending Transfer of Ownership



Statements of Conditions



Rights of Allottees



Obligations of Allottees and Lessees



Amendment and Cancellation of Allotment or Lease



Land Resettlement Legislation



Urban Land



Pepsu Legislation for Abolition of Occupancy Rights



Evaluation of Land and Rights



Statistical Information



Area Abandoned in Pakistan



Distribution and Size of Holdings



Evacuee Area in East Punjab and Pepsu



The Gap



Alternative Policies



Revision of Statistics



Individual Accounts and Net Allotment



Allocation of Villages



Consolication of Close Relations



Allotment of Fields



Subsequent Stages



Restoration of the Rural Economy



Reconstruction of the Rural Economy



Annexure : Press Communique



Land Claims Procedure






Inviting Land Claims






The Claim Form



Lacunae in the Form



Arrangements for Registration



Work in the Land Claims Office



Verification of Land Claims



Exchange of Revenue Records with West Punjab



Analysis and Tabulation of Claims



The Parcha Claim



The Parcha Claim Number



The First Part of the Parcha Claim



Categories of Verification



Punjabi and Non-Punjabi Extraction



Classification of Rights



Units of Area



Comparison Between Claims and Oral Verification



Copies of Jamabandis from West Punjab



Procedure for Extracting Information from Jamabandis



Preliminary Scrutiny



Determination of Rights



Determination of Shares in Khewats



Determination of Class of Land



Chhant Jamabandi



Assessment of the Claim



Consolidation of Claims



The Fehrist Daavedaran



The Fourth Part of the Parcha Claim



The Graded Cut and the Allocation



The Parcha Claim as a Working Sheet



Anexure I : Classification Numbers for Registering Centres



Annexue II : Classification Numbers for Parcha Claims



Assessment and Valuation of Claims



The Problem



Criteria of Valuation of Land



The Method Adopted



Key for Soil Valuations



The Unit of Valuation



Valuation of Certain Special Categories of Land



Valuation of Rights



Colony Rights



Lease Rights from the Crown



Occupancy and Landlord Rights



Rights of Superior and Inferior Ownership



Shamilat Rights



Mortgage Rights



Leases Between Private Parties



Deviations from Jamabandis



Transfer Between Parties



Evidence other than Jamabandis for Colony Rights



Different Classes of Allotment



Additional Temporary Allotment for Colony Rights



Reservation in lieu of Allotment



Auction Purchasers of Crown Land



Calculation of Net Allotment



Determination of Net Allotment



Principles of Allocation






Determination of Area of Allocation



Prior Considerations in Allocation



Classification of Claims



West Punjab Colonists



East Punjab Colonists



Special Allocation



Area of Allocation for East Punjab Colonists



Allocation of Villages – Temporary Allottees



Village wise Allotment



Preference for Colonists in Villages of Origin



Allotment in irrigated, riverain, hilly and insecure tracts



Determination of Categories for villages and individuals



Grading of Villages



Limitations of Grading Schemes



Application of Grades



Allotment in Grade I Villages



Grading in Pepsu



Schemes of Sub-Allocation



Special Grade Lands



Allotment to Close Relations



Definition of Close Relations



Rules on the Subject



Adjustments of Claims of Sitting Allottees with Close Relations



Close Relations to be consolidated subject to same area of allocation



Co-sharers and descendants of one grandfather



Allotment to women, specially widows



Elucidation of rights of temporary allottees



Allotment of Land under Occupation of Local Tenants



Allotment to Institutions



Settlement of Certain Small Communities



Special Allotments



Suburban and Other Special Allotments



Scope of the Chapter



Allotment of Land in the Neighbourhood of Towns Carrying Additional Valuation



Basis of Additional Valuation



Method of Calculation



Classification as a Special Grade



Allotment of Suburban Land :-






Calculation of Suburban and Non-Suburban Allotment



Disposal of Suburban Land not required for Suburban Claimants



Allotment of Land in Villages Earmarked for Defence and Ex-Defence Personnel :-



General Rules



Allotment in Villages earmarked for Garden Colonies :-



Co-operative Garden Colonies



Allotment in Villages earmarked for the Resettlement of Widows :-



Assistance to Widows



Allotment of Evacuee Gardens :-



Provincial List of Evacuee Gardens



Leases of Urban Evacuee Land :-



Purpose of the Scheme



Collection of Data



Acquisition of Evacuee Land for Public Purposes :-



Liability to Pay for Evacuee property



Compensation to Non-Evacuee Owners


Annexure I

Land Carrying Additional Valuation


Annexure II

List of Towns with a population of 15,000 or more (1941 Census)


Annexure III

General Rules Regarding the Mode of Allotment of Suburban Land


Annexue IV

Guidance Notes for Resettlement Officers



Allotment of Fields






Verification of the Village Khasra List



Area, class of land and rights



Evacuee land due for restoration to owners



Joint khewats including evacuees and non-evacuees



Pending and decided mutations



Area due for allotment or to be excluded from allotment



Calculation of value in standard acres of area under non-proprietary rights



Entries regarding means of irrigation



Valuation of gardens



The List of Allottees



Arrangement of Villages






Arrangement of allottees



Groups and relations



The serial number



List of allottees for the purpose of khasra numbers



Determination of the Mode of Partition



Directions of  the Resettlement Officer



Determination of grades



Allotment when more than one grade prescribed



Area under landlord rights



Area of different classes within a chakbandi



Method of calculation



Alotment to holders of less than 3 standard acres



Determination of proportions of different grades for allotment



Khasra numbers for land temporarily allotted and reserved



Classification of area



Demarcation of Khasra Numbers



When serial number may be departed from



Actual allotment of khasra numbers



Importance of convenient holdings



Joint holdings



Calculating value of khasra numbers



Splitting of khasra numbers



Allotment of uncultivated land, groves, hill etc.



Where khasra numbers are to be allotted at site



Errors in calculation of area



Statement of khasra numbers allotted



Displaced mortgagors and mortgagees



Pending mutations



Review and Revision of Allotments






Review prior to possession



Three stages of review



Reasons for review



Review in the first stage



Review in the second stage



Review in the third stage



Authority for changes



Procedure for changes



Review after possession






Period of limitation



Power of revision



Court-fee stamp



Categories of applications



Applications relating to claims-Category (A)



Applications relating to allocation of areas and allotment of villages-Category (B)






Application for revision of fields – Category (C)


Application for exchange – Category (D)


Application from persons to whom no allotment has been made or application for correction of errors – Category (E)


Application for consolidation of allotments – Category (F)


Resumption of land




Scope of the Chapter


Central Records




Central Record to serve both East Punjab and Pepsu Resettlement files in the Central Record


Resettlement Files in Districts


Patwaris’ records


Instructions for Preparation of the Fard Taqsim


Other papers to be appended with fard taqsim arazi matruka


Jamabandis of wholly evacuee villages


Jamabandis of mixed villages


Entries in the khasra girdawri




Fard Taqsim Arazi Matruka


Allotment of Evacuee Houses and Sites


Fresh Allotment of Houses


Agency for allotment


Rules of Allotments of Evacuee Houses


Allotment of Sites


Model Villages


Review and Revision


Long-term Aspects of Rural Housing





IA        East Punjab Refugees (Registration of Land Claims) Act 1948


IB        Punjab Government Notification No. 4891/S dated July 8, 1949 (Statement of conditions for lease)


IC        Punjab Government Notification No. 4892/S dated July 8, 1949 (Statement of conditions for allotment)


ID        Pepsu Government Notification No. 8/R dated July 23, 1949 (Statement of conditions for lease)


IE        Pepsu Government Notification No. 9/R dated July 23, 1949 (Statement of conditions for allotment)


IF        The East Punjab Displaced Persons (Land Resettlement) Act, 1949


IG        The Patiala and East Punjab State Union Displaced Persons (Land Resettlement) Ordinance, 2006


IH        The Patiala and East Punjab State Union Abolition of Occupancy Tensures and Settlement of Land Disputes Ordinance, 2006


Scheme of Allocation of Area


IIA      Allocation statements (July, 1949)


IIB      Revised Allocation statements (April 30, 1950)


Valuation Statements: West Punjab


Lahore District


Sheikhupura District


Montgomery District


Lyallpur District


Sialkot District


Multan District


Mianwali District


Muzaffargarh District


Gujranwala District


Gujrat District


Rawalpindi District


Jhelum District


Dera Ghazi Khan District


Jhang District


Attock District


Shahpur District


Bahawalpur and Sind




Amritsar District


Hissar District


Rohtak District




Karnal District


Ambala District


Ludhiana District


Hoshiarpur District


Jullundur District


Simla District


Kangra District


Gurdaspur District


Ferozepur District


Pepsu :


            Kapurthala District


            Fatehgarh Sahib District


            Sangrur District


            Barnala District


            Patiala District


            Mohindergarh District


            Bhatinda District


            Kohistan District


Valuation of Colony Rights (Value in terms of Proprietary Land)


            Lower Jhelum Colony


            Upper Jhelum Colony


            Upper Chenab Colony


            Haveli Project Colony


            Lower Chenab Colony


            Lower Bari Doab Colony


            Chunian Colony


            Lower Chenab Extension


            Nili Bar Colony


Note on Local Rights


Scheme of Graded Cuts

Ready Reckoner for Net Allotment


Grading of Villages


Part A Grading of Colonists


Part B Grading of villages in West Punjab for the Settlement of Non-Colonists


Part C Grading of Villages in East Punjab and Pepsu


Sub-Allocation Scheme Punjab


            Kangra District


            Gurdaspur District


            Hoshiarpur District


            Amritsar District


            Jullundur District


            Ludhiana District


            Ambala District


            Ferozepur District


            Karnal District


            Rohtak District


            Gurgaon District


            Hissar District


Patiala and East Punjab States Union


            Mohindergarh District


            Bhatinda District


            Patiala District


            Sangrur District


            Barnala District


            Fatehgarh District


            Kapurthala District


            Kohistan District


Instructions for Review and Revision of Land Allotment


(A)       Notification No. 8689/S (Reh), dated the 29th August, 1951


(B)       Revised Instructions governing the filing and disposal of applications


Administrative Instructions


Scheme for the Allotment of Evacuee Garden in East Punjab and Pepsu


Summary of Principles of Allotment of Rural Evacuee Houses for the Guidance of Local Officers and Committees


Statistical Statements :


Table I                        Area Abandoned by Displaced Persons By Districts and Tahsils


Table II           Evacuee Land in East Punjab and Pepsu


Table III         Classification of Area Available for Quasi-Permanent Allotment


Table IV         Distribution of Size of Holdings of Displaced Persons


Table V           Calculation of Saving from the Approved Scheme of graded Cuts


Table VI         Revised Statement of Evacuee Area in East Punjab and Pepsu


Table VII        Analysis by Grades of Area Available for Quasi-Permanent             Allotment




        CHAPTER I



On the l5th August, 1947, with the partition of India came the partition of the Punjab into East and West Punjab. Since June, 1947, the problems of partition had received close consideration both in Delhi and in Lahore, but the possibilities of mass migration of the population were not part of the agenda. Thus, the most overwhelming fact of the partition of the subcontinent caught the new Governments largely unawares.   From the middle of August, 1947, events moved rapidly. In many places sparks of the preceding weeks turned into devastating fires; local resentment into hatred; bravado and revenge into hideous brutality. With the withdrawal of officials, the minority populations both in East and West Punjab were completely at the mercy of the majority community, whose mood was increasingly shared by those whose business it was to protect the population.


2.         The movement of population between East Punjab and West Punjab began towards the end of August, 1947, At this date it seemed still a trickle of persons seeking perhaps temporary shelter across the new border Soon the numbers grew and the Government of East Punjab, still barely on its legs, had to find immediate answers to some of the most difficult problems which have ever confronted administrations, By the middle of September, 1947, it was clear enough that the movement, which had now grown into a flood was likely to be an almost permanent transfer of population. No one then knew how wide the sweep of this transfer would be, what numbers were to be expected, and how soon they might come.


3.         The manner and method of resettlement of rural population In East Punjab and the East Punjab States bears the stamp of August and September, 1947, The problems emerged with bewildering suddenness. Tragedy and fear of the future were writ large on the faces of the millions entering the Indian Union. The local administration in East Punjab was unprepared and unequipped. Had events been less relentless, and a measure of planning and organization in the transfer of population been possible, the story of resettlement of 2% million rural refugees would have read differently. Yet, the experience of resettlement in East Punjab and Pepsu, with its peculiar difficulties and pit-falls, has an abiding interest, and a careful record of what was done and what was left undone, should be of value for the future.


The First Problems


4.         As time passes and facts and statistics are gathered, it be-comes possible to place problems in a certain perspective. This is not possible at the first onrush of these problems. In the crisis, frequently, only one solution appears feasible, but in retrospect other considera­tions supervene. It is therefore, necessary in considering the facts of each event to see them both in perspective and as they presented themselves to those upon whom the responsibility for taking the first decisions fell. In the second week of September, 1947, the East Punjab Government first tried to find an answer to the problem of effecting immediate settlement of the several hundred thousand displaced persons who were then arriving in the Province. At that time there were no facts and figures to go by. It was known that the Muslim population from the Jullundur Division in East Punjab and the non-Muslim population from the Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions in West Punjab would almost certainly migrate. The Muslim population in the Ambala Division in East Punjab and the non-Muslim population in the Multan Division in West Punjab (with the exception of two districts) were still in their homes and only the first signs of movement were visible. The districts of the Jullundur Division had long been linked with the canal colony districts in West Punjab through the peasants who had gone out in the last generation or two to colonise the new lands. These colonists now bent their steps homewards. It seemed natural for them to do so and indeed the problem of immediate settle­ment was substantially eased in this manner. There was no time or occasion to consider at this stage the possibilities of resettlement of the non-Muslim population of different districts of West Punjab with a view to maintaining their homogeniety.


5.         The East Punjab States, which are now comprised in the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), were in Septem­ber, 1947, independent units of administration, each with its own seperate policies and purposes. By the end of September, 1947, the Patiala Government announced that displaced persons from the tahsils of Shahdara and Nankana Sahib in Sheikhupura district, Gujranwala and Wazirabad in Gujranwala district and Pasrur and Daska in Sialkot district would be assisted in settling on evacuee land in the Patiala State. The other States had no policy to speak of and were inclined to look upon land abandoned by evacuees as State pro­perty in whose land revenue and produce they were interested, but which thy had a right to deal out to such persons as they chose. It was not until some months later that the close co-ordination between East Punjab and the East Punjab States, which became an important feature of the scheme of land resettlement, could be begun.


6.         Mention has been made of the lack of facts and figures. No one knew in September, 1947, how much area precisely was being aban­doned in East Punjab or East Punjab States or in West Punjab. A scheme of distribution of the displaced population having regard to the area abandoned by them or likely to be abandoned by them or area-available or likely to be available, and taking into account its chances of assimilation with the local population, could not be formulated at this stage.


Temporary Allotment of Land


7.         It was against this background that on the 15th September, 1947, the East Punjab Government decided to allot evacuee lands for the current kharif and for rabi, 1947-48 to groups. For various reasons group allotment was considered to be the only practicable means of sending the incoming population rapidly into villages. Agricultural refugees were asked to proceed to headquarters of tahsils as far as possible in groups in which they had lived in West Punjab or in groups in which they wished to live in villages in East Punjab. Frequently it might be possible to allot a whole village to a group; sometimes two or three groups might be given possession in the first instance in one village. Possession was not to be delayed because two or three groups intended for the same village came separately or were settled separately. As soon as people had gone to the land, there would be opportunities for rationalising the groups. The principle of group allotment was specifically excluded in dealing with orchards, vegetable gardens and cultivated land situated in urban areas, but a general discretion was given to Deputy Commissioners to make individual allotments in circumstances which they considered appropriate. The main principles on which allotment to groups was made were:


(1)               All agricultural refugees who had either owned land or held land by virtue of grant or purchase or had been cultivating land as tenants in West Punjab were eligible for the allotment of land. Thus, non-cultivating owners could also receive allotment of land;

(2)               A unit of allotment was to be fixed for each district or part of a district. A work unit was defined as the area of land which, in given conditions, could be cultivated by a worker assisted by a family of average size. Ordinarily, a plough unit constituted a unit of allotment;

(3)               The total area to be allotted to a group would be based on the number of families forming the group, so that there would be a unit for each family to work upon. To allow for variations in the number of workers in different families, it was indicated that where, for instance, the unit was 10 acres, an addition of 3 acres could be allowed for every married male adult worker and 2 acres for every unmarried male adult worker. No addition was to be made if the number of adult workers in a family was two or less. Additions were restricted to the third, fourth and fifth worker, no additional allotment being given if the number of adult workers exceeded five. Additional allotments could be given only to actual cultivators, not to non-cultivating families;

(4)               Within the framework of group allotment, each family would be responsible for the cultivation of a definite piece of land. It was suggested that a panchayat representing the members of the group should divide the area allotted into the appropriate number of units, so that these were more or less equally pro­ductive; and

(5)               Allotment was to be subjected to the payment of land revenue, cesses and water-rates and of rent duo to the evacuee owners.


The Group Allotment Scheme


8.         The scheme of group allotment was an expedient introduced in specially difficult circumstances. It was not to be confused with co-operative farming or with group cultivation, which represent social techniques requiring much preparation, training and organisation. The objects, which the scheme set out to achieve, were:

(i)                  to ensure quick distribution of land ;

(ii)                to make it impossible for individuals to claim to be in possession, illicitly or otherwise, of specific pieces of land ;

(iii)               to enable refugees from particular villages and areas in West Punjab to remain as much together as possible ; and

(iv)              to enable peasants to pool their resources as far as possible for the sowing of the rabi and to share equitably the standing kharif crops,


As resettlement proceeded, there was a tendency for groups to become somewhat smaller than at first. In many instances sowing was done in common. At the time of the rabi harvest disputes were reported in a number of places among members of groups. By this time, however, new decisions had been taken by Government in regard to the policy of land allotment. Yet, in a large measure, the immediate objects of the scheme of group allotment were fulfilled.





Progress of Temporary Allotment of Land


9.         By the beginning of December, 1947, Deputy Commissioners reported a total settlement of 190-155 families on an area of 2,072.854 acres of cultivated land. Towards the end of December, 1947, the number of families to whom allotment had been made was reported as 209,106, the area allotted being 2,394,635 acres. In the beginning of February, 1948, an area of 2,581,819 acres was reported as having been allotted to 238,216 families. Early in January, 1948, it was felt that a number of refugees had taken double allotments in more than one district and sometimes in a district of East Punjab as well as in one of the States. It would happen that an allotment would be taken for a group, say of 50 families, of whom after a time a few would move elsewhere and secure fresh allotment. The total number of families to whom land had been allotted thus tended to be somewhat exaggerated and those who remained in possession of the entire allot­ment made to their group, even though some had left, had in many cases a larger area than they were entitled to. In the middle of January, 1948, therefore, detailed instructions for the review of allot­ments were issued and temporary allotment registers were prescribed for all abandoned villages in the Province. As a consequence of this scrutiny, the progress report on rural rehabilitation for the fortnight ending the 15th March, 1948, recorded a total allotment of 2,196,466 acres, the number of families to whom allotment had been made being 200,233.


10.       From kharif, 1948 further temporary allotment to those who were not themselves landholders in Pakistan was discontinued, but tenants-at-will who were already in possession of temporary allotments were not to be displaced until allotments in the scheme of quasi-permanent settlement had been completed.


Decision to Introduce a New Scheme of Allotment


11.       From November, 1947, members of the Provincial Relief and Rehabilitation Board began to urge upon Government the necessity of early settlement on land on a permanent basis. The facts that ownership in land continued to vest both in East and West Punjab in the evacuee owners and that no records were available, were con­ceded, but the pressure for a permanent settlement continued. It was felt that the future of the Province depended largely on giving every displaced landholder something that he could call his own. Prolonged consideration of this question led to the announcement on the 7th February. 1948 of the decision to replace the temporary allotment of evacuee land by a new system of quasi-permanent allotment which wouId take account of the holdings of displaced persons in West Punjab. The new allotments would not confer rights of ownership or of permanent occupancy but the possession of the allottees would be maintained. To this end claims were to be invited. In view of its importance, the press communique of the 7th February is given in full in the annexure. In the new scheme of allotment land was to be allotted only to those who in West Punjab were owners, occupancy tenants under the Punjab Tenancy Act and tenants under the Colonization of Government Lands Act and to certain other classes of grantees and holders of land to be specified by Government. It was proposed to give to small holders allotment of equivalent areas while in the case of larger holders there would be graded cuts. The defi­nition of small holders and the details of the graded cuts were to be determined, when fuller information regarding the area available, the area held by the population to be settled in East Punjab and East Punjab States and other relevant information was forthcoming.


12.       Government announced its intention to complete the now system of allotments in East Punjab and East Punjab States not later than the 31st May, 1949 but added that they were anxious to intro­duce the new scheme as early as might be feasible and steps to this end would be taken at once.


Stages in Rural Resettlement


13.       Resettlement of displaced persons on land, when the problem assumes large proportions, is a process which falls into five phases:

(i) immediate settlement;

(ii) consolidation of temporary allotment;

(iii) permanent settlement on land.

(iv) restoration of the rural economy ; and

(v) reconstruction and development of the rural economy.


Consolidation of Temporary Allotoment


14.       The first phase has been explained in this chapter. The second phase comprises the following principal features :—

(1) systematization of allotments of evacuee land;

(2) financial assistance to displaced persons ;

(3) a scheme of allocation of areas ;

(4) dispersal of the rural population from relief camps according to the scheme of allocation of areas ;

(5) restriction of allotment to landholders ;

(6) differentiation between large and small holders in the scheme of temporary allotment ; and

(7) creation of the necessary administrative organisation.


Financial  Assistance


15.       It is sufficient to record here that during the two years September, 1947 to September, 1949, the following assistance by way of loans and grants was afforded in East Punjab to displaced persons setting in rural areas :—


Taccavi for seed                                                                                   55,71,011

Taccavi for bullocks                                                                              55,77,974

Taccavi for implements                                                             9,61 ,731

Loans for repair of houses                                                                     97,615

Loans for repair of wells                                                                       5,800

Loans for rural artisans and village servants                                            5,66,540

Food loans                                                                                           79,55,966

Grants for repair of houses                                                                    3,25,334

Grants for repair of wells                                                                       1,73.328


16.       The tentative and incomplete scheme of allocation of areas announced on the 15th September, 1947, was followed by a more complete scheme on the 31st December, 1947, which became the basis for dispersal from relief camps. After a measure of co-operation had been established with the East Punjab States, a further scheme of allocation of areas for temporary allotment was issued on the 27th May, 1948 which, in turn, became the-immediate fore-runner of the final scheme of allocation of areas. All these schemes are set out in Appendix II


Special Leases to Larger Holders


17.       The decision to discontinue temporary allotment of land to those who were not landholders taken in the beginning of kharif, 1948 has already been mentioned. It was followed by a scheme of special leases for these who had abandoned areas exceeding 100 acres. The larger holders were, thus given larger allotments and uniform allotments ceased to be the rule. The allotments sanctioned according to this scheme were:—


Area abandoned                                                           Special lease

(acres of irrigated or equivalent area)                                         (acres)

150 – 200                                                                    25

200 – 300                                                                    35

100 – 150                                                                    20

150 – 200                                                                    25

200 – 300                                                                    35

300 – 400                                                                    45

400 – 500                                                                    50

500 – 1000                                                                  75

100 – 2000                                                                  150

2000 – 3000                                                                250

3000 – 4000                                                                350

4000 or more                                                               400


Administrative Organisation


18.       Creation of the necessary administrative organisation for handling the rehabilitation of large numbers is completely vital to the success of rehabilitation policies. After some initial failure, steps were taken to provide every district in East Punjab (apart from Kangra and Simla) with an Additional Deputy Commissioner (described at first as Deputy Commissioner, Rehabilitation) and a Revenue Assistant. Rehabilitation. The district revenue machinery was strengthened through the addition of 41 Tahsildars, 82 Naib Tahsildars, 186 Girdawar Kanungos and 1300 Patwaris and the new staff was integrated with the existing staff, so that the area under each official was reduced. Because of the extreme importance given to the work relating to permanent settlement and the pressure at which it was done, to some extent work relating to the immediate rehabili­tation of the population, as distinguished from work relating to perma­nent settlement, tended to suffer. Again and again, during the period 1947-49 the lesson that an administration capable of dealing honestly and justly with the needs of the common man is the first step to effective rehabilitation has been strikingly illustrated.  


Quasi-Permanent Settlement


19.       The resettlement of land in East Punjab and Pepsu was envi­saged as an operation likely to confer in due course rights of a permanent character. Until issues relating to evacuee property are resolved between India and Pakistan, ownership in each country of property abandoned by evacuees continues to rest with them. This led to the use of the expression quasi-permanent as the keyword for the scheme of resettlement introduced in East Punjab and Pepsu. As will be appreciated, never before had there been land resettlement opera­tions of the magnitude of those, which were now planned in East Punjab and Pepsu. Quasi-permanent allotment of land entails the following eleven processes :—

(1)        determination of rights to be conferred pending transfer of ownership .

(2)        devising methods for the valuation of different classes of

land and rights on a uniform basis ;

(3)        collection of statistical information ;

(4)        Compilation of the accounts of land and rights abandoned by each displaced person ;

(5)        framing a scheme of graded distribution of land ;

(6)        preparing a scheme of allocation of areas ;

(7)        assigning each individual landholder to a particular village ;

(8)        allotment of fields to each individual;

(9)        delivery of possession to individual allottees ;

(10)      providing a procedure for review and revision of allotments ; and

(11)           completion of revenue records.    

     The various chapters of this Manual are concerned with an exposi­tion of the principles and methods devised for carrying out each of the tasks listed above. The first and the third items will be explained in some detail in this chapter. Chapter II sets out the procedural aspects of work relating to land claims. Chapter III summarises the principles and rules governing the valuation and assessment of indivi­dual claims with a view to allotment of land, and covers the second, fourth and fifth items in the list. The sixth and seventh items are explained in chapter IV. Certain developments of the general scheme of allotment and in particular, suburban allotments, allotments in garden colonies and allotments in villages earmarked for defence personnel are discussed in Chapter V. The directions laid down for the determination of fields for each individual are set out in Chapter VI and the instructions and procedure for the review and revision of allotment in Chapter VII. The last chapter contains the instructions and proce­dure to be followed for the completion of land records following the quasi-permanent allotment. Except in so far as is necessary by way of introduction, the details under each head are explained in the relevant chapter.


Rights Conferred Pending Transfer of Ownership


20.       From the legal aspect, quasi-permanent allotment is an arrangement made by the Custodian of evacuee property for the management for the time being of property in his charge. Only such rights can, therefore, be conferred on persons to whom evacuee land is allotted or leased as vest in the Custodian himself. Arrangements relating to quasi-permanent allotment fall thus within the framework of the legislation which may be made for the management of evacuee property. Untill me 10th October, 1949, each Province and State had its own evacuee property legislation. The East Punjab had its Evacuees' (Administration of Property) Act, 1947 which was amended in several particulars during 1948, and was replaced by a provincial ordinance on the 9th July, 1949, framed on the pattern proposed by the Central Government. In October, 1949, however, the Central Gov­ernment issued the Administration of Evacuee Property Ordinance-1949 which applies to all Provinces and States in the Indian Union.



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