CONTENTS

 

SN

Subject

 

CHAPTER – I

Resettlement of Displaced Persons on Land

 

1

The First Problems

 

2.

Temporary Allotment of Land

 

3.

Working of the Group Allotment Scheme

 

4.

Progress of Temporary Allotment of Land

 

5.

Decision to Introduce a New Scheme of Allotment

 

6.

Stages in Rural Resettlement

 

7.

Consolidation of Temporary Allotment

 

8.

Financial Assistance

 

9.

Special Leases to Larger Holders

 

10.

Administrative Organisation

 

11.

Quashi-Permanent Settlement

 

12.

Rights Conferred Pending Transfer of Ownership

 

13.

Statements of Conditions

 

14.

Rights of Allottees

 

15.

Obligations of Allottees and Lessees

 

16.

Amendment and Cancellation of Allotment or Lease

 

17.

Land Resettlement Legislation

 

18.

Urban Land

 

19.

Pepsu Legislation for Abolition of Occupancy Rights

 

20.

Evaluation of Land and Rights

 

21.

Statistical Information

 

22.

Area Abandoned in Pakistan

 

23.

Distribution and Size of Holdings

 

24.

Evacuee Area in East Punjab and Pepsu

 

25.

The Gap

 

26.

Alternative Policies

 

27.

Revision of Statistics

 

28.

Individual Accounts and Net Allotment

 

29.

Allocation of Villages

 

30.

Consolication of Close Relations

 

31.

Allotment of Fields

 

32.

Subsequent Stages

 

33.

Restoration of the Rural Economy

 

34.

Reconstruction of the Rural Economy

 

 

Annexure : Press Communique

 

CHAPTER II

Land Claims Procedure

 

35

Introductory

 

36

Inviting Land Claims

 

37

Penalties

 

38.

The Claim Form

 

39.

Lacunae in the Form

 

40.

Arrangements for Registration

 

41.

Work in the Land Claims Office

 

42.

Verification of Land Claims

 

43.

Exchange of Revenue Records with West Punjab

 

44.

Analysis and Tabulation of Claims

 

45.

The Parcha Claim

 

46.

The Parcha Claim Number

 

47.

The First Part of the Parcha Claim

 

48.

Categories of Verification

 

49.

Punjabi and Non-Punjabi Extraction

 

50.

Classification of Rights

 

51.

Units of Area

 

52.

Comparison Between Claims and Oral Verification

 

53.

Copies of Jamabandis from West Punjab

 

54.

Procedure for Extracting Information from Jamabandis

 

55.

Preliminary Scrutiny

 

56.

Determination of Rights

 

57.

Determination of Shares in Khewats

 

58.

Determination of Class of Land

 

59.

Chhant Jamabandi

 

60.

Assessment of the Claim

 

61.

Consolidation of Claims

 

62.

The Fehrist Daavedaran

 

63.

The Fourth Part of the Parcha Claim

 

64.

The Graded Cut and the Allocation

 

65.

The Parcha Claim as a Working Sheet

 

66.

Anexure I : Classification Numbers for Registering Centres

 

67.

Annexue II : Classification Numbers for Parcha Claims

 

CHAPTER III

Assessment and Valuation of Claims

 

68.

The Problem

 

69.

Criteria of Valuation of Land

 

70.

The Method Adopted

 

71.

Key for Soil Valuations

 

72.

The Unit of Valuation

 

73.

Valuation of Certain Special Categories of Land

 

74.

Valuation of Rights

 

75.

Colony Rights

 

76.

Lease Rights from the Crown

 

77.

Occupancy and Landlord Rights

 

78.

Rights of Superior and Inferior Ownership

 

79.

Shamilat Rights

 

80.

Mortgage Rights

 

81.

Leases Between Private Parties

 

82.

Deviations from Jamabandis

 

83.

Transfer Between Parties

 

84.

Evidence other than Jamabandis for Colony Rights

 

85.

Different Classes of Allotment

 

86.

Additional Temporary Allotment for Colony Rights

 

87.

Reservation in lieu of Allotment

 

88.

Auction Purchasers of Crown Land

 

89.

Calculation of Net Allotment

 

90.

Determination of Net Allotment

 

CHAPTER IV

Principles of Allocation

 

91.

Introductory

 

92.

Determination of Area of Allocation

 

93.

Prior Considerations in Allocation

 

94.

Classification of Claims

 

95.

West Punjab Colonists

 

96.

East Punjab Colonists

 

97.

Special Allocation

 

98.

Area of Allocation for East Punjab Colonists

 

99.

Allocation of Villages – Temporary Allottees

 

100.

Village wise Allotment

 

101.

Preference for Colonists in Villages of Origin

 

102.

Allotment in irrigated, riverain, hilly and insecure tracts

 

103.

Determination of Categories for villages and individuals

 

104.

Grading of Villages

 

105.

Limitations of Grading Schemes

 

106.

Application of Grades

 

107.

Allotment in Grade I Villages

 

108.

Grading in Pepsu

 

109.

Schemes of Sub-Allocation

 

110.

Special Grade Lands

 

111.

Allotment to Close Relations

 

112.

Definition of Close Relations

 

113.

Rules on the Subject

 

114.

Adjustments of Claims of Sitting Allottees with Close Relations

 

115.

Close Relations to be consolidated subject to same area of allocation

 

116.

Co-sharers and descendants of one grandfather

 

117.

Allotment to women, specially widows

 

118.

Elucidation of rights of temporary allottees

 

119.

Allotment of Land under Occupation of Local Tenants

 

120.

Allotment to Institutions

 

121.

Settlement of Certain Small Communities

 

122.

Special Allotments

 

CHAPTER V

Suburban and Other Special Allotments

 

123

Scope of the Chapter

 

I

Allotment of Land in the Neighbourhood of Towns Carrying Additional Valuation

 

124

Basis of Additional Valuation

 

125

Method of Calculation

 

126

Classification as a Special Grade

 

II

Allotment of Suburban Land :-

 

127

Definitions

 

128

Calculation of Suburban and Non-Suburban Allotment

 

129

Disposal of Suburban Land not required for Suburban Claimants

 

III

Allotment of Land in Villages Earmarked for Defence and Ex-Defence Personnel :-

 

130

General Rules

 

IV

Allotment in Villages earmarked for Garden Colonies :-

 

131

Co-operative Garden Colonies

 

V

Allotment in Villages earmarked for the Resettlement of Widows :-

 

132

Assistance to Widows

 

VI.

Allotment of Evacuee Gardens :-

 

133

Provincial List of Evacuee Gardens

 

VII.

Leases of Urban Evacuee Land :-

 

134

Purpose of the Scheme

 

135

Collection of Data

 

VIII

Acquisition of Evacuee Land for Public Purposes :-

 

136

Liability to Pay for Evacuee property

 

137

Compensation to Non-Evacuee Owners

 

Annexure I

Land Carrying Additional Valuation

 

Annexure II

List of Towns with a population of 15,000 or more (1941 Census)

 

Annexure III

General Rules Regarding the Mode of Allotment of Suburban Land

 

Annexue IV

Guidance Notes for Resettlement Officers

 

CHAPTER VI

Allotment of Fields

 

138

Introductory

 

I

Verification of the Village Khasra List

 

139

Area, class of land and rights

 

140

Evacuee land due for restoration to owners

 

141

Joint khewats including evacuees and non-evacuees

 

142

Pending and decided mutations

 

143

Area due for allotment or to be excluded from allotment

 

144

Calculation of value in standard acres of area under non-proprietary rights

 

145

Entries regarding means of irrigation

 

146

Valuation of gardens

 

II

The List of Allottees

 

147

Arrangement of Villages

 

148

Deviations

 

149

Arrangement of allottees

 

150

Groups and relations

 

151

The serial number

 

152

List of allottees for the purpose of khasra numbers

 

III

Determination of the Mode of Partition

 

153

Directions of  the Resettlement Officer

 

154

Determination of grades

 

155

Allotment when more than one grade prescribed

 

156

Area under landlord rights

 

157

Area of different classes within a chakbandi

 

158

Method of calculation

 

159

Alotment to holders of less than 3 standard acres

 

160

Determination of proportions of different grades for allotment

 

161

Khasra numbers for land temporarily allotted and reserved

 

162

Classification of area

 

IV

Demarcation of Khasra Numbers

 

163

When serial number may be departed from

 

164

Actual allotment of khasra numbers

 

165

Importance of convenient holdings

 

166

Joint holdings

 

167

Calculating value of khasra numbers

 

168

Splitting of khasra numbers

 

169

Allotment of uncultivated land, groves, hill etc.

 

170

Where khasra numbers are to be allotted at site

 

171

Errors in calculation of area

 

172

Statement of khasra numbers allotted

 

173

Displaced mortgagors and mortgagees

 

174

Pending mutations

 

CHAPTER VII

Review and Revision of Allotments

 

175

Introductory

 

I.

Review prior to possession

 

176

Three stages of review

 

177

Reasons for review

 

178

Review in the first stage

 

179

Review in the second stage

 

180

Review in the third stage

 

181

Authority for changes

 

182

Procedure for changes

 

II1

Review after possession

 

183

Machinery

 

184

Period of limitation

 

185

Power of revision

 

186

Court-fee stamp

 

187

Categories of applications

 

188

Applications relating to claims-Category (A)

 

189

Applications relating to allocation of areas and allotment of villages-Category (B)

 

 

 

 

 

Application for revision of fields – Category (C)

 

Application for exchange – Category (D)

 

Application from persons to whom no allotment has been made or application for correction of errors – Category (E)

 

Application for consolidation of allotments – Category (F)

 

Resumption of land

CHAPTER – VIII

Records

 

Scope of the Chapter

 

Central Records

 

Jamabandies

 

Central Record to serve both East Punjab and Pepsu Resettlement files in the Central Record

 

Resettlement Files in Districts

 

Patwaris’ records

 

Instructions for Preparation of the Fard Taqsim

 

Other papers to be appended with fard taqsim arazi matruka

 

Jamabandis of wholly evacuee villages

 

Jamabandis of mixed villages

 

Entries in the khasra girdawri

 

Mutations

 

Fard Taqsim Arazi Matruka

CHAPTER – IX

Allotment of Evacuee Houses and Sites

 

Fresh Allotment of Houses

 

Agency for allotment

 

Rules of Allotments of Evacuee Houses

 

Allotment of Sites

 

Model Villages

 

Review and Revision

 

Long-term Aspects of Rural Housing

APPENDICES

 

Legislation:

 

IA        East Punjab Refugees (Registration of Land Claims) Act 1948

 

IB        Punjab Government Notification No. 4891/S dated July 8, 1949 (Statement of conditions for lease)

 

IC        Punjab Government Notification No. 4892/S dated July 8, 1949 (Statement of conditions for allotment)

 

ID        Pepsu Government Notification No. 8/R dated July 23, 1949 (Statement of conditions for lease)

 

IE        Pepsu Government Notification No. 9/R dated July 23, 1949 (Statement of conditions for allotment)

 

IF        The East Punjab Displaced Persons (Land Resettlement) Act, 1949

 

IG        The Patiala and East Punjab State Union Displaced Persons (Land Resettlement) Ordinance, 2006

 

IH        The Patiala and East Punjab State Union Abolition of Occupancy Tensures and Settlement of Land Disputes Ordinance, 2006

II

Scheme of Allocation of Area

 

IIA      Allocation statements (July, 1949)

 

IIB      Revised Allocation statements (April 30, 1950)

III

Valuation Statements: West Punjab

 

Lahore District

 

Sheikhupura District

 

Montgomery District

 

Lyallpur District

 

Sialkot District

 

Multan District

 

Mianwali District

 

Muzaffargarh District

 

Gujranwala District

 

Gujrat District

 

Rawalpindi District

 

Jhelum District

 

Dera Ghazi Khan District

 

Jhang District

 

Attock District

 

Shahpur District

 

Bahawalpur and Sind

 

N.W.F.P.

 

Amritsar District

 

Hissar District

 

Rohtak District

 

Gurgaon

 

Karnal District

 

Ambala District

 

Ludhiana District

 

Hoshiarpur District

 

Jullundur District

 

Simla District

 

Kangra District

 

Gurdaspur District

 

Ferozepur District

 

Pepsu :

 

            Kapurthala District

 

            Fatehgarh Sahib District

 

            Sangrur District

 

            Barnala District

 

            Patiala District

 

            Mohindergarh District

 

            Bhatinda District

 

            Kohistan District

IV

Valuation of Colony Rights (Value in terms of Proprietary Land)

 

            Lower Jhelum Colony

 

            Upper Jhelum Colony

 

            Upper Chenab Colony

 

            Haveli Project Colony

 

            Lower Chenab Colony

 

            Lower Bari Doab Colony

 

            Chunian Colony

 

            Lower Chenab Extension

 

            Nili Bar Colony

V

Note on Local Rights

VI

Scheme of Graded Cuts

Ready Reckoner for Net Allotment

VII

Grading of Villages

 

Part A Grading of Colonists

 

Part B Grading of villages in West Punjab for the Settlement of Non-Colonists

 

Part C Grading of Villages in East Punjab and Pepsu

VIII

Sub-Allocation Scheme Punjab

 

            Kangra District

 

            Gurdaspur District

 

            Hoshiarpur District

 

            Amritsar District

 

            Jullundur District

 

            Ludhiana District

 

            Ambala District

 

            Ferozepur District

 

            Karnal District

 

            Rohtak District

 

            Gurgaon District

 

            Hissar District

 

Patiala and East Punjab States Union

 

            Mohindergarh District

 

            Bhatinda District

 

            Patiala District

 

            Sangrur District

 

            Barnala District

 

            Fatehgarh District

 

            Kapurthala District

 

            Kohistan District

IX

Instructions for Review and Revision of Land Allotment

 

(A)       Notification No. 8689/S (Reh), dated the 29th August, 1951

 

(B)       Revised Instructions governing the filing and disposal of applications

 

Administrative Instructions

X

Scheme for the Allotment of Evacuee Garden in East Punjab and Pepsu

XI

Summary of Principles of Allotment of Rural Evacuee Houses for the Guidance of Local Officers and Committees

XII

Statistical Statements :

 

Table I                        Area Abandoned by Displaced Persons By Districts and Tahsils

 

Table II           Evacuee Land in East Punjab and Pepsu

 

Table III         Classification of Area Available for Quasi-Permanent Allotment

 

Table IV         Distribution of Size of Holdings of Displaced Persons

 

Table V           Calculation of Saving from the Approved Scheme of graded Cuts

 

Table VI         Revised Statement of Evacuee Area in East Punjab and Pepsu

 

Table VII        Analysis by Grades of Area Available for Quasi-Permanent             Allotment

 

 

 

        CHAPTER I

RESETTLEMENT OF DISPLACED PERSONS ON LAND

 

On the l5th August, 1947, with the partition of India came the partition of the Punjab into East and West Punjab. Since June, 1947, the problems of partition had received close consideration both in Delhi and in Lahore, but the possibilities of mass migration of the population were not part of the agenda. Thus, the most overwhelming fact of the partition of the subcontinent caught the new Governments largely unawares.   From the middle of August, 1947, events moved rapidly. In many places sparks of the preceding weeks turned into devastating fires; local resentment into hatred; bravado and revenge into hideous brutality. With the withdrawal of officials, the minority populations both in East and West Punjab were completely at the mercy of the majority community, whose mood was increasingly shared by those whose business it was to protect the population.

 

2.         The movement of population between East Punjab and West Punjab began towards the end of August, 1947, At this date it seemed still a trickle of persons seeking perhaps temporary shelter across the new border Soon the numbers grew and the Government of East Punjab, still barely on its legs, had to find immediate answers to some of the most difficult problems which have ever confronted administrations, By the middle of September, 1947, it was clear enough that the movement, which had now grown into a flood was likely to be an almost permanent transfer of population. No one then knew how wide the sweep of this transfer would be, what numbers were to be expected, and how soon they might come.

 

3.         The manner and method of resettlement of rural population In East Punjab and the East Punjab States bears the stamp of August and September, 1947, The problems emerged with bewildering suddenness. Tragedy and fear of the future were writ large on the faces of the millions entering the Indian Union. The local administration in East Punjab was unprepared and unequipped. Had events been less relentless, and a measure of planning and organization in the transfer of population been possible, the story of resettlement of 2% million rural refugees would have read differently. Yet, the experience of resettlement in East Punjab and Pepsu, with its peculiar difficulties and pit-falls, has an abiding interest, and a careful record of what was done and what was left undone, should be of value for the future.

 

The First Problems

 

4.         As time passes and facts and statistics are gathered, it be-comes possible to place problems in a certain perspective. This is not possible at the first onrush of these problems. In the crisis, frequently, only one solution appears feasible, but in retrospect other considera­tions supervene. It is therefore, necessary in considering the facts of each event to see them both in perspective and as they presented themselves to those upon whom the responsibility for taking the first decisions fell. In the second week of September, 1947, the East Punjab Government first tried to find an answer to the problem of effecting immediate settlement of the several hundred thousand displaced persons who were then arriving in the Province. At that time there were no facts and figures to go by. It was known that the Muslim population from the Jullundur Division in East Punjab and the non-Muslim population from the Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions in West Punjab would almost certainly migrate. The Muslim population in the Ambala Division in East Punjab and the non-Muslim population in the Multan Division in West Punjab (with the exception of two districts) were still in their homes and only the first signs of movement were visible. The districts of the Jullundur Division had long been linked with the canal colony districts in West Punjab through the peasants who had gone out in the last generation or two to colonise the new lands. These colonists now bent their steps homewards. It seemed natural for them to do so and indeed the problem of immediate settle­ment was substantially eased in this manner. There was no time or occasion to consider at this stage the possibilities of resettlement of the non-Muslim population of different districts of West Punjab with a view to maintaining their homogeniety.

 

5.         The East Punjab States, which are now comprised in the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), were in Septem­ber, 1947, independent units of administration, each with its own seperate policies and purposes. By the end of September, 1947, the Patiala Government announced that displaced persons from the tahsils of Shahdara and Nankana Sahib in Sheikhupura district, Gujranwala and Wazirabad in Gujranwala district and Pasrur and Daska in Sialkot district would be assisted in settling on evacuee land in the Patiala State. The other States had no policy to speak of and were inclined to look upon land abandoned by evacuees as State pro­perty in whose land revenue and produce they were interested, but which thy had a right to deal out to such persons as they chose. It was not until some months later that the close co-ordination between East Punjab and the East Punjab States, which became an important feature of the scheme of land resettlement, could be begun.

 

6.         Mention has been made of the lack of facts and figures. No one knew in September, 1947, how much area precisely was being aban­doned in East Punjab or East Punjab States or in West Punjab. A scheme of distribution of the displaced population having regard to the area abandoned by them or likely to be abandoned by them or area-available or likely to be available, and taking into account its chances of assimilation with the local population, could not be formulated at this stage.

 

Temporary Allotment of Land

 

7.         It was against this background that on the 15th September, 1947, the East Punjab Government decided to allot evacuee lands for the current kharif and for rabi, 1947-48 to groups. For various reasons group allotment was considered to be the only practicable means of sending the incoming population rapidly into villages. Agricultural refugees were asked to proceed to headquarters of tahsils as far as possible in groups in which they had lived in West Punjab or in groups in which they wished to live in villages in East Punjab. Frequently it might be possible to allot a whole village to a group; sometimes two or three groups might be given possession in the first instance in one village. Possession was not to be delayed because two or three groups intended for the same village came separately or were settled separately. As soon as people had gone to the land, there would be opportunities for rationalising the groups. The principle of group allotment was specifically excluded in dealing with orchards, vegetable gardens and cultivated land situated in urban areas, but a general discretion was given to Deputy Commissioners to make individual allotments in circumstances which they considered appropriate. The main principles on which allotment to groups was made were:

 

(1)               All agricultural refugees who had either owned land or held land by virtue of grant or purchase or had been cultivating land as tenants in West Punjab were eligible for the allotment of land. Thus, non-cultivating owners could also receive allotment of land;

(2)               A unit of allotment was to be fixed for each district or part of a district. A work unit was defined as the area of land which, in given conditions, could be cultivated by a worker assisted by a family of average size. Ordinarily, a plough unit constituted a unit of allotment;

(3)               The total area to be allotted to a group would be based on the number of families forming the group, so that there would be a unit for each family to work upon. To allow for variations in the number of workers in different families, it was indicated that where, for instance, the unit was 10 acres, an addition of 3 acres could be allowed for every married male adult worker and 2 acres for every unmarried male adult worker. No addition was to be made if the number of adult workers in a family was two or less. Additions were restricted to the third, fourth and fifth worker, no additional allotment being given if the number of adult workers exceeded five. Additional allotments could be given only to actual cultivators, not to non-cultivating families;

(4)               Within the framework of group allotment, each family would be responsible for the cultivation of a definite piece of land. It was suggested that a panchayat representing the members of the group should divide the area allotted into the appropriate number of units, so that these were more or less equally pro­ductive; and

(5)               Allotment was to be subjected to the payment of land revenue, cesses and water-rates and of rent duo to the evacuee owners.

 

The Group Allotment Scheme

 

8.         The scheme of group allotment was an expedient introduced in specially difficult circumstances. It was not to be confused with co-operative farming or with group cultivation, which represent social techniques requiring much preparation, training and organisation. The objects, which the scheme set out to achieve, were:

(i)                  to ensure quick distribution of land ;

(ii)                to make it impossible for individuals to claim to be in possession, illicitly or otherwise, of specific pieces of land ;

(iii)               to enable refugees from particular villages and areas in West Punjab to remain as much together as possible ; and

(iv)              to enable peasants to pool their resources as far as possible for the sowing of the rabi and to share equitably the standing kharif crops,

 

As resettlement proceeded, there was a tendency for groups to become somewhat smaller than at first. In many instances sowing was done in common. At the time of the rabi harvest disputes were reported in a number of places among members of groups. By this time, however, new decisions had been taken by Government in regard to the policy of land allotment. Yet, in a large measure, the immediate objects of the scheme of group allotment were fulfilled.

 

 

 

 

Progress of Temporary Allotment of Land

 

9.         By the beginning of December, 1947, Deputy Commissioners reported a total settlement of 190-155 families on an area of 2,072.854 acres of cultivated land. Towards the end of December, 1947, the number of families to whom allotment had been made was reported as 209,106, the area allotted being 2,394,635 acres. In the beginning of February, 1948, an area of 2,581,819 acres was reported as having been allotted to 238,216 families. Early in January, 1948, it was felt that a number of refugees had taken double allotments in more than one district and sometimes in a district of East Punjab as well as in one of the States. It would happen that an allotment would be taken for a group, say of 50 families, of whom after a time a few would move elsewhere and secure fresh allotment. The total number of families to whom land had been allotted thus tended to be somewhat exaggerated and those who remained in possession of the entire allot­ment made to their group, even though some had left, had in many cases a larger area than they were entitled to. In the middle of January, 1948, therefore, detailed instructions for the review of allot­ments were issued and temporary allotment registers were prescribed for all abandoned villages in the Province. As a consequence of this scrutiny, the progress report on rural rehabilitation for the fortnight ending the 15th March, 1948, recorded a total allotment of 2,196,466 acres, the number of families to whom allotment had been made being 200,233.

 

10.       From kharif, 1948 further temporary allotment to those who were not themselves landholders in Pakistan was discontinued, but tenants-at-will who were already in possession of temporary allotments were not to be displaced until allotments in the scheme of quasi-permanent settlement had been completed.

 

Decision to Introduce a New Scheme of Allotment

 

11.       From November, 1947, members of the Provincial Relief and Rehabilitation Board began to urge upon Government the necessity of early settlement on land on a permanent basis. The facts that ownership in land continued to vest both in East and West Punjab in the evacuee owners and that no records were available, were con­ceded, but the pressure for a permanent settlement continued. It was felt that the future of the Province depended largely on giving every displaced landholder something that he could call his own. Prolonged consideration of this question led to the announcement on the 7th February. 1948 of the decision to replace the temporary allotment of evacuee land by a new system of quasi-permanent allotment which wouId take account of the holdings of displaced persons in West Punjab. The new allotments would not confer rights of ownership or of permanent occupancy but the possession of the allottees would be maintained. To this end claims were to be invited. In view of its importance, the press communique of the 7th February is given in full in the annexure. In the new scheme of allotment land was to be allotted only to those who in West Punjab were owners, occupancy tenants under the Punjab Tenancy Act and tenants under the Colonization of Government Lands Act and to certain other classes of grantees and holders of land to be specified by Government. It was proposed to give to small holders allotment of equivalent areas while in the case of larger holders there would be graded cuts. The defi­nition of small holders and the details of the graded cuts were to be determined, when fuller information regarding the area available, the area held by the population to be settled in East Punjab and East Punjab States and other relevant information was forthcoming.

 

12.       Government announced its intention to complete the now system of allotments in East Punjab and East Punjab States not later than the 31st May, 1949 but added that they were anxious to intro­duce the new scheme as early as might be feasible and steps to this end would be taken at once.

 

Stages in Rural Resettlement

 

13.       Resettlement of displaced persons on land, when the problem assumes large proportions, is a process which falls into five phases:

(i) immediate settlement;

(ii) consolidation of temporary allotment;

(iii) permanent settlement on land.

(iv) restoration of the rural economy ; and

(v) reconstruction and development of the rural economy.

 

Consolidation of Temporary Allotoment

 

14.       The first phase has been explained in this chapter. The second phase comprises the following principal features :—

(1) systematization of allotments of evacuee land;

(2) financial assistance to displaced persons ;

(3) a scheme of allocation of areas ;

(4) dispersal of the rural population from relief camps according to the scheme of allocation of areas ;

(5) restriction of allotment to landholders ;

(6) differentiation between large and small holders in the scheme of temporary allotment ; and

(7) creation of the necessary administrative organisation.

 

Financial  Assistance

 

15.       It is sufficient to record here that during the two years September, 1947 to September, 1949, the following assistance by way of loans and grants was afforded in East Punjab to displaced persons setting in rural areas :—

Rupees

Taccavi for seed                                                                                   55,71,011

Taccavi for bullocks                                                                              55,77,974

Taccavi for implements                                                             9,61 ,731

Loans for repair of houses                                                                     97,615

Loans for repair of wells                                                                       5,800

Loans for rural artisans and village servants                                            5,66,540

Food loans                                                                                           79,55,966

Grants for repair of houses                                                                    3,25,334

Grants for repair of wells                                                                       1,73.328

 

16.       The tentative and incomplete scheme of allocation of areas announced on the 15th September, 1947, was followed by a more complete scheme on the 31st December, 1947, which became the basis for dispersal from relief camps. After a measure of co-operation had been established with the East Punjab States, a further scheme of allocation of areas for temporary allotment was issued on the 27th May, 1948 which, in turn, became the-immediate fore-runner of the final scheme of allocation of areas. All these schemes are set out in Appendix II

 

Special Leases to Larger Holders

 

17.       The decision to discontinue temporary allotment of land to those who were not landholders taken in the beginning of kharif, 1948 has already been mentioned. It was followed by a scheme of special leases for these who had abandoned areas exceeding 100 acres. The larger holders were, thus given larger allotments and uniform allotments ceased to be the rule. The allotments sanctioned according to this scheme were:—

 

Area abandoned                                                           Special lease

(acres of irrigated or equivalent area)                                         (acres)

150 – 200                                                                    25

200 – 300                                                                    35

100 – 150                                                                    20

150 – 200                                                                    25

200 – 300                                                                    35

300 – 400                                                                    45

400 – 500                                                                    50

500 – 1000                                                                  75

100 – 2000                                                                  150

2000 – 3000                                                                250

3000 – 4000                                                                350

4000 or more                                                               400

 

Administrative Organisation

 

18.       Creation of the necessary administrative organisation for handling the rehabilitation of large numbers is completely vital to the success of rehabilitation policies. After some initial failure, steps were taken to provide every district in East Punjab (apart from Kangra and Simla) with an Additional Deputy Commissioner (described at first as Deputy Commissioner, Rehabilitation) and a Revenue Assistant. Rehabilitation. The district revenue machinery was strengthened through the addition of 41 Tahsildars, 82 Naib Tahsildars, 186 Girdawar Kanungos and 1300 Patwaris and the new staff was integrated with the existing staff, so that the area under each official was reduced. Because of the extreme importance given to the work relating to permanent settlement and the pressure at which it was done, to some extent work relating to the immediate rehabili­tation of the population, as distinguished from work relating to perma­nent settlement, tended to suffer. Again and again, during the period 1947-49 the lesson that an administration capable of dealing honestly and justly with the needs of the common man is the first step to effective rehabilitation has been strikingly illustrated.  

 

Quasi-Permanent Settlement

 

19.       The resettlement of land in East Punjab and Pepsu was envi­saged as an operation likely to confer in due course rights of a permanent character. Until issues relating to evacuee property are resolved between India and Pakistan, ownership in each country of property abandoned by evacuees continues to rest with them. This led to the use of the expression quasi-permanent as the keyword for the scheme of resettlement introduced in East Punjab and Pepsu. As will be appreciated, never before had there been land resettlement opera­tions of the magnitude of those, which were now planned in East Punjab and Pepsu. Quasi-permanent allotment of land entails the following eleven processes :—

(1)        determination of rights to be conferred pending transfer of ownership .

(2)        devising methods for the valuation of different classes of

land and rights on a uniform basis ;

(3)        collection of statistical information ;

(4)        Compilation of the accounts of land and rights abandoned by each displaced person ;

(5)        framing a scheme of graded distribution of land ;

(6)        preparing a scheme of allocation of areas ;

(7)        assigning each individual landholder to a particular village ;

(8)        allotment of fields to each individual;

(9)        delivery of possession to individual allottees ;

(10)      providing a procedure for review and revision of allotments ; and

(11)           completion of revenue records.    

     The various chapters of this Manual are concerned with an exposi­tion of the principles and methods devised for carrying out each of the tasks listed above. The first and the third items will be explained in some detail in this chapter. Chapter II sets out the procedural aspects of work relating to land claims. Chapter III summarises the principles and rules governing the valuation and assessment of indivi­dual claims with a view to allotment of land, and covers the second, fourth and fifth items in the list. The sixth and seventh items are explained in chapter IV. Certain developments of the general scheme of allotment and in particular, suburban allotments, allotments in garden colonies and allotments in villages earmarked for defence personnel are discussed in Chapter V. The directions laid down for the determination of fields for each individual are set out in Chapter VI and the instructions and procedure for the review and revision of allotment in Chapter VII. The last chapter contains the instructions and proce­dure to be followed for the completion of land records following the quasi-permanent allotment. Except in so far as is necessary by way of introduction, the details under each head are explained in the relevant chapter.

 

Rights Conferred Pending Transfer of Ownership

 

20.       From the legal aspect, quasi-permanent allotment is an arrangement made by the Custodian of evacuee property for the management for the time being of property in his charge. Only such rights can, therefore, be conferred on persons to whom evacuee land is allotted or leased as vest in the Custodian himself. Arrangements relating to quasi-permanent allotment fall thus within the framework of the legislation which may be made for the management of evacuee property. Untill me 10th October, 1949, each Province and State had its own evacuee property legislation. The East Punjab had its Evacuees' (Administration of Property) Act, 1947 which was amended in several particulars during 1948, and was replaced by a provincial ordinance on the 9th July, 1949, framed on the pattern proposed by the Central Government. In October, 1949, however, the Central Gov­ernment issued the Administration of Evacuee Property Ordinance-1949 which applies to all Provinces and States in the Indian Union.

 

 

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