4.8              The following definition of a survey number is given for guidance in making new survey or corrections thereof :-

(i)                        In all survey work each parcel of land lying in one spot, in the occupation of one person. or of several persons holding jointly, and held under one title, should ordinarily be measured as a separate survey number; but large areas may be broken up into convenient fields.

(ii)                      A Survey number may have part of its area cultivated and part uncultivated or part of one soil and part of another. Survey numbers should not be multiplied merely on grounds of this kind, unless it is convenient to measure waste separately and not to include irrigated with unirrigated cultivation, as this leads to errors in totalling the village area.

(iii)                     Care also should be taken not to multiply survey numbers merely on account of cultivation ridges or other merely temporary divisions. In a simple state of cultivation there is usually no necessity to treat each ridge, made for convenience of cultivation as a separate field boundary.

(iv)                    But in the case of valuable lands cultivated by tenants who are frequently changed special care should be taken that the measurements are made so as to show the boundaries of parcels in which the land is usually held for cultivation or irrigation. In such lands the survey numbers will necessarily be smaller than elsewhere.

(v)                      In places where land is of little value, if an occupancy tenant has extended his field by ploughing out, and there is no boundary between the new and old land, not other plain evidence, such as payment of a different rent by which the new land can be separated from the old land, the patwari shall survey the whole in one number. In such a case it is not his duty to distinguish between old and new land.

(vi)                    Field names, if locally used, should be written under the survey number

(vii)             In short, every care should be taken to make the survey simple, but not to omit details convenient for the annual gidawari and jamabandi. It should be borne in mind that every unnecessary entry increases unnecessarily the patwari's annual work.

(viii)           Where the boundaries of a survey number is known, but is not marked on the ground owing to rich cultivation or sandy soil, the boundary should be delineated on the map by broken lines.

(ix)                    Where there is a large area of undivided waste it may be cut up into survey numbers corresponding  with the limits of the survey squares.

(x)                      In all cases in which a new map of any estate is prepared the provisions of this paragraph and especially of sub-section(ii) must be applied with due regard to canal requirements, and so far as may be possible the limits of canal irrigation, as ordinarily practised, must be shown in separate numbers.




4.9              Instructions regarding re-measurement and map correction - The instructions as regards re-measurement and map correction during a general re-assessment of a districts will be found in Chapter XII and Appendices VII and XXI of the Settlements Manual.


4.10          Survey implements and mapping paper - Instructions as to survey implements and mapping paper will be found in Chapter No.3 (Patwaris). In hilly and broken land where squares cannot be used, application for plotted traverse sheets should be made to the Director of Land Records, and that officer, in communication with the Survey Department, will supply suitable sheets for the patwari's use.


4.11          Patwaris not to be excused measurements - The main portion of the measurement and record work should be done by the circle patwaris, the settlement patwaris being looked on primarily as an aid to them in their work. A patwari must in no case be excused from doing both measurement and record work. If he is unable at first to do the work required of him he should be taught, and if he fails to learn his services should be terminated.


4.12           Riverain measurement Rules hitherto observed by the Survey Department - The following are the rules under which riverain measurements have been carried out though-out the Punjab in conjunction with the Survey Department:-


(1)               It is the duty of the Settlement Officer to supply the Riverain Survey Officer, by lkthe first of May each, with a statement showing the villages to be traversed in the ensuing season, distinguishing whose which are to be wholly and those which are to be partially remeasured, and affording information as to the scale to be used and the distance desired between traverse points. With this statement should be sent a small scale map of the district showing the names of the different villages as well as their boundaries. The Riverain Officer will then prepare a programme for the ensuing season and submit it by the 1st of June, to the Director, North Western Circle, Chandigarh who will forward it to the Financial Commissioner for approval. Before actually commencing the work of the season the Riverain Survey Officer whould consult the Settlement Officer as to the order in which village should be traversed. The Settlement Officer must be careful to arrange in ample time (at present the Press requires about two month's notice) with the Director of Land Records for the supply of ruled and backed mussavis to the Riverain Drawing Officer. There will be two kinds of musavis. namely, 16 square and 8 square ones. The latter will be used for such outer portions of villages as can be included with them.

(2)               Its is the duty of the Settlement Officer to see that all existing boundary pillars are put in a proper state of repair.

(3)               Its is the duty of the Settlement Officer to make arrangements with a contractor for the supply of stones to mark the corners of base lines according to the list supplied by the Officer-in-charge of Riverain Survey.

(4)               Early in the cold weather it will be the duty of the Officer-in-charge of Riverain Survey to arrange that traversers begin work in the riverain track. At the commencement of work, each party should be accompanied  by the village patwari and the lambardar to point out boundaries and to show where points should be thrown as well as to arrange for the supply of information, etc., and to act generally between villagers and the traversers.

(5)               Such points as the Settlement Officer may require should be traversed and where necessary marked on the ground by the Officer-in-charge of Riverain Survey. These should include-

(a)                all existing tri-junction pillars;

(b)               recognizable physical features of a permanent nature;

(c)                the survey part’s traverse points. These should not be more than 340 metres apart and should invariably be close to the district or tahsil boundary.

(d)               A number of points in the kacha area to ficilitate internal measurements by the patwari. These points will usually be in cultivation.

(6)               The Riverain Drawing Office should also obtain the last settlement maps of all coter-minus villages on either side of the boundary and combine them in the a single four-inch map in order to see how far they agree with each other.

(7)               Inside each village a suitable square should be selected by the Officer-in-charge of Riverain Survey to form the special base line of that village. This should be on ground not exposed to river action. Stone pillars should be erected at three corners of this square. A corresponding square on pakka ground should in each case be selected and similarly marked on the opposite side of the river. This will materially facilitate the relaying of boundaries on future occasions when such may be necessary.

(8)               As a result of the traversers’ work the Riverain Drawing Office will supply the settlement Officer with musavis showing paper boundaries in those cases where it is discovered in the course of the examination prescribed in rule 6 that the boundaries of the settlement maps do not coincide; separate musavis for each village showing the points traversed under rule 5.

This (b) series will be complete and continuous for the whole tract and will be numbered serially. Where it is found necessary because of discrepancies to prepare an (a) musavi, the (a) musavi will correspond exactly to a (b) series. It will be easy to transfer the points shown in (b) to (a) with the help the squares shown in both. The patwari will work on (b) and (a) will remain in the Revenue Record Room until they are required for reference under Rule 11. \it is advisable to have paper boundaries marked only on (a). If they are worked on (b) the patwaries are apt to show dissension even when there is no actual dispute on the spot. It is for this reason that the traverser should shown “Chandas” only along the boundary and not to attempt to mark out the actual boundary itself.


(9)               Musavis are supplied gradually by the Survey Department from the 15th December to 15th March. As the latest musavis are not issued till 15th March it is necessary for the patwaris to whom these musavis are issued to have everything in readiness to start work immediately. If the work is not completed in April the traverse marks will be washed away by the rivers rising when the snows in the hills begin to melt. The Settlement Officer should give separate musavis alluded to in rule 8 to patwaris upon which it is easy for them to carry out a rapid and accurate survey. In the kacha area of caourse entre re-measurement is required, but where the system of measurement in use is that of tarmim, the patwari need not remeasure the whole of the pakka area of each village. The pakka area may be tarmimed separately, and the work so done can for the sake of completion be transferred to the Survey musavis in continuation of the remeasurement of the kacha, either by scale or by pentagraph. The scale is the best instrument for this work, since any slight discrepancy can then be distributed with the pentagraph this is not feasible.

(10)           The kanungos who were employed with the traversers may now be appointed by the Settlement Officer to supervise the detailed measurements. It is advisable to have a special naib-tahsildar in charge of the cadastral survey of riveraiin areas.

(11)           It is in connection with remeasurement of the kacha area that boundary disputes arise and discrepancies have to be reconciled, and this requires careful treatment. The naib-tahsildar will first of all mark the external boundaries of the village as shown in the settlement Shajra. The patwari will then easily be able to fix the field boundaries which he should show to the owner concerned. In case the settlement shajras are in such a dilapidated state that they do not clearly show the village boundaries or in case the boundaries of two villages overlap or an area has been omitted from measurement in both maps, the naib-tahsildar should prepare a statement of the cases illustrated by tracing from the musavis, and submit it to the Settlement Officer for his decision which will be marked on both sets of musavis. His report should include the statements of lambardars and owners interested in the matter. To enable him to deal properly with disputes, the naib-tahsildar will require-

(a)                the settlement shajras of village on both sides of the river;

(b)               all record of previous disputes and decisions. If any of the villages involved are situated in another district, it is necessary to obtain the cooperation of those authorities. The most convenient course is to obtain jurisdiction for the Settlement Officer over the whole of the riverain area of the adjoining district.

(12)           It may happen that the scales employed on each side of a river differ. It is of course essential that the whole area be plotted on one scale and the more convenient one may be selected and the internal measurements conducted accordingly, if considered necessary, reduction or enlargement of the completed map can be carried out subsequently for villages using a different scale from that adopted.

(13)           An important part of the traverser's duties is the embedding of base line stones this work must be carried out by the Survey Department who will supply the Settlement Officer with an index map showing the corners of squares so demarcated.

(14)           It is the duty of the Director of Land Records to maintain a list of selected kanungos so that one may be deputed without delay as soon as the traversers arrives in the district.

(15)           A supply of wooden pegs, 6 centimetres long and 15 centimetres in circumference should be provided by the zamindars under orders of the Settlements Officer for marking points.

(16)           Lambardars should be made responsible that the pegs and survey marks are not removed or destroyed. A list should be maintained by the village patwari in the following form:-

(1)                                       No. of chanda

(2)                                       Field No. in which the chanda is situate.

(3)                                       Owner's name

(4)                                       Name of the tenant.

(5)                                       Signature or thumb mark of the owner of the field.

(6)                                       Seal of lambardar concerned.

The position of the pegs and chandas should be marked by the kanungo on one of the patwari's maps, it will then be easy to fix responsibility.

(17)           The naib-tahsildar on special duty should be provided with a Niniature Swiss cottage tent and a shouldari. One or two Muharrirs should also be given him and a small contingent advance. He will need a good deal of tracing cloth for his reports on disputed boundaries.




4.13          Responsibility of Revenue Officer for correctness of patwari's survey - All Revenue Officers are reminded of their responsibility for the correctness of field surveys executed by the patwaris whom they control-a responsibility which is much increased by the circumstances that the patwari's maps are occasionally used for the correction of the topographical sheets of the Survey of India.


4.14          Instructions regarding incorporation of field maps changes-The following instructions are issued for the purpose of collecting material from year to year for incorporating in the field map changes which occur in fields in the interval between two settlements.


4.15          The Changes in fields, which ought to lead to the correction of a field map in the interval between two settlements, and the methods by which the map should be corrected, are stated in the following instructions:-

Firstly, changes which are due to transactions on account of which a mutations order has been, or should be, passed. The chief examples are-

(a)                Partitions.

(b)               Sales

(c)                Mortgage with possession.

(d)               Redemption when part of an old field has been mortgaged and in consequence a new number has been made, the result of redemption being the restoration of the original number.

(e)                Exchange.

(f)                 Gifts.


4.16          Changes due to nautor and hissadari kasht - Secondly, other changes of a sufficiently permanent character, Examples are:-

(a)                Nautor.

(b)               Conversion of part of a barani field into irrigated land when the change is of a permanent nature. Such changes will especially occur when a new well has been sunk of some other new means of irrigation has been provided.

(c)                Separate cultivation of share-holders in fields jointly owned (hissadari kasht) when arrangements for separate possession has lasted for not less than four years. such arrangements when once made usually continue until a partition is carried out under the orders of a Revenue Officer.

4.17          New field numbers not to be created needlessly - (a) - Care should be taken not to increase the number of field needlessly. New fields should not be made on account of changes of cultivating occupancy by tenants-at-will. Such changes will, as at present, be recognised by min numbers in the khasra gidawari and jamabandi. Similarly new numbers are not required  when part of a field is cultivated by the owner and part by a tenant-at-will or when part is cultivated and part uncultivated. In the former case the entry can be shown in the column headed "changes of rights possession, and rent of the khasra girdawri" thus:-


A.        Owner                          ....2 bighas/kanals/Acre

B          tenant-at-will                ....1 bighas/kanal/Acre


(b)        Petty cases of nautor, due to ploughing out, are not a cause for making new fields or changing the boundaries of old ones.

Fields numbers should not be combined into a single field unless the clubbing is clearly desirable for the purposes of girdawari.


4.18          Method of preparation of tatimma shajras based on permanent changes - In the case of new numbers due to transactions on account of mutation order (paragraph 4.20) the Revenue Officer must not sanction the mutation in the absence of a proper map of the new field numbers attested by the kanungo and checked by himself. When the patwari enters up the mutation he will draw to scale on the back of the mutation sheet and its counterfoil the numbers effected and will enter under them the details prescribed for the field book referred to in paragraph 4.26. The new field will be temporarily numbered, e.g. 155/1 155/2 etc., permanent numbers not being adopted lest the mutation be rejected or the new fields be affected by subsequent mutation. The kanungo will check on the spot the dimensions and areas of the new numbers and will sign his name at the foot of the map with a note "attested on the spot". In the case of mutations due to sales, etc., the kanungo is responsible for seeing that the measurements correspond with the area actually transferred. In the case of partitions it will not always be possible to show the new numbers and field book details on the back of the mutation order. If so, they will be shown on separate mapping sheets. Tha tatimma shajra in the case of a partition will be a copy of that prepared as soon as the partition is completed (paragraph 18.12 (a) and 18.14). The kanungo who attests the tatimma shajra in  the case of a partition will be held strictly responsible that the map really shows the land allotted to each share-holder and pointed out to him (paragraph 18.14). In case of a transaction based on a registered deed the revenue officer should immediately on receipt of the registration memorandum from the Registration Officer (paragraph 7.23), direct the kanungo and the patwari to proceed to the spot and prepare a tatimma shajra, if one is necessary, on the basis of the material given in the registration memorandum and that alone. On the completion of the tatimma shajra it shall be submitted by the kanungo to the revenue officer.


4.19          Preparation of tatimma shajras necessitate by hissadari kasht etc. - The changes referred to in paragraph 4.21 are already recorded by the patwri by putting a red cross in columns 10,15,20,25 or 30 of the khasra girdwri (vide not to column 10 of the form of shajra girdwari in paragraph 9.3). All such entries must be carefully checked by the field kanungo harvest by harvest. In the year in which the quinquennial jamabandi of an estate is to be prepared the kharif girdawari must be made with great care, and the field kanungo is responsible that no number which has changed permanently escapes detection. After the girdawri is finished he will at once draw up a list of the cross marked members and give it to the patwari who will make the necessary measurements without delay and prepare the tatimma shajras on mapping sheets of the same size as the sheets used for jamabandis. Field book details will be entered on the back of these maps as prescribed in paragraph 4.23. In the case of villages measured on the square system these mapping sheets will have two squares marked on them. The field kanungo will check the tatimma shajras on the spot during teh cold weather before the end of January. The new fields will at this stage be temporarily numbered as laid down in the preceding paragraph.


4.20          Boundaries and dimension of new field numbers to be shown in red ink - In the maps prescribed by the two last paragraphs all new boundaries and other amendments will be shown in red ink. It is unnecessary to re-chain such of the boundaries as have undergone no alteration, and if a side of a new field includes the whole of a side of an adjoining field which is not being amended only the remaining part of the side of the new field need be re-measured. When an old field number is divided into two or more new numbers the patwari will re-calculate the areas of each of the new numbers. To facilitate identification one adjoining number which has not altered will be shown in the tatimma shajra.


4.21          Preparation of field book of new field numbers - In the case of any further changes brought to light at the rabi girdawri the precedure prescribed by paragraph 4.23 and 4.24 must be gone through as soon as possible and when it is completed the patwari will enter all the new field for which tatimma shajras have been prepared under the above mentioned paragraph in a field book in the form below:



No. of fields

No. of holding

Area calculation



Signature of kanungo
























In the field book the fields will be finally renumbered as follows:-

If a field number, say 24, has been subdivided into two, and the last number in the field register of the village is 150, entry No.24 should be scored through and the new field entered as 151/24 152/24.

Where a second sub-division takes place the denominator number should simply be the numerator of the field which is again sub-divided. thus in the example, we should have first 151/24, then 185/151 and lastly 202/185, from each of which, if necessary it would be very easy to trace back to the old number. If field nos. 31 and 32 have been joined into one field the new entry may be 153/31 and 32, 152 being the last number in the field register. The new numbers given in the field book will be entered in red ink in the tatimma shajras prepared under paragraphs 4.23 and 4.24 above, and each entry in the field book will be initialed by the field kanungo in token of its correctness. A slip containing a copy of the entries in the field book will be given to the owner or mortgagee or in the case of land held in joint ownership to the share-holder in occupation of the new field.

            In estates where field numbers have been assigned by recangles and killa numbers in lieu of continuous numbers during the course of consolidation of holdings operation, the above rule shall not apply. The new field numbers as a result of subdivision shall be within the killa numbers for example, killa number 2 has been sub-divided into two parts. It may be numbered as 2/1 and 2/2. Again a sub-division takes place then a new numbers shall be 2/1/1 and 2/1/2, 2/2/1 and 2/2/2. If killa numbers 2/1/1/ and 2/2/2 have been joined into one field, the new entry may be 2/1/1and32/2.


4.27.        Tatimma shajras to be bound with the jamabandis  - The original tatimma shajras prepared on the spot under paragraph 4.24 will be bound up with the Government copy of the jamabandi, and copies checked and signed by the field kanungo will be bound with the patwari's copy of the jamabandi. No copy of the tatimma shajras prepared on the back of mutation sheets is required for the Government copy of the jamabandi, in which the original mutation sheets are incorporated, but copies of them must be made on mapping sheets for the patwari's copy of the jamabandi. The field book details need not be copied on the copies of the tatimma shajras field with the patwari's copies of jamabandies as the details are already given in the field book kept by him.


4.28.        Check of tatimma shajras by tahsildars and naib-tahsildars  - The tahsildar and naib-tahsildar shall when on tour, check on the spot at least 25 percent of the tatimma shajras prepared in each village in the period intervening between two jamabandies. They are not expected to do much in the way of chaining, but they must remember that they are responsible for the general accuracy of the measurement. They should be able to recognise by eye whether there is any palpable mistake in the karukan or in the area, and if there is any reason to believe that a mistake exists they must have the field re-chained and the area re-calculated in their presence. They must also check the entries in the field book referred to in paragraph 4.26. All tatimma shajras so checked must be endorsed "Certified that this has been varified on the spot" and signed and dated.


4.29.        Keeping up-to-date of maps - The above instructions apply to all districts. The intention is that the patwari's copy of the settlement map and the fair copy kept in the tahsil to light, but it is recognised that when the last settlement of a district is not very recent it would be difficult to keep the maps completely up to date at present. But it is a matter of great importance that the maps of all recently-settled districts should be kept completely up-to-date, and Deputy Commissioners are responsible that this is carried out. To secure this end the following additional instructions are issued.


4.30.        Renewal of patwaris copies of shajra kishtwar - The patwari shall in future have in his custody only one copy of the settlement map for use at girdawari and for all other purposes. The karukan will be shown in the copy. The patwaris copy will be on latha cloth. The fair copy of the settlement map formerly in the custody of the patwari will hereafter be permanently kept in the tahsil. The patwaris copy of the map of every village must be renewed at the time of filing of every other jamabandi of that village. For special reasons, however, a fresh copy may be prepared after the lapse of a shorter period under the orders of the collector; in which case the map will be again renewed at the second jamabandi from the date of this special renewed, e.g. If a map was prepared at the jamabandi of 1970 it would be renewed in 1980 and then again in 10990; but if the Collector orders its renewal in 1978, it will be again renewed not in 1990 but in 1988. The date of renewal should always be noted on the map.


4.31.        Incorporation of amendments in the parat tahsil maps and in the shajras kishtwar kept by patwaris - When the patwari brings the jamabandi to the tahsil at the begining of September he will at the same time bring his copy of the settlement map, The tatimma shajras prepared under pargraph 4.24 the field book, the work book and the mutation register. He will, under the field kanungo's supervision, transfer to his own copy of the settlement map and to the fair copy kept in the tahsil all the new field shown in the tatimma shajras prepared under paragraph 4.23 and 4.24. The new lines of amended fields should in the first instance be shown in pencil by the patwari and then inked by the kanungo in shingraf after comparison with the tatimmas concerned. The tatimma shajras relating to mortgages of all kinds, redemptions, lesses and hissedari-kasht need not be incorporated in the fair copy of the field map kept in the tahsil. If the new fields are so small that the corrections are difficult to read they should be drawn on a larger scale in the margin of the map. If under the above instructions it becomes necessary to make any further alterations in any portion of the tahsil copy of the settlement map which portion has been already so much altered that further alterations cannot be made therein without giving rise to confusion then a tracing of the portion in which further alterations have to be made should be prepared on the margin of the map, or, if sufficient space be not available on the margin, on a separate sheet, and the alterations necessary as well as any alterations that may have to be subsequently made in this portion should be made in the tracing thereof prepared on the margin or on the seprate sheet as the case may be. The kanungo must carefully compare the changes made in the maps with those shown in the tatimma shajras, and must state in his not of the result of checking the jamabandi that he has done so. The tahsildar and naib-tahsildar shall also examine the incorporation of 25 percent, of the tatimma shajras in the parat tahsil musavi.


4.32.        The above instructions do not apply in their entirely to estirely to estates subject to alluvion and diluvion. In such estates no tatimma shajras should be prepared for changes due to alluvion or diluvion even if such changes necessitate the passing of mutation order, as in the case of estates where the submergence of proprietary land involves its conversion into shamilat. For changes due to other cause, however, tatimma shajras will be prepared in accordance with the above instructins. The instructins contained in paragraph 4.31 regarding the correction of maps will apply only to the portions of the estate not subject to allouvion or deluvion. As regards the remaining portion the changes due to alluvion or diluvion as well as those for which tatimma shajras have been prepared will be incorporated in the tracing to be filed with the detailed jamabandi according to local alluvion and diluvion rules or orders as sanctioned at settlement. But the fields which actually touch the fields affected by river action should always be shown in this map or tracing.


4.33.        In order to obviate the difficulties that have occurred in the past the Punjab Government consider it essential that all departmental land plans of Government property should, in future, be coordinated with the corresponding revenue papers.

A sufficient number of fixed and easily indentifiable points, such as tri-junction pillars, base line marks, milestones or in default of these other permanent topographical details, which may be found on the corresponding revenue map then in existence, should be plotted on the departmental plan and the Government property should then be plotted on it with reference to such fixed points.

The following procedure will be observed:-

(1)        The Public Works Department have agreed to provide a technical surveyor to carry out the surveying on a large scale metric units of any areas of Government property required to be surveyed under the instructions issued in Punjab Government circular No.2240 (Rev. and Agri.- Genl.), dated 21st January, 1921.

(2)        In districts or portions of districts not under settlement the Deputy Commissioner will communicate to the Executive Engineer, Public Works Department, by April 1st of each year, the exact area in which Quinquennial revision of revenue records is to take place in the year commencing October 1st following, and state the parcels of Government property in that area.

In tracts under settlement, the Settlement Officer will, as his work progresses, give the Executive Engineer information as long ahead as possible of the date on which remeasurement or revision of the maps of estates in which Government property is situated, will be commenced.

(3)        The Executive Engineer will then cause to be prepared plans showing the extent and position of each pacrel according to the Public Works Department's records. These plans will also show both all topographical features adjoining the Government land which are likely to assist the Revenue Officials in checking its boundaries and area and also any Revenue "fixed" points in the neighbourhood.

All distances will be shown in metric units. The plans should reach the Collector concerned by a date to be agreed on between him and the Executive Engineer.

When land plans of any area have once been prepared and discrepancies, if any, have been settled, it will not be necessary to prepare them again at a future auinquennial revision unless in the meantime some change has occurred which necessitates an alteration in the plans. If there has been no such change the Executive Engineer should merely supply a certificate to the effect that the land plans are as they were at the last quinquennial revision.

(4)        The collector will then arrange for the plans to be checked by the tahsildar. If no discrepancies are found then the tahsildar will note in red ink on the shajra kishtwar (parat tahsil as well as on the patwaris copy) the distances given in metric units on the Public Works Department plan. "The revenue record will thus read"............................karams........................gathas the equivalent of .......................................metre.

(5)        The tahsildar will then return the plan for signature by the Collector and the Executive Engineer, and for the preparation of duplicate to form an inset to the shajra kishtwar (parat sarkar) and to be similarly signed.


Note:- If relevant in a suit brought by Government the "inset" will be produced before the court by the Sadar Kanungo, or his assistant.

If any discrepancy is observed, then the tahsildar will note it in pencil on the plan and return the plan to the Collector concerned for transmission to the Executive engineer, sider these discrepancies in consultation with the patwari. If the two are satisfied that the revenue record is correct, and the Public Works Department plan incorrect, then that plan will be corrected accordingly and the papers returned to the tahsildar who will enter distances as required above in the revenue record and forwarded the plan for signature to the Collector.

If the revenue map appears to be incorrect the case will be submitted to the collector, who will if he concurs, direct that mutation proceedings be entered up for the correction of the map.

When mutation proceedings have been completed, a tatimma shajra will be prepared for the revenue records. Distances will be marked on it metric units according to the Public Works Department plan, and the inset signed and recorded as above.

(6)        The procedure prescribed in the preceding sub-paragraphs for checking departmental land plans of the public Works Departments will mutatis mutandis be carefully observed in the case of Forest, Zila Parishads and Railway Department maps also.

(7)        The detailed plan of any property belonging to eh Government in the estate shall form part of the record of rights, -vide Financial Commissioner's notification No.1953-R, dated the 21st September, 1937.

(8)        It shall be the duty of the revenue staff to afford every assistance to the officials or other departments in matters connected with the co-ordination of departmental land plans.


4.34          Cantonment boundaries -Under instructions from the Government of India it is necessary that in any survey which may in future be made by the Revenue Establishment so as to include any portion of the boundary of a cantonment that boundary should invariably be defined by a series of straight lines drawn from each of the cantonment boundary pillar to the next, except where it is distinctly stated to the contrary in the description of the boundary published by notification in the local gazette. Before any such survey is finally accepted it should be communicated to the military authorities for information and scrutiny. The attention of Settlement Officer is particularly directed to these instructions.






4.35          Preparation of the gouped (mujmil) map - Where fairly recent survey or other maps on a sufficiently large scale showing village boundaries do not exist the Settlement Officer should prepare for each tahsil a grouped (mujmili) map on a scale of two centimetre to a kilometre. The gouped map is made on tracing cloth and is an exact reproduction of the index maps, prescribed in paragraph 19 of appendix VII of the Settlement Manual. In the case of large tahsils with big estates and much waste it may be convenient to reduce the index maps to the scale of one centimetre to a kilometre. It should for two reasons be started as soon as the index maps are available, and should not deferred to the very end of the settlement, for (i) in piecing together the index maps errors in the boundaries are often brought to light, which are real errors of measurements which require light to be rectified by a further inspection of the ground, and (ii) there are differences in practice as regards the showing of roads, canal cuts, etc. indifferent patwaris or kanungos circles, and uniformity can only be secured by consulting the men who know the country intimately.


4.36          Size - The map can most conveniently be prepared in separate sheets, each of the sixe of an ordinary village mapping sheet, but Settlement Officers can consult their own convenience in this respect.


4.37          Copy to be sent to Survey Officer -A copy of the mujmili map, when ready should be sent to the Director, North Western Circle, Survey of India, Chandigarh. From this the Survey Department will obtain materials for showing new roads, canal, dak bungalows, etc., in revised editions of their maps. The number of the standard sheet, in which the village will be found, should be clearly marked on each map sent to the Director.


4.38          Reduced grouped maps - If no convenient survey maps of the district exists the Settlement Officer should reduce the grouped tahsil map by pentagraph to a smaller scale (1 centimetre to 2.5 kilo metres) and prepare a district map.


4.39          Preparation of maps  - Such copies of these maps are required should be prepared in the officer of Director, Map Publication, Survey of India, Hathi Bar-kala, Dehradun if the office is in a position to meet the  requirements of the Settlement Officer. Three copies of each such map should be forwarded to the Financial Commissioner's office for record.


4.40          Instructions for converting local measure into hectares - Prior to the Agricultural year 1971-72, the land measure used in all revenue work varied in different parts of the Stare. From the Agricultural year 1971-72, metric measure shall be used graduallyin a single rotation of five years and all records prepared during the year 1971-72 to 1975-76 shall simultaneously indicate the metric measure, in red ink, in addition to the local measure. From the Agricultural year 196-77, the metric measure shall only be used and the local measure shall be discontinued altogather.

The units of lenght and area in different parts of the State and their equivalents are as under:

I.          Throughout the State in a single gradual rotation of 5 years commencing from the agricultural year 1971-72 and ending with the agricultural year 1975-76 as also from the agricultural year 1976-77 in toto:

1          Meter                                       ...39.3701 inches

1          Centare (Sq. meter)                  ...1.19599 Sq. yards.

1          Are(100 Centare)                     ...119.599 Sq. yards.

1          Hectare (100 Are)                    ...11059.9 Sq. yards.

II.         In al the areas consolidated on the basis of the Standard measure of a karam of 66 inches:-

1          Karam(66 inches)                     ...1.6764 meters.

1          Sarsahi(Sq. karam)                   ...2.81031696 Sq.metres.

1          Marla(9 Sarsahis)                     ...25.29285264 Sq.metres

1          Kanal (20 marlas)                     ...505.8570528 Sq.metres

1          Ghumao (Acre of                      ...4046.8564224 Sq.metres.

            4840 Sq.yards-8 kanal)

III        In the area consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated area of Ludhiana Distt. and the erstwhile princely State of Jind.

1          Gatha(99 inches)                      ...2.5146 meters

1          Biswansi(Sq.Gatha)                  ...6.32321316 Sq. metres.

1          Biswa(20 Biswansis)                 ...126.4642632 Sq.metres.

1          Bigha(3025 sq.yards                 ...2529.285264 Sq.metres.

            -20 Biswas)

            IV        In the area consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated area of Amritsar, Gurdaspur (except Shahpur hill circle and Chak Andar in Pathankot tehsil), Ferozepur (except Fazilka) and the erstwhile princely State of Faridkot:-

1          Karam(60 inches)                     ...1.524 metres

1          Biswansi or Sarsahis                 ...2.322576 Sq. metres.

            (Sq. Karam)                

1          Marla (9 Sarsahis)                    ...20.903184 Sq. metres.

1          Biswa (20 Biswansis)                ...46.45152 Sq. metres.

1          Kanal (20 Marlas)                    ...418.06368 Sq.metres.

1          Bigha (20 Biswas)                    ...929.0304 Sq. metres.

1          Ghumao (8 kanals -                  ...3344.50944 Sq. metres.

            4000 Sq. yards)          


            V         In the area consolidated on the basis of the local measures and the non-consolidated area of Hoshiarpur, Jullundur, Anandpur Sahib (Ropar) and the Shahpur hill circle in Gurdaspur District:-

1          Karam (57.5 inches)                 ...1.4605 metres.

1          Sarsahi (Sq.karam)                   ...2.13306025 Sq.metres.

1          Marla (9 Sarsahis)                    ...19.19754225 Sq.metres.

1          Kanal (20 marlas)                     ...383.950845 Sq.metres.

1          Ghumao (8 kanals -                  ...3071.60676 Sq.metres.

            -3674 Sq. yards)


            VI        In the areas consolidated on the basis of local measure and the non-consolidated area of Fazilka erstwhile princely States of Patiala, Nabha and Malerkotla:-


1          Karam or Gatha (57.157          ...1.4517878 metres.


1          Biswansi (Sq.karam or  ...2.1076878 Sq.metres.

            Sq. Gatha)

1          Biswa (20 Biswansis)                ...42.153756 Sq.metres.

1          Bigha (20 Biswas -                   ...843.07512 Sq.metres.

            1008.33 Sq. yards)


            VII       In the area consolidated on the basis of local measure and the not-consolidated area of the erstwhile princely State of Kapurthala:-


1          Karam (54 inches)                    ...1.3716 metres

1          Sarsahi (Sq. Karam)                 ...1.88128656 Sq.metres.

1          Marla (9 Sarsahis)                    ...16.93157904 Sq.metres.

1          Kanal (20 marlas)                     ...338.6315808 Sq.metres.

1          Ghumao (8 kanals -                  ...2709.0526464 Sq.metres.

            3240 Sq.yards)

The following is the conversion table of local measure to metric measure:



Unit                  66'' Karam       99'' Karam       60''Karam        57.5''Karam     57.157             54"


1 Karam           1.6764             2.5146             1.524               1.4605             1.4517878       1.3716

2       "              3.3528             5.0292             3.048               2.9210             2.9035756       2.7432

3       "              5.0292             7.5438             4.572               4.3815             4.35553634     4.1148

4       "              6.7056             10.0584           6.096               5.8420             5.8071512       5.4864

5       "              8.3820             12.5730           7.620               7.3025             7.2589390       6.8580

6       "              10.0584           15.0876           9.144               8.7630             8.7107268       8.2296

7       " 11.7348           17.6022           10.668             10.2235           10.1625146     9.6012

8       "              13.4112           20.1168           12.192             11.6840           11.6143.24      10.9728

9       "              15.0876           22.6314           13.716             13.1445           13.0660902     12.3444

10     "              16.7640           25.1460           15.240             14.6050           14.5178780     13.7160

20     "              33.5280           50.2920           30.480             29.2100           29.035560       27.4320

30     "              50.2920           75.4380           45.720             43.8150           43.5536340     41.1480

36     "              60.3504           905256            54.864             52.5780           52.2643608     49.3776

40     "              67.0560           100.5840         60.960             58.4200           58.0715120     54.8640

50     "              83.8200           125.7300         76.200             73.250             72.5893900     68.5800

60     "              100.5840         150.8760         91.440             87.6300           87.1072680     82.2960

70     "              117.3480         176.0220         106.680           102.2350         101.6251400   96.0120

80     "              134.1120         201.1680         121.920           116.8400         116.1430240   109.7280

90     "              150.8760         226.3140         137.160           131.4450         130.6609020   12.4440

100   "              167.6400         251.4600         152.400           146.0500         145.1787800   137.1600

180   "              301.7520         452.6280         274.320           262.8900         261.3218040   246.8880

200   "              335.2800         502.9200         304.800           292.1000         290.3575600   274.3200


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