CHAPTER  I

 

GENERAL

 

Total Area and Population of the District. -  According to Director, Land Records, Punjab, the area of the Rupnagar District was 2,154.54 sq. km. as on 31 March 2001. The district ranked 12th in the State. The tahsil-wise area of the district is given below:

 

Tahsil

Area (sq.km.)

Rupnagar

Kharar

Anandpur Sahib

S.A.S.Nagar (Mohali)

 

784.77

522.39

657.96

189.42

                     Total

2,154.54

                                     (Source: Director, Land Records, Punjab, Jalandhar)

According to the 1991 Census, the total population of the district was 9,15,603* persons (4,89,671males and 4,25,932 females). In respect of population the district  ranked 11th amongst the districts of  Punjab.

 

            Administrative Divisions of the District. – Rupnagar District is one of the five districts of Patiala Division. On 31 March 2000 it had 4 tahsils/ sub-divisions (Rupnagar,Kharar, Anandpur Sahib and S.A.S Nagar1 (Mohali) and 5 sub-tahsils(Chamkaur Sahib, Morinda2,Nurpur Bedi, Majri and Nangal).3                

There were 7 development blocks in the district (Rupnagar, Chamakaur Sahib, Morinda, Kharar, Majri, Nurpur Bedi and Anandpur Sahib). According to  the 1991 Census, there were 880 inhabited villages and 22 uninhabited villages in the district.

Boundary Changes.-  The changes in the jurisdiction of the district since  the publication of the last Rupnagar District Gazetteer (1987) was that the district lost 2 villages4 to Balachaur Tahsil of Hoshiarpur District. In 1992, the district gained nine villages, viz Arson, Rel, Tunsa, Ban, Bela Tajowal, Arazi  Darya  Baramad  Rel,  Aima,  Chahal  and  Arazi  Darya Baramed  Bela

______________________________________________________________________________________________

1         A new subdivision, namely S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) formed on 20 July 1995 vide Punjab Government Notification No. 2/44/94 REII (1)/ 6761 dated 20 July 1995

2         A new sub-tahsil, namely Morinda  came into existence in 14 August 1992 vide Notification No. 2/7/92- RE II(1)/11471 dated 14 August 1992

3         Two new sub-tahsils, namely Nangal within Anandpur  Sahib Tahsil and Majri Sub-tahsil within Kharar Tahsil were formed on July 1995 vide Punjab Government  Notification No.2/44/94-REII(1)/6761 dated 20 July 1995

4         Punjab Government Notification No. 1555-RE-II(1) 184/2683 dated 23 April 1984

*      According to 2001 Census the population increased to 11,10,000 persons        comprising 5,93,638 males and 5,16,362 females

Tejowal from tahsil Balachaur of the district Hoshiarpur5, three villages viz  Machhali Kalan, Machhali Khurd and Chuhar Majra from tahsil Rajpura of Patiala District5 and six villages namely Behlolpur, Kotla Bet, Khera, Kiri, Afgana,Bassi Gujran, Dhaulran from tahsil Samrala of the district Ludhiana5,Rupnagar District lost seven villages6 viz Chuni  Khurd, Chuni Kalan,Garanga, Sir Kapra, Khanpur, Behlan, Kajjal Majra and Sil of tahsil Kharar to district Fatehgarh Sahib  and 22 villages6 of tahsil Rupnagar to district Fatehgarh Sahib on dated 9 April 1992. Rupnagar District gained 23 villages from Balachaur Tahsil of Hoshiarpur District on 20 July 19957  and lost 32 villages to Balachaur Tahsil of Hoshiarpur District (23 villages gained on 20 July 1995 and 9 villages added to the district on 9 April 1992) on 26 August 19958 .

Climate

The climate of this district is characterized by general dryness except in the southwest monsoon season, a hot summer and a bracing cold season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from about the middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The southwest monsoon commences late in June and continues upto about the middle of September. The period from mid-September to the middle of November constitutes, the post monsoon or transition season.

 

Rainfall.- Records of rainfall in the district are available for three stations for 18 to 125 years. The details of the rainfall at these stations and for the district as a whole are given in tables 1 and 2. The average annual rainfall in the district is 898.0 mm. About 75 per cent the annual normal rainfall is received during the period from June to September. About 12 per cent of the normal rainfall is received in the cold season. The rainfall in the district generally increases from the south to north and varies from 774.7mm at Kharar to 1,090.9 mm at Anandpur Sahib. In the 90 year period from 1901 to 1990, the highest annual rainfall amounting to 151 per cent of the normal occurred in 1942. The lowest annual rainfall, which was 37 per cent of the normal, was received in the year 1918. In the same period, the annual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 28 years. Of these there are five occasions of two consecutive years and once each of four and five consecutive years when the rainfall was less then 80 per cent of the normal. It will be seen from table 2 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 501 and 900 mm in 54 years out of 78 years. On an average there are 43 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. This number varies from 40 at Kharar to 46 at Anandpur Sahib.

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded at any station in the district was 310.4mm at Rupnagar on 30 July1951.   

5         Punjab Government Notification No 2/3/92 /RE-II (1) 4727, dated 9 April 1992

6         Punjab Government Notification No 2/3/92 /RE-II (1) 4476, dated 9 April 1992

7         Vide Notification No 2/44/94/REII(1)/6765,dated 20 July 1995

8         Vide Notification No 2/44/94/REII(1)/8005,dated 26 August  1995

Temperature.- There is no meteorological observatory in the district. The account which follows is therefore  based  on  the  records of the observatories in the neighboring districts where similar climatic conditions prevail. May and June are generally the hottest month in the year with the mean daily maximum temperature about 39oc and the mean daily minimum at 25oc. The heat in the summer season is intense. Maximum temperature may often go above 46oC on some days during summer. Scorching dust laden winds which are fairly common feature in the latter part of the summer season, contribute much to the discomfort. An occasional thunderstorm brings some temporary relief. With the advance of the monsoon into the district by about the end of June there is some drop in the day temperature but nights still continue to be quite warm. The weather  remains oppressive in between the rains due to the moisture in the air during the monsoon season. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about mid-September, there is a slight increase in the day temperature. However, the nights become progressively cooler. The decrease in temperature is rapid from November. January is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 20oC and the mean daily minimum at about 7.oc . During the winter season cold waves affect the district in the wake of passing western disturbances and minimum temperature drops down occasionally to about a degree below the freezing point. On such occasions frosts are likely in the district.

 

            Humidity.-Relative humidity is high, about 70 per cent during the monsoon season. The driest part of the year is the summer season when in the afternoons the relative humidity is as low as 30 per cent. During winter season, relative humidity is about 75 per cent in the morning.

 

Cloudiness. -The skies are generally moderate to heavily clouded and occasionally overcast during the monsoon season and for brief spells of a day or two in association with passing western disturbances during the cold season.The skies are mainly clear or lightly clouded during the rest of the year.

 

Winds. -Winds are generally light in the district. In the post monsoon and cold season winds are predominantly from the northwest. In summer southeasterly winds also blow on some days.  In the southwest monsoon season southeasterlies predominate but on many days northwesterly winds blow in the afternoon.

 

            Special Weather Phenomenon.– The district is scarcely affected by monsoon depressions.  During the period January to March, western disturbances affect the district causing rain often associated with thunder and dusty winds.  Rain during the monsoon season is more than often associated with thunder.  Dust-storm occur occasionally in the hot season.  Occasional fog occurs in the cold season.


Table –1

Normal and Extremes of Rainfall

 

Station

No.of years of data

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May.

Jun.

Jul.

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nev.

Dec.

Annual

Anandpur Sahib

18 a

43.2

47.7

105.0

16.1

38.7

70.0

300.6

264.8

139.8

19.8

17.2

28.0

1090.9

 

b

2.7

3.0

3.2

1.2

2.4

4.2

11.8

10.8

4.5

0.6

0.8

0.2

46.4

Kharar

86 a

39.1

33.4

25.3

12.0

16.5

61.0

224.6

202.1

117.1

20.1

6.4

17.1

774.7

 

B

2.8

2.5

2.2

1.1

1.5

3.7

10.0

9.0

4.5

0.9

0.5

1.4

40.1

Rupnagar

District

A

41.5

39.3

52.8

13.8

24.6

63.1

259.4

22.6

126.3

19.5

9.9

21.2

898.0

 

B

2.8

2.8

2.5

1.2

1.8

3.9

10.6

9.8

4.6

0.9

0.6

1.3

42.8

a.  Normal rainfall in mm

b. Average number of rainy days(i.e. days with rainfall  of 2.5 mm or more)

c.  Based on all avail able data up to 1990.

d.  Year of occurrence given in brackets.


 

 

TABLE II

Frequency of Annual Rainfall in the District

(Data 1901-1990)

(Rupnagar)

 

Range in mm

No. of Years

Range in mm

No. of Years

301-400

401-500

501-600

601-700

701-800

801-900

1

1

12

12

14

16

901-1000

1001-1100

1101-1200

1201-1300

1301-1400

8

10

0

2

2

                                                                          (Data available for 78 Years only)


CHAPTER II

 

HISTORY

                                               

The archaeological finds at various places of Rupnagar District yield evidence of Indus Valley Civilization and similar to those of Harappa and Mohenjodaro present day in Pakistan .The signs of this ancient civilization has also been found in Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Kalibangan type (Rajasthan) sherds have also been found at Rupnagar. It clearly indicates that the area of Rupnagar District was a part of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The remains of rich and well-developed civilization have been brought to light by the archaeologists in Rupnagar District. Recent excavations carried out at Rupnagar ,Kotla Nihang, Dher Majra, Bara and at some other places in the district have revealed many things regarding the ancient civilization known as  Indus Valley Civilization. The excavation and explorations conducted at Rupnagar indicate that the first civilization folk to settle here were Harappans, who  apparently reached the upper Satluj towards the close of the third millennium (Approximately 2000 BC). Proceeding from Indus basin, they established their towns and villages along the riverine course of journey.

 

Medieval Period

 

The whole area of present Rupnagar District was included in the then Sirhind Province, hence the history of Rupnagar District is contained in the medieval history of Sirhind Province. During the later half of the tenth century,  the area of Rupnagar District alongwith the adjoining area was under the Hindushahi Dynasty.

 

AD 991-1001    Rule of Raja Jaipal of Hindushahi  Kingdom of   Punjab.

AD1001-1012   Rule of  Raja Anangpal.

AD 1012-1021 Rule of Raja  Trilochanpal of Hindushahi kingdom. He shifted his   capital from Bathinda to Sirhind. On the death of Trilochanpal and the flight of his son Bhimpal from the region and entire Shahi kingdom formed part of the dominions of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni.

AD 1164         Rajput rose to power after the fall of Hindushahi  Kingdom. They first entered Ajmer but it appeared by  1164 they occupied Delhi as well as the entire tract of territory lying between it and the Satluj-Sirhind and Bathinda were the important Military Stations on the northwestern frontier of the Rajput Kingdom.

AD 1192         Prithvi Raj Chauhan the last king of the dynasty was defeated and killed  in   1192 by Muhammad Ghori in battle at Tarain.

6

                       

AD 1206-1210 Reign of Qutab-Ud-din Aibak, who was the first ruler of Slave Dynasty. During his reign, Sirhind was a important administrative  unit. Realising the importance of Punjab, he shifted his capital from Delhi to Lahore.

AD 1221         Reign of  Iltutmish who was the next ruler of the Slave Dynasty. During his reign, Mongols appeared for the first time in 1221 AD on the bank of the Indus under the celebrated leader Chingez Khan.

After Iltutmish, Raziya was the first woman ruler of India  of Slave Dynasty. The proud Turkish Nobles  could not reconcile themselves  to the rule of a woman and revolted against her. They also offended at the undue favour shown by Raziya to Abyssinia slave Jalal-Ud-Yakut. The first to revolt  openly was Altunia who was the Governor of Sirhind at that time . Raziya tried to extricate herself from the critical situation by marrying Altunia, but to no effect.

AD 1240         Raziya and her husband was put to death by her enemies on 12 December 1240.

AD 1245-1287            Balban ruled this country  as a Prime Minister of Sultan Nasir-                               ud-din Mahmud.

AD 1290         Kekubad was the last ruler of Slave Dynasty and the throne of Delhi was usurped by Jalal-ud-din khilzi in 1290 from him.

AD 1295         Jalal-ud-din Khilzi was assassinated at the instance of his nephew, Ala-ud-din on 19 July 1295, who became the ruler.

AD 1298         During the reign of Ala-ud-din the Mongols under Kutlugh Khan, son of Amir Daud Khan invaded the Punjab again but Mongols were compelled to retreat.

AD 1316         Death of Ala-ud-din on 19 December 1316 after a reign of over 20    years.

AD1321-1414 During this period Mohammad Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq were the important ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty. Timur invaded India in 1398. It also seems probable from the notes of some historians that some where in the hills, probably at Rupnagar,Rattan Singh, a local ruler opposed Timor but was defeated.

Khizr Khan the founder of Sayyid Dynasty, took possession of Delhi in  1414. Previously he was the Governor of Punjab on behalf of Timur.

AD1419          Sarang Khan in  1419 challenged the authority of Khizr Khan in Punjab. A battle was fought near Sirhind in which Sarang Khan was defeated by Sultan Shah Lodhi, then Governor of Sirhind. He was however able to escape to safety in the Shivalik Hills nearby via Rupnagar. Once again Sarang Khan challenged the authority of Khizr Khan but was again defeated at Rupnagar.

 

AD1421          Khizr Khan died on 20 May 1421, his son Mubark Shah occupied the throne of Delhi. During his time, the brave Khokhars grew more and more powerful and harassed him more than once. Their chiefs Jasrat confidently aspired the establishment of their supremacy on the ruins of the Delhi Kingdom.  He had ravaged the area of Punjab up to Rupnagar and Sirhind.

In October 1421, a wing of the royal army took Jasrat by surprise on his side of the river at Rupnagar. Jasrat slipped through the Royal Army and crossed the river to reach Jalandhar.

AD1432          Jasrat Khokhar attacked Alla Dad, in AD 1432,the Governor of the area from Jalandhar to Lahore. Alla Dad was defeated and driven to seek shelter  farther east, probably at Rupnagar. Jasrat seems to have occupied the hilly portions of the present Jammu alongwith some claims to the hilly areas towards the east including the present Anandpur Sahib Tahsil of Rupnagar District.

1526                Reign of Mughal Dynasty and Babar laid the foundation of  Mughal empire in India by defeating the Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat and the whole of Punjab  including the area of Rupnagar District fell under the Mughal Rule.

1540-1545       Sher Shah Suri snatched power from Humayun (1530-56) and during his rule the present area of Rupnagar District continued to be included in the province of Sirhind.

                        Humayun recaptures his empire from the weak successors of Sher Shah Suri and appointed Bairam Khan as the Governor of Sirhind.

1539-1552       During the period of Humayun and Sher Shah Suri, Guru Nanak’s teaching was further developed by Guru Angad Dev. The popularization of Gurmukhi alphabet was a very significant contribution of Guru Angad Dev.

 1552-1581      The philosophy was further propagated by Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev during the reign of Akbar. As Akbar took various measures to consolidate the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Gurus also took important steps for the establishment and spread of their faith, Guru Amar Das constructed a baoli (well with eighty four stairs) at  Govindwal, elaborated the institution of langer (community kitchen) and established Manjis  system as separate centres for teaching these (Manjis) were twenty two in number and  one such  Manji  was also established at village Wayun presently in the area of Kharar Tashil of Rupnagar District.

1605                Jahangir occupied the throne at Agra on 3 November 1605 after the death of Akbar. Jahangir was not a tolerant ruler and he regarded with great disfavour the popularity of the new religion during the time of Guru Arjan Dev.

1606                In due course, Jahangir determined to take action against Guru Arjan Dev, tortured him a lot on the plea that the Guru had given shelter to his son, Prince Khusro who revolted against him. Guru breathed his last in 1606 due to this. The Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev provoked his followers to take the  martial path. It was Guru Arjan Dev’s Martyrdom which inspired the young Hargobind to follow the policy of Miri and Piri by bearing two swords as emblems of his temporal and spiritual powers.

1605                                In due course, Jahagir determined to take action against Guru Arjan Dev,  tortured him a lot on the plea that the Guru had given shelter to his son, Prince Khuzrau who revolted against him.

1627                Death of Jahangir in 1627 and he was succeeded by his son  Shah Jahan.

1628-36           For some time, the relation of the Shah Jahan with Guru  Hargobind continued to be friendly. The new policy of  the Guru, however, soon brought him in armed conflict with Mughal throne. He fought four battles with Mughals and then reached in hill States. Raja of Kahlur donated a piece of land to Guru Hargobind, where he built  a town named Kiratpur, now in Rupnagar District. Guru Hargobind spent remaining part of his life at Kiratpur Sahib.

                        Guru Har Rai the seventh Guru of Sikhs was born at Kiratpur   Sahib.He was the son of Baba Gurditta, the eldest son of Guru Hargobind.

1645                Guru Har Rai retired to Nahan (Himachal Pradesh) in 1645 in the country of Raja Karam Parkash. He lived  there for 12 years. At  Nahan, he blessed a poor and hungry Jat boy, Phul, who was to become the founder of the Phulkian family comprising the erstwhile states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, etc.

1661                Death of Guru Har Rai on October 1661 and Har Krishan was nominated as the eighth Guru.

1664                Death of Guru Har Krishan on 30 March 1664 and was creamated  on  the bank of River Yamuna. Guru Tegh Bahadur  became the ninth Sikh Guru in 1664, who  was very closely associated with the history of Rupnagar District. He laid the foundation of Anandpur Sahib. During the period of Guru Tegh Bahadur,Aurangzeb was the ruler of India He put many restrictions on Hindus and ordered to demolish the temples.

 

1666                    Birth of  Guru Gobind  Singh Ji at Patna 26 December 1666.

1672              Guru Tegh Bahadur purchased for a sum of Rs 5,000, a piece of fallow land from the Raja of Bilaspur. The land was situated at a distance of 8 km to the north below the hill of Naina Devi close to the village of Makhowal on the left bank of the Satluj. He called the town ‘Nanaki Chak’ after the name of his mother.

1673                    Guru Tegh Bahadur alongwith his son came to Anandpur Sahib in 1673.

1675               Guru Tegh Bahadur opposed the cruelty of emperor. On hearing this the emperor issued a execution order of Guru in November 1675.

On 11 November 1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur was inhumanly beheaded at Chandni Chowk (in Delhi) by the order of the Emperor Aurangzeb.

After the death of Ninth Guru, Gobind Rai (Guru Gobind Singh) became the Tenth Guru of Sikhs.

1686                Guru Gobind Singh left for Nahan on invitation of King of  Sirmaur named Medhni  Prakash.

1699                Guru Gobind Singh prepared a plan and issued a general invitation to the Sikhs to muster stronger than usual on the occasion of Baisakhi Festival in the year 1699. He addressed the mass gathering and chose Panj Piyare or ‘Five Beloved’ by administrating ‘Amrit’ (Nectar). He himself took ‘Amrit’  from ‘Panj  Piyaras’  and created the Khalsa. He changed his name from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh.

The first battle of Anandpur Sahib took place between Guru Gobind Singh ji  and the Hill Rajas. Aurangzeb had also instructed the Governor of Punjab to take steps to crush the power of the Guru. After the defeat of first battle the Hill Rajas formed a coalition and decided to act in concert with one and another independently of the Mughals. Bhim Chand of Bilaspur became their leader and sent a message to the Guru to vacate Anandpur Sahib but  the Guru declined this. On this second battle took place and Kesari Chand of Jaswan and Ghamand Chand of  Kangra lost their lives. The survivors fled.

1700                After some time  a strong contingent of the Mughal army was seen advancing  towards Anandpur. The Guru intercepted it at Nirmohgarh near Anandpur.Some hill chiefs also joined the Mughals but they were repulsed.

1701                The battle of Bharsali took place in 1701 between the Guru’s force and Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind. The Sikhs suffered  defeat and left Anandpur Sahib. The Guru retreated toward Bharsali as all the enteries to Anandpur Sahib were closed.

1702                Mughal Commanders Sayyid Beg and Alif Khan were marching from Lahore to Delhi with a force of about five thousand men. Bhim Chand of Bilaspur joined the Mughals against  the Guru and the third battle of Anandpur Sahib took place in 1702. Differences arose between the two generals. After a couple of Skirmishes, Sayyid Beg joined Guru Gobind Singh. This disheartened Alif  Khan who retired.

1703                Fourth battle of Anandpur Sahib took place in1703. Raja Bhim Chand was not a man of lose heart he prepared himself for another trial. Raja Bhim Chand alongwith  Raja Bhup Chand, Raja Wazir Singh and Raja Dev Saran marched upon Anandpur Sahib. The Sikh met them outside the town. The hill  Rajas fell back and dispersed. Bhim Chand again sought help in 1703 from the Mughal Viceroy at Delhi. The Guru came to know of it. Sayyid Beg and Maim Khan joined the Guru. The combined forces of the Mughal and the hill Rajas invaded Anandpur Sahib and fifth battle of Anandpur Sahib took place. In this battle one hill chief and Sayyid Beg were killed. The invading force drove the Sikhs out of Anandpur Sahib and plundered the town. But after some time Sikh returned and recovered Anandpur Sahib.

1704                Sixth battle of Anandpur Sahib took place in 1704 between the Guru’s forces and the Mughal Governors of Delhi, Sirhind, Lahore and Jammu as well as the Rajas of Kangra Hills. In September 1704 Anandpur Sahib was most closely besieged by the Mughal forces. Wazir Khan  formed a plan to capture the Guru alive. They requested the Guru’s mother for this and she  did attempt to do so. At last Guru agreed to leave Anandpur Sahib and the evacuation began at the dead of night on 20-21 December 1704.

The battle of Vichhora Sahib on the river Sirsa took place on 21 December 1704. In this battle Wazir Khan attacked Guru’s forces. Guru’s mother and his two younger  sons were taken by Gangu, an old domestic servant, to his native village Saheri near Morinda. When  Guru Govind Singh reached the vicinity of Chamkaur Sahib, he learnt that the enemy was close upon him. He took shelter in a mud-built double storeyed house and the battle took place on 22 December 1704. The Guru offered tough resistance and he lost his two elder sons in this battle. He left the place and reached Machhiwara.

1708                Banda Bahadur came to contact with Guru Gobind Singh in 1708 at Nanded (Maharashtra) and waged a series of battles against the Mughal ruler. He left for Punjab some time in October 1708 with twenty five followers. At the same time Guru Gobind Singh issued decrees to the Sikhs in the Punjab to join Banda Bahadur in his adventure.

1710                Batttle of Chhappar Chiri (near Kharar) took place in May 1710, Wazir Khan the Governor of Sirhind was killed in this battle and the Banda Bahadur took the control of Sirhind. He appointed Baj Singh as Governor of Sirhind.

1726-1753       After the execution of Banda Bahadur in Delhi in 1716, the Sikh were subjected to considerable persecution under the administration of Zakariya Khan (1726-1745), Yahiya Khan (1746-47)and Mir Mannu (1748-1753).  

Creation of Dal Khalsa  by Nawab Kapur Singh in 1748 was a great land mark in the history   of Sikhs.

1757                The invasion of Nadir Shah in 1739 and invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali (1748-1768) weakened the hold of Mughals over Punjab. Ahmed Shah Abdali snatched a large portion of Punjab up to Sirhind from the Mughals in 1757.

1758                Marathas in collaboration with the Sikhs recapture Punjab from the forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali and made Adina Beg the Governor of Punjab, who appointed Sadik Beg Khan, as a Faujdar of Sirhind.

1760                A Jatha of 400 Sikhs under the leadership of Hari Singh a Virk Jat, of Kaleki near Kasur (now in Pakistan) marched for the pilgrimage of Anandpur Sahib. On his way he had to fight with the Pathan Nawab of Ropar. He won battle and became the ruler of Ropar State.

1761                Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated Marathas in the third battle of Panipat and appointed Zain Khan as a Faujdar of Sirhind including the present area of Rupnagar District. This turned out to be the last Mohammadan  ruler of this area.

1763                After the fall of Sirhind a Hindu Chief Garib Dass seized a group of 84 villages in the pargana of Mani Majra and Mullanpur he capture the fort of Pinjore. Kalka was also included in his territory.

Hari Singh, established the Sikh State of Ropar in 1763. Nawab Kapur Singh laid the foundation stone of Hari Mandir Amritasr on 17 November 1763 after it had been destroyed by Abdali.

After the fall of Sirhind, considerable area of present Rupnagar District also came under the Singhpuria Misl. The founder of the Misl was Nawab Kapur Singh.

1764                    The Sikhs under the leadership of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia captured Sirhind, after killing Zain Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind. The spot, where two younger sons of Guru Gobind  Singh had done to death, was searched out and a Gurdwara called Fatehgarh (Fort of Victory) was built on it.

1783                Fort of Bharatpur was constructed in 1783 which was a strong      hold of Singhpuria Misl. This fort after Khushal Singh and Budh Singh came to the share of Sardar Amar Singh, who died issueless.

1785                The territory of Garib Dass was conquered and annexed by the               Maharaja of Patiala in 1785.

1792                Raja Hari Singh of Ropar died in 1792 and his estate was divided between his two sons Charat Singh and Deva Singh. Soon after Charat Singh died and his minor son Bhup Singh succeeded him.

1795                Death of Khushal Singh.

 

British Period

 

1809                After the treaty of 1809. Ranjit Singh was not allowed by the British to extend his conquest in the Cis-Satluj area, still certain areas here were already under him. Kharar was also under Chief of Maharaja. Under Article 2 of the treaty of 1809, the British imposed condition upon Ranjit Singh that he would never maintain in the territory, which he occupied on the left  bank of the river Satluj.

1813                Bhup Singh  being a minor was taken by the British in their protection on 8 November 1813. Bhai Bishan Singh, became the advisor of Raja Bhup Singh.

1816                Budh Singh of Singhpuria Misl died in 1816 leaving seven sons behind him. His eldest son, Amar Singh retained possession of Bharatgarh and divided the rest of the territories among his six brothers i.e. Bhopal Singh was given the estate of Ghanauli; Gopal Singh, Manauli; Lal Singh, Bunga; Gurdial Singh, Attalgarh; Hardyal Singh, Bela and Dhayal Singh,  Kandhaulla.

1827                Maharaja Ranjit Singh claimed supermacy over Chamkaur and Anandpur Sahib and other places belonging to the Sodhis. The claims of the Maharaja were admitted by the British in1827.

1831                The meeting between the Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Lord William Bentick took place at Ropar on 26 December  1831 on the bank of Satluj.

1832                East India Company and Maharaja Ranjit Singh signed the Indus Navigation Treaty in 1832 for the opening of navigation of River Indus and Satluj.

1839                After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the British began to grab Cis-Satluj area of  the Lahore Darbar. As long as Maharaja  Ranjit Singh alive, Raja Bhup Singh was safe. Maharaja Ranjit Singh died and the power of the Sikhs declined.

1844                Major Broad foot was appointed as British Agent for the affairs of the Sikhs in November 1844.

1845                The British declared a war against the Sikh State at Lahore in December 1845.  Raja Bhup Singh of Ropar did not support the British in the Anglo- Sikh war of 1845.  Instead he supported Maharaja Dalip Singh, the minor successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.  This help given by Raja Bhup Singh to the Lahore Darbar was intolerable for the British.

1847                As a result of this, the Sikh State of Ropar was annexcd by the British in 1847.

The area of present Rupnagar District came under the British control. The Anandpur area became a part of the Una Tahsil of Hoshiarpur District and much of the area now falling in Kharar and Rupnagar Tahsils became part of the Ambala District. However some area of the Rupnagar District remained under the princely states of Nalagarh and Patiala under British protection.

1857                                The revolt of 1857 was a great effort to over throw the British power, but it failed. There was an abortive rising at Rupnagar, Which was promptly suppressed. One Mohar Singh, a factor of the chief of Rupnagar, whose attempt to forbid the slaughter of kine had led to some disturbance was executed.

                              Kuka Movement was started in 1857 by Bhai Ram Singh to expel the British.

1867                The worst was reserved for his (Bhai Ram Singh) visit to Anandpur Sahib on the occasion of Hola Mohalla in March 1867. Mahant Hari Singh of Gurudwara Keshgarh Shaib was adamant  that the Kukas must not be admitted into the Holy precincts of Anandpur Shaib on the occasion of Hola Mohalla. But later on when he gave up this obduracy under official pressure, he insisted that he would only allow them to enter the Gurudwara proper on certain conditions. A party of Kukas headed by Ram Singh was granted admission. He accepted the offered money from the Kuka Guru, but refused to pray for him. At the same time, an attack was attempted upon the visiting Kukas at the instigation of the Mahant by a party of armed Nihangs.   But for the timely intervention of police on the spot averted the clash.

 

1882                Birth of Pandit Kanshi Ram on 13 October 1882 in a Brahmin family of village Marauli Kalan, about 2 km from Morinda in the Rupnagar District.

1886                After passing the matriculation examination from Mohindra High School(now Mohindra College) Patiala, Pandit Kanshi  Ram was migrated to the U.S.A. in 1896. He was one of the principal propagator  of the Ghadar idea and made the treasure of the Ghadar Party.           

1913-15           Formation of Ghadar party which aimed to liberate India by force.  The rebellion was planned in the United States and Canada. The headquarters of the movement was at San Francisco (U.S.A). Baba Ram Singh Bhakna was the President, Lala Hardayal was the General Secretary and Pandit Kanshi Ram was the Treasure of the Ghadar Party .

On the eve of World War-I (1914), when the Ghadar Party gave a call for return of all patriots to India to join armed insurrection against the British. Kanshi Ram abandoned his  flourishing business and returned  to India and visited his home village Marauli Kalan. Kanshi Ram was hanged in the Lahore  Central Jail on 27   March1915.

1918-19           Anti-Rowlatt Agitation was started by the people against the Rowlatt Act which was passed in March 1919.

1920                Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee was formed in November 1920 to undertake the management of all Gurdwaras and other Sikh religious institutions.

1921                In this year, plan was made to take possession of Gurdwara Nankana Sahib (now in Pakistan) the richest of Sikh Shrine.

The Holocaust at Nankana Sahib, where on 20 February 1921, 130 peaceful Akalis had been mercilessly attacked, killed and burnt stirred the whole country and all the communities of Punjab including the district of Rupnagar expressed their sympathy with those who had suffered.                         

1925                The Sikh Gurdwara Act, 1925 placed all the important  Gurdwaras in the Punjab under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee. The people of Rupnagar District participate activily in this movement. The name of Giani Uday Singh of Bari Haveli of Rupnagar Tahsil is significant. He also played an important role during Jaito Morcha.

 1928              Lala Lajpat Rai was severely struck by the Police on 30 October 1928 while leading an Anti-Simon demonstration at Lahore. Death of Lala Lajpat Rai on 17 November 1928, he spent his childhood at Ropar (Rupnagar) where his father Shri Radha Krishan was working as teacher in the Government Primary School.

1930                Congress launched a mass movement called  Civil Disobedience Movement. A large number of persons from Rupnagar District were also thrown into the Jails for participating in the movement.

1932                The Civil Disobedience Movement was re-started on the arrest of  Gandhi ji on 4  January 1932, on his return from the second Round Table Conference in London and it continued until the middle of 1934.

The people of Rupnagar joined this movement too. The persons arrested from present area of Rupnagar were Mathura Dass Gandhi, Dr Ram Nath Pandit, Lala Gurdas Ram and Lala Jai Krishan Dass.

1940                With the outbreak of World War-II in 1939 the Congress refused co-operation   and Congress Ministries in different provinces resigned and this was followed by “Individual Satyagrah”. A large number of freedom fighters from Sialba Majri, Kharar and Sohana participated in this movement.

1942              Congress working committee passed a resolution on 14 July 1942 demanding complete and unconditional withdrawal by British from India. Gandhiji and all the members of the congress working committee were arrested on 9 August 1942. The people of the district took an active part in the movement and wrote “Ouit India” on the milestones from Kharar to Rupnagar(Ropar). The British Government were compelled to grant freedom to the country on 15 August 1947.

1961                S. Baldev Singh of Village Dumna (1902-1961) near Kurali in the Rupnagar District died in 1961. He played an  important role in the development of the area of present Rupnagar District. He was the first Defence Minister of India after Independence of the country.

1999                The tercentenary of Khalsa Panth was celebrated from 8 April to 14 April 1999 at Anandpur Sahib with great pomp and show. Five Jathas one each from the birth place of Panj Piyaras participated the celebrations. A large number of devotees from other States and even from the foreign countries visited this place. It is said that between 3 to 5 million pilgrims visited the place during this period on a quest for spiritual renewal.

 


CHAPTER III

 

PEOPLE

Total Population

 

     According to the 1991 Census, the total population of the Rupnagar

District was 9,15,603 comprising (4,89,671 males and 4,25,932 females). Of these 6,83,286 (3,65,445 males and 3,17,841 females) were residing in rural areas and 2, 32,317 (1,24,226 males and 1,08,091females) in urban areas.

 

Growth of Population

 

According to the 1981 Census the population of the district was 7,16,356, which increased to 9,15,603 in 1991*. The net addition to the population between 1981 and 1991 was 1,99,247 thereby recording a decennial growth rate of 27.81 per cent during the decade as against the State growth rate of 20.81 per cent.

 

Distribution of Population between Rural and Urban Areas

 

The ratio of population between rural and urban areas, according to the 1991 Census in the district was 74.50:25.50. In 1991 the urban population of district was residing in 8 towns (viz. Anandpur Sahib, Kharar, Kurali, Morinda, Nangal Township, Naya Nangal, Rupnagar and Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar) and rural population in 895 inhabited villages. It ranked 7th as compared to the other districts of the State. The tahsilwise distribution of population between rural and urban areas by sex in the district as per the 1991 Census is given below:

 

Tahsil/District

Total

population

Males

Females

 

Rural

Urban

Anandpur

Sahib 

Rupnagar

 

Kharar**

2,51,140

 

2,90,177

 

3,74,286

1,31,696

 

1,55,204

 

2,02,771

1,19,444

 

1,34,973

 

1,71,515

1,96,417

 

2,34,741

 

2,52,128

54,723

 

55,436

 

1,22,158

 

District

9,15,603

4,89,671

4,25,932

6,83,286

2,32,317

(Census of India 1991, Series-20, Punjab Part II A and Part II B, General B, General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract)

* According to 2001 Census the population of district increased to 11,10,000 persons (provisional)

**Includes the population of tahsil Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (Mohali) created in1995

17

 

 

Sex Ratio                      

 

The total population of the Rupnagar District according to the 1991 Census was 9,15,603 out of which 4,89,671 were males and 4,25,932 were females showing a ratio of 53.89: 46.52as per 1981 Census this ratio  was 53.72:46.28.

The number of females per 1,000 males in the district as per 1981 Census was 861, which increased to 870 females per thousand males during 1991. The number of females per thousand males was less than the State as a whole, which was 882 females per 1,000 males according to the 1991 Census. The  district has the lowest number of females per 1,000 males in the State only after Ludhiana District which had 844 females per thousand males.

 

Density of Population

 

The density of population of the Rupnagar District was 344 (rural 280 and urban 2,000) persons per sq. km. in 1981 which increased to 439 (rural 431 and 2,830 urban) persons per sq. km. in 1991. The density of population in State as a whole in 1981 and 1991 was 333 and 403 respectively.

 

Distribution of Population of Scheduled Castes

 

According to the 1991 Census, the population  of Scheduled Castes in Rupnagar District was 2,24,982 (1,21,131 males and 1,03,851 females). The percentage of Scheduled Castes population in the district as per the 1981 Census was 24.38 which increased to 24.57 as per 1991 Census against 28.31 in the State.

The tahsilwise distribution of Scheduled Castes population in Rupnagar District according to the 1981 and 1991 Census is given below:


 

Tahsil/

District

                   1981

                   1991

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Anandpur

Sahib

39,572

21,568

18,004

50,347

26,878

23,469

 

Rupnagar

68,632

37,045

31,587

85,767

46,078

39,689

Kharar

66,525

36,265

30,260

88,868

48,175

40,693

District

1,74,729

94,878

79,851

2,24,982

1,21,131

1,03,851

(Census of  India 1981 Series-17, Punjab Parts II-A and Part II-B, General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract and Census of India 1991, Series-20 Punjab Part II-A and  Part II-B General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract)

 


 

Distribution of Population by Religion

 

The distribution of population of the  district by religion according to

the 1981 and 1991 Census is given below:

 

Religion

                                     Population Classified by Religion

                     1981

                    1991

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Hindus

2,99,768

1,61,285

1,38,483

3,46,164

1,85,931

1,60,233

Sikhs

4,05,490

2,17,564

1,87,926

5,53,173

2,94,752

2,58,421

Muslims

7,657

4,187

3,470

11,839

6,574

5,265

Christians

1,281

680

601

1,803

979

824

Budhists

5

3

2

102

71

31

Jains

1,751

978

773

615

321

294

Other

Religions

686

374

312

9

5

4

Religions not stated  

24

16

8

1,898

1,038

860

 

7,16,662

3,85,087

3,31,575

9,15,603

4,89,671

4,25,932

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1985 and Census of India, 1991, Series-20, Punjab, Part IV-B (ii) Religion Table C-9)

 

Population of Towns

 

The ratio of population between rural and urban areas in the district in1991 was 74.50:25.50 as against 78.42:21.58 in 1981. The town-wise population of the Rupnagar District as per the 1981 and1991 Census is given below:

                                                                                               

Towns                                         1981                      1991          Percentage increase                                                                                                           

S A S Nagar(Mohali)

32,351

78,457

142.52

Rupnagar

25,165

37,996

50.99

Nangal Township

25,523

32,003

25.39

Kharar

21,807

26,109

19.73

Kurali

12,637

17,592

39.17

Morinda

13,502

17,440

29.17

Naya Nangal

10,390

12,046

15.94

Anandpur Sahib

  8,576

10,674

24.54

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab,1994)

Villages Classified by Population

 

The number of villages classified by various ranges of population in the Rupnagar District according to the 1981 and1991 Census are given in the following table:-

Villages classified by various ranges of population

Year

Total number of  inhabited villages

Less than 200

200-499

500-999

1,000-1,999

2,000-4,999

5,000-9,999

10,000

and above

1981

893

169

294

282

122

25

1

-

1991

895

129

253

301

166

41

5

-

(Census of India, 1981, Series-17, Punjab Part II-A and Part II-B, General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract and Census of India,1991, Series-20, Punjab Part II-A and Part II-B, General Population Tables and Primary Census Abstract)

 

Fairs and Festivals

Fairs and festivals provide an index to the cultural, social and domestic life of people of the area. These are a living symbol of our cultural life. For long years they have been exercising unifying  influences from under the seeming differences that separate castes and communities.

The main fairs celebrated  in the district are described below:

Hola Mohalla at Anandpur Sahib.- The fair is held annually, synchronizing with the general Holi festival, which  comes off on the full-moon day  of the Bikrami month of Chaitra, falling in March-April. The Hola Mohalla celebrations at Anadpur Sahib are reminiscent of the great plans of Guru Gobind  Singh who wanted to infuse Martial Spirit in the masses to face the tyrannies inflicted by the contemporary Mughal rulers. Instead of the Holi festival being an occasion for colour splashing and gay revelry the Guru transformed it  into an arena for training in warfare and gave it the masculine  name of Hola Mohalla . But, unlike the Holi, it lasts for three days, starting a day earlier and finishing off a day later, than the general festival. As a matter of fact, the fair at Anandpur Sahib is a continuation of the celebrations started earlier at  Kiratpur  Sahib. The pilgrims to Anandpur  Sahib being to pour in after having paid obeisance at Kiratpur Sahib.

            The first Hola Mohalla was celebrated in 1700 AD the year immediately following the formation of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh.

         

 Shahidi Jor Mela, Chamkaur Sahib.- A big fair known as Shahidi Jor Mela is held at Chamkaur Sahib in the month of December, to commemorate the martyrdom of two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh. It lasts for three days and is largly attended.

Besides the above fairs, the religious festivals such as gurpurbs (birthday and martyrs day of Sikh Gurus) are celebrated with great devotion and love. Religious festivals of Shivratri, Holi, Janam Ashtami, Mahavir Jayanti, Rakhi, Dussehra, Diwali, Ram Naumi Guga Naumi, etc. are also celebrated by the people. The seasonal festivals of Lohri, Maghi, Basant and Baisakhi are the common festivals of the people. The Republic Day (26 January), the Independence Day (15 August) and the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2 October) are observed as National days of rejoicing.


     CHAPTER  IV

 

AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

 

According to 1991 Census, about 29.40 per cent of the total main workers of the district were labourers and directly dependent on agriculture (cultivators, agricultural labourers and other allied agricultural activities).

The district has made a considerable progress in the field of horticulture as its area under fruits has increased from 2,678 hectare in 1983-84 to 5,812 hectares in 1998-99 but it suddenly decrease to 1351 hectares according to the  Actual Census of Fruit Gardens, 1999-2000 conducted by Director, Horticulture, Punjab. According to this Census the area under fruits in the State has also decreased from 93,220 hectares to 30,091 hectares.

 

Land Utilization

 

The total area of the district according to village papers during 1999-2000 was 216 thousand hectares out of which 125 thousand hectares was net area sown. The area under forests during 1999-2000 was 52 thousand hectares, which is second highest area under forest in the State after Hoshiarpur District (109 thousand hectares). The land put to non- agricultural use and barani and un-culturalable land was 16 thousand hectares and 13 thousand hectares respectively. The area sown more than once was 85 thousand hectares and the cropping intensity during 1999-2000 was 168 per cent.

The following statement gives the classification of area by land use in the Rupnagar District during the years 1983-84,1988-89,1993-94 and 1995-96 to 1999-2000:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

 

The Classification of Area by Land Use in the Rupnagar District

                                                            (In thousand hectares)

Particulars

 

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-  99

1999-2000

Total area                                     according to village papers

213

213

215

216

216

216

216

216

Forests

41

39

52

50

52

52

52

52

 

Barren                                       and uncultur- able land

..

17

13

15

15

15

14

13

 

Land put to non-agriculture use

 

37

19

18

25

18

18

17

16

 

Culturable waste

..

6

4

4

3

3

2

3

 

Permanent pastures and other grazing land

..

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

 

Land under misc. tree crops and groves not included in net area sown

..

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

Current fallow

4

11

8

5

5

4

4

4

 

Fallow land other than current  fallow

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

 

Net area sown

124

119

116

115

120

121

124

125

 

 

Area sown more than once

65

78

87

58

84

85

86

85

 

Total cropped area

189

197

203

173

204

206

210

210

 

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab  1984, 1989, 1994 and 1996 to 2000)

Irrigation Facilities

Irrigation plays a very important role in agricultural development of a region. The main source of irrigation in the district is tubewells, which irrigates about 97.90 per cent of the total area irrigated in the district during 1999-2000 which was second  highest in the State after Kapurthala.

            The net area irrigated through different sources of irrigation in the district during the years 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 is given below:

                                                                                                 (In 000 hectares)

Net area irrigated by

Percentage of net area irrigated to net area sown

Year

Government

canals

Tubewells/wells

Other sources

Total

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

3.7

3.6

15.2

15.5

15.2

12.7

11.6

1.4

1.3

65.5

75.5

61.2

63.4

73.0

77.8

84.8

89.0

89.3

1.0

@

-

-

-

-

-

0.4

0.8

70.2

79.1

76.4

78.9

88.2

90.5

96.8

90.8

91.4

 

56.6

66.5

65.9

66.9

76.7

75.0

79.7

73.2

73.4

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab 1984, 1989, and 1994 to 2000)

@  Below 50 hectares

               Canals.– Bhakra Canal/Nangal Hydel Channel and Sirhind Canal serve the district.  The area irrigated by Sirhind Canal and Bhakra Canal Nangal Hydel Channel in the district during the years 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 is given below:

                                                                                                     (in hectares)

Year

Gross area irrigated by Sirhind Canal

Gross area irrigated by Bhakra Canal/ Nangal Hydel Channel

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

3,458

3,498

3,948

4,040

4,168

3,894

4,111

4,161

4,101

 

1,502

1,428

   635

   665

   695

   701

  714

  718

  718

( Source: Executive Engineer, Head Works Division, Rupnagar and Divisional                                   officer, Canals, Bhakra Main Line Division , Patiala )

   Tubewells.-  The office of the Punjab State Tubewell  Corporation  Rupnagar was established  in August 1991 in the Rupnagar District. It has installed 86 deep tubewells in the district for irrigation purpose which are working in the Kandi Area. The tubewell installed by the Punjab  State Tubewell  Corporation Ltd, Chandigarh, also irrigate the area of Rupnagar District and it has installed 144 deep tubewells in the district. The area irrigated by the tubewells installed by the Punjab State Tubewell Corporation in the Rupnagar District during the years 1991-92 to 1999-2000 is given below:

                                                                                    (in hectares)

Year

Area Irrigated by Punjab State Tubewell Corporation

             Rupnagar                                Chandigarh 

1991-92

-

7,506.88

1992-93

129.95

7,860.72

1993-94

1,104.45

7,588.66

1994-95

1,632.79

9,087.44

1995-96

2,029.55

6,892.30

1996-97

2,1 75.70

6,890.28

1997-98

2,379.35

5,134.00

1998-99

2,531.17

5,770.04

1999-2000

6,866.39

6,328.74

                (Source: Superintending Engineer, Punjab State Tubewell Corporation ,Rupnagar)

 

Kandi Watershed and Area Development Project

            A number of dams  on Chos / Khads have been constructed by the Punjab  Government with the aid of World Bank under the Kandi Water – Shed  and Area Development Project for  irrigation purpose and control of floods in the Rupnagar District. In Rupnagar District three dams i .e . Perch, Mirzapur and Siswan has been constructed for harnessing  water for irrigation. The fourth dam at Jainti is under construction. A brief description of these dams is given below:

 

            Perch Dam .-  Perch Dam is located on Perch Khad. It is an earth filled  dam, 22.2m high from Khad bed and tope elevation of dam is 413.7 mt . It  is a flood control- cum- irrigation multipurpose project and completed on 11 November 1993 . With the construction of dam the flood havoc and sediment damage during monsoons has been minimised. The other benefits of this project are to include irrigation, development of fisheries, recharge of ground water in the tract and improvement in cropping pattern and crop yield of 3 villages.

 

            Mirzapur Dam.-  Mirzapur Dam is located on Budki Khad. It is an earth filled dam, 13 .9 m high from Khad bed. Completed on  2 February 1996 and provides irrigation facilities to 9 villages .

 

Siswan Dam.- Siswan Dam  is located on Siswan Khad. It is an earth filled dam, 24.0 m high from Khad bed . With the construction of this dam, the flood havoc and sediment damage during monsoon has been minimised. The irrigation channels of this dam have yet to be completed.

The area irrigated by the channels of these dams in Rupnagar District is given below:

                                                                                                            (in hectares)

Year

Perch Dam

Mirzapur Dam

1994-95

150

-

1995-96

238

-

1996-97

280

-

1997-98

283

250

1998-99

285

255

1999-2000

285

255

 (Source: Chief Engineer, KAD, Irrigation works, Punjab Chandigarh)

Major and Subsidiary Crops.- Rupnagar District as other districts of the State is in the grip of wheat-paddy rotation. Despite the efforts of the Government and experts the interest of the farmers in this rotation remained the same. The area under different crops, their total production in the district is given as under in the following statements:-

Area Under Principal Crops in the Rupnagar District

                                                                                                                (In thousand hectares)

 

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

24

28

37

39

40

43

46

50

Jawar

(a)

-

-

1.2

0.2

0.1

-

-

Bajra

0.1

0.1

-

0.1

0.5

-

-

-

Maize

34

34

30

23

27

28

26

28

Wheat

77

78

84

84

82

83

86

87

Barley

1.9

1.4

1.0

1.0

0.4

1

1

(a)

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

13.4

3.4

7.4

0.7

1.0

1

0.7

0.5

Mash

1.52

1.05

0.6

0.7

1.0

1.0

0.4

0.9

Mung

0.01

0.02

(a)

(a)

0.1

(a)

-

0.2

Massar

0.96

1.22

1.0

1.3

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.5

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Groundnut

2.5

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

(a)

(c)

Rape and mustard

2.3

1

1.6

3.4

1.8

1.3

2.0

1.7

Sesamum

1.0

0.8

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

Lineseed

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(c)

Sunflower

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 -

0.1

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

10

11.0

11.5

10.9

13.0

1.7

9.4

9.1

Potatoes

1.9

1.3

1.0

0.9

2.0

0.6

1.3

1.2

Cotton(American)

(a)

-

-

(a)

-

-

-

-

Cotton(Desi)

2.1

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

-

0.1

(c)

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984,1989 and 1994 and 1996 to 2000)

(a) Less than 500 hectares               (c) Less than 50 hectares


Production Under Principal Crops in Rupnagar District

                                                                                        (In thousand metric tones)               

 

1983-84

1988-88

1993-94

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

Cereals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rice

83

89

131

123

130

138

128

156

Jawar

-

-

-

1.0

-

0.1

-

-

Bajra

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maize

51

31

46

38

52

46

52

68

Wheat

208

244

290

284

293

296

325

350

Barley

2

4

2.8

3.1

-

3.0

3.2

-

Pulses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

1

3.1

6.6

0.5

0.7

0.3

0.6

0.3

Mash

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.4

Mung

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.1

Masaar

0.3

1.0

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.2

Oilseeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Groundnut

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rape and Mustard

2

1

1.8

3.0

1.5

-

2.3

1.8

Sesamum

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

Linseed

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sunflower

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

0.1

Other Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

68

71

69

67

71

54

53

50

Potatoes

40.9

27.3

19.6

20.7

45.3

6.4

26.0

24.5

Cotton (American)

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cotton (Desi)

0.29

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1996 to 2000)

Note: Production of Sugarcane in terms of Gur

 

High Yielding Varieties

Seeds are the most important factor increasing agricultural production. The improved and high yielding varieties of crops sown in the Rupnagar District are given below:

 

Name of the crops                           Varieties

Rabi

Rice                                   PR-114,PR-113,PR-108,PR-106,PR-103

Maize                                Prabhat, Partap, Sartaj, Keshri,

Kharif

Wheat                                PBW-343, WH-542,PBW-373, PBW-154,                                                        PBW-34, HD-2329

 

Barley

             GL769, PBG No 1,C-235

Massar

             LN-147, Massar 9-12

(Source: Chief Agricultural Officer, Rupnagar)

     

Fruit Crops.- Mangoes, Guava, Kinnow and Ber are the important fruits grown in the district of Rupnagar. The district ranked third in area under Mangoes in the state after Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur districts.  The area under fruits in the district  is given below :

Fruit crops

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

Kinnow

233

685

1,042

1,084

1,124

1,160

1,288

369

Orange and Malta

14

48

60

71

97

105

105

17

Lemon

98

161

178

185

189

190

191

6

Mangoes

1,586

1,925

2,319

2,501

2,585

2,635

2,691

609

Litchi

33

44

92

122

131

150

169

40

Guava

483

533

609

690

715

760

811

216

Pear

77

132

230

231

234

240

240

23

Peach

57

105

150

182

193

195

202

39

Plum

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

Grapes

15

24

30

32

32

30

30

2

Ber

57

61

61

63

63

60

63

11

Misc.

24

44

46

52

54

73

79

15

Total Fruits

2,678

3,763

4,818

5,214

5,418

5,600

5,812

1,351

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984,1989,1994 and 1996 to 2000)

 

    Co-operative Farming Societies. - The small land holdings are not economic units. The scarcity of labour and its high charges have been compelling the small farmers to pool holdings in the form of a co-operative society to get the benefits of large-scale farming. The number of cooperative farming societies functioning in the district remained constant at 45 since 1981-82.

Fertilizer and Manures

 

      Chemical Fertilizers.- The adoption of water-seed-fertilizer technology resulted as the green revolution in the State. Chemical fertilizers are the most important contents of it and the Punjab State (including Rupnagar  District as its part) is the top consumer of fertilizer input in the country. The table given below shows the use of chemical fertilizers in the Rupnagar District during 1983-84, 1988-89, 1993-94 and 1995-96 to 1999-2000:                                                                                              (‘000’ Nutrients Tones)

Year

Fertilizers Used

 

Nitrogenous     (N)

Phosphatic

(P2O5)

Potassic        (K2O)

Total

(NPK)

1983-84

16

5

1

22

1988-89

22

9

1

32

1993-94

23

7

-

30

1995-96

29

7

-

36

1996-97

26

6

-

32

1997-98

31

9

1

41

1998-98

26

6

-

32

1999-2000

38

12

-

50

      (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984,1989,1994 and 1996 to 2000)

Manures- From very early times, man has been using the local manurial resources such as rural compost, town compost and green manure. Rural compost and cattle dung manure, farm yard manures, town compost and green manure are the main local manurial resources. By installing Gobbar Gas Plants, the cattle dung can be best utilized to supply gas for cooking purposes and also for compost.

The town compost is prepared in the urban areas by dumping the town wastes in the trenches. It produced organic manure of high quality. Green manure is prepared from leguinous crops. It also increases the fertility of the soil. It provides organic matter and nitrogen to the soil, besides improvement of the physical properties of the soil and conservation of moisture.

The quantity of rural compost, and town compost prepared and the area under green manuring in the Rupnagar District during 1988-89 and 1993-94 

to 1999-2000 is given below:

Year

Rural Compost           (In thousand metric ton)

Town Compost             (In thousand metric ton)

Area under green manuring

(In hectares)

1988-89

1,600

234.7

24,700

1993-94

1,506

70.0

32,390

1994-95

1,590

58.0

32,840

1995-96

1,511

29.0

24,000

1996-97

1,582

19.7

14,040

1997-98

1,800

13.3

11,335

1998-99

1,626

14.1

9,860

1999-2000

1,723

19.3

9,970

 (Source: Field Manure- Cum-Town Compost Officer, Punjab, S.A.S. Nagar)

 

         Area Under Fodder Crops.-  Fodder crops are main food of cattle. There are no permanent pastures for cattle grazing in the district. Jawar(Chari) guara are the main kharif fodder crops and barseem, oats (Javi), etc. are the rabi fodder crops .The area under fodder crops in the district during the years 1983-84, 1988-89 , 1993-94 and 1995-96 to1999-2000 is shown as under:                                                                             (in hectares)

 

 

1983-84

1988-89

1993-94

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

Kharif Crops

Jower (Chari)

14,487

21,292

22,046

22,296

22,198

238

21,708

15,141

Guara

680

678

710

645

1,040

-

235

213

Other Fodders

2,254

-

1,967

2,511

904

2,174

2,755

1,640

Total

17,421

21,970

24,723

22,452

22,142

2,412

24,698

16,994

Rabi Crops

Barseem

2243

4,360

4,996

5,235

769

4,899

4,667

4,839

Oats(Javi)

32

211

541

1,628

598

1,215

1,767

1,281

 Other Fodders

625

4

977

601

5,040

704

95

937

Total

2,900

4,575

6,514

7,474

6,207

6,818

6,529

7,057

Grand Total

20,321

26,545

31,237

32,916

28,349

9,230

31,227

24,051

                                                        (Source: Deputy Commissioner, Rupnagar)

Livestock

    Animal Husbandry.-Livestock occupies a pivotal position in  economic development of an area. Livestock provides essential food of animal origin like milk, meat, eggs for better nourishment besides, wool, manure, fuel, skin, hides and bone meal. These are still being used as a source of drought power in transportation and agricultural operations.

The number of livestock in the Rupnagar District according to 1977, 1990 and 1997 Livestock Census is given below:

                                                                                          (In thousand)

Particulars

1977

1990

1997

Cattle

101.6

86.6

73.4

Buffaloes

179.6

220.9

260.0

Horses and Ponies

10.0

0.5

0.5

Donkeys

3.6

0.7

0.1

Mules

0.4

0.4

0.4

Sheep

4.6

2.6

3.3

Goats

44.1

25.1

19.4

Camels

0.4

0.1

0.1

Pigs

9.9

6.2

1.5

Others

-

-

-

Total

354.2

342.9

358.7

Poultry

508.9

659

391.6

                              (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1983, 1998 and 2000)

Fisheries

There is little scope for pisciculture in Rupnagar District as major part of the district is sub-mountainous and the ponds do not retain water throughout the year. The main source of fish production in the district is river Satluj.

After green revolution, Punjab is heading towards the development of  fisheries, which is known as a Blue Revolution. The Fisheries  Department, Punjab, introduced a number of schemes to develop village tanks in order to supplement food resources and to reduce pressure on wheat and cereals with the day to day increase in population growth. There is only one fish farm at village Kottlay in the district.

The income and the area under fisheries during the years 1988-89 and   1990-91 to 1999-2000 is given  below:

Year

Income From Fisheries

(Rs)

Area Under Fisheries

(In- hectares)

1988-89

-

28.80

1990-91

-

38.05

1991-92

-

22.20

1992-93

57,587

28.25

1993-94

71,812

53.80

1994-95

55 615

42.20

1995-96

69,346

42.45

1996-97

2,39,000

49.82

1997-98

2,41,660

39.40

1998-99

2,00,000

68.15

1999-2000

2,29,200

65.80

        (Source: Chief Executive Officer, Fish Farmer’s Development Agency, Rupnagar)

Forests.- Rupnagar District has second highest area under forests in the State after Hoshiarpur District. There is no reserved forest in the district and this area is covered  by  protected and unclassed forests. The area under the control of Forest Department under different categories in the district for the year 1999-2000 is as under:                                                        

             (in hectares)

Particulars

Area

(a) Reserved Forests

-

(b) Demarcated Protected Forests

3,480.00

(c) Undermarcated Protected Forests

 

      (i) Canals strips

1,451.42

      (ii) Road-strips

  396.97

      (iii) Rail-strips

  283.20

(iv) Forest along the side of bank of  drains-included in para c (i )

 

(d) Forests under Section 38 of Indian  Forest Act, 1927

  169.00

(e) Unclassed Forests

1,273.00

(f) Area closed under Section 4 and 5 of L.P. Act 1900

44,393.00

Total

51,446.59

                (Source:  Divisional Forest officer, Rupnagar Forest Division, Rupnagar)

 

  Forest Produce.- The annual income realized by the Forest Department from the sale of forest produce in the district  during the  years 1983-84, 1988-89,1993-94 and  1995-96 to 1999-2000 is as under:                                                                                                                                       (Rs)

Year

Minor Produce

1983-84

15,44,016.00

1988-89

16,56,735.00

1993-94

29,80,558.00

1995-96

38,96,159.00

1996-97

26,80,895.00

1997-98

14,18,445.00

1998-99

58,23,123.00

1999-2000

1,46,70,100.00

            (Source: Divisional Forest Officer, Rupnagar Forest Division, Rupnagar)

Floods.- Damage caused to crops and houses by heavy rains and floods in Rupnagar District during the years 1983,1988,1993 and 1995 to 1999 are as under:

Year

No. of village/towns affected

Area affected

(sq. km.)

Human lives lost  (Number)

Damage caused to area under crops (In hectare)

Value of crops damaged  (Rs’000)

Houses damaged (Number)

1983

74

664

1

604

450

4,286

1988

..

..

..

..

..

..

1993

338

123

24

7,389

..

10,107

1995

316

7

7

657

1,624

1,430

1996

316

7

-

-

-

169

1997

..

..

4

-

-

-

1998

-

1

2

99

980

521

1999

2

-

4

17

-

15

                                (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984,1989, 1994 and 1996 to 2000)


CHAPTER V

 

INDUSTRIES

 

With the creation of Rupnagar as a separate district at the time of reorganization of State in 1966, the real process of industrialization had started. S A S Nagar (Mohali) has emerged as one of the best industrial estate in the State. Industrial sector is the hub of economic development to motivate the people belonging to local as well as other parts of the country in investments to identify the resources and infrastructure facilities available in a particular region and thereby assists exploitation and utilization of resources available in the district, paves way for the establishment of large, medium, small scale and ancillary units manufacturing various products and generates employment and income. The number of registered working factories under each category and number of workers employed therein, in the Rupnagar District, for the year 1999 is given below:

Serial  No.

Industrial category

Number of factories

Number of workers

1

Agricultural Service

1

51

2

Manufacture of Food Products

43

1,827

3

Manufacture of Cotton Textiles

13

2,348

4

Manufacture of Textile Products(including Wearing Apparel Other than Foot-Wears)

3

85

5

Manufacture of Wood Products, Furniture and Fixtures

107

543

6

Manufacture of Paper and Paper Products, Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries

9

788

7

Manufacture of Leather and Fur Products (except Repairs)

4

140

8

Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products (except Products of Petroleum and Coal)

32

5,100

9

Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Products

8

204

10

Manufacturing of Metal Products and Parts except Machinery and Transport Equipment

20

446

11

Manufacture of Non-Metallic Mineral Products

32

839

12

Basic Metal and Alloy Industries

23

1,213

 

 

31

 

 

 

 

Serial No.

Industrial category

Number of factories

Number of workers

13

Manufacturing of Machinery and Equipment other than Transport Equipments

76

5,464

14

Manufacture of Transport Equipment and Parts

10

473

15

Electricity

13

3,493

16

Supporting Transport Activities

1

76

17

Other Services

1

48

18

Printing/ Publishing and Allied Services

14

216

19

Manufacturing of  Office
Accounting and Computer Machinery

4

212

20

Electricity Machinery and Apartments

17

2,205

21

Manufacturing of Radio, T.V and Communication  Parts

28

6,079

22

Manufacturing of Medical Instruments Opticals, Watches and clocks

4

296

23

Manufacturing of  Motor Vehicles and Trailers

11

603

24

Manufacturing of Furniture and other

2

228

25

Repair of Motor Vehicles and sale

3

110

26

Retail Trade in Others except Motor Vehicles

3

844

 

Total

482

33,931

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2000)

 

Large and Medium Scale Industries. -  There were only 21 industrial units in large and medium scale sector in the district during 1982-83, Their number steadily rose to 55 as on 31 March 2000. The details of these industries alongwith their products, year of establishment and number of workers employed therein as on 31 March 2000 are given below:

Serial No.

Name of the factory

 Year of establishment

Number of workers

Products

1

The Punjab State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation Limited, S A S Nagar (Mohali)

1980

611

Milk, Cheese, Ghee, etc.

2

The Morinda Cooperative Sugar Mills, Limited, Morinda

1962

885

Sugar, Mollasses

3

Mahavir Vanaspati Company, Kharar(District Rupnagar)

1978

38

Vanaspati and Acid Oils

4

Kharar Textile Mills (A unit of National Textile Corporation-Government of India Undertaking), Kharar

1976

668

Cotton, Staple and Acrylic Yarn

 

 

 

 

 

Serial No.

Name of the factory

     Year of establishment

Number of workers

Products

5

Panipat Woollen Mills, (A unit of National Textile Corporation-Government of India Undertaking),Kharar (District Rupnagar)

1976

716

Woolen, Fabric Yarn, Blanket, Lohi and Shawls.

 

6

Guru Nanak Paper Mills Private Limited, Village Badmajra, S A S Nagar (Mohali)(District Rupnagar)

1983

115

Paper

7

Rana Mohindra Paper Mills Limited, Village Fatehpur (District Rupnagar)

1990

108

Duplex Card Board

8

 

Rana Mohindera Paper Mills Limited Unit II,  Village Fatehpur (District Rupnagar)

1995

132

Duplex Card Board

9

Domino Leathers Limited  (Foot-Wear Division), Village Ban Majra (District Rupnagar)

1997

155

Full Shoes Upper

10

Domino Leathers Limited  (Tannery Unit), Village Mathari (District Rupnagar)

1995

410

Finished Leather

11

Markfed HDPE PLANT, Anandpur Sahib(District Rupnagar)

1977

23

HDPE Bags  and Wooven Sacks

12

Chemvin Industries, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1980

10

PVC Pipes, Tanks

13

Diplast Plastic, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1993

40

PVC Pipes

14

Jauses Polymers Limited,Village Chanalon(DistrictRupnagar)

1989

21

Pet Bottler/ Containers

15

Goyal MG Gases Private Limited, Naya Nangal(District Rupnagar)

1989

17

Hydrogen Gas Mixture

16

Anesthetic Gases Private Limited, SAS Nagar(Mohali) (District Rupnagar)

1996

17

Anesthetic Gases

17

National Fertilizers Limited, (A Government of India Undertaking), Naya Nangal (District Rupnagar)

1961

2,500

CAN, Urea, Heavy Water, Oxygen and Methanol

18

National Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited, Naya Nangal (District Rupnagar)

1984

431

Soda Ash, Ammonium Chloride and  Fertilizers

19

ICI India Limited, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1998

83

Paints and Varnish

20

Ranbaxy  Laboratories Limited, Industrial Estate, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

1974

231

Drugs

Serial No.

Name of the factory

     Year of establishment

Number of workers

Products

21

Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, (Unit No-II) SAS Nagar(Mohali)

1992

619

Drugs

22

Punjab Alkalies and Chemicals, Naya Nangal (District Rupnagar)

1984

564

Caustic Soda, Bye Gas and Hydro-chloric Acid

23

Raja Ram Corn Products (Solvent Division), SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1989

186

Rice Bran Oil and Deoiled Cake

24

Gujrat Ambuja Cement Limited, Rupnagar

1995

150

Cement Grinding

25

Punjab Tractors Limited, (Foundary Division) Village Majri (District Rupnagar)

1980

3,285

Grey Iron Casting

26

Century Sheet Metal (India), SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1993

100

Steel Ingots

27

Steel Strips and Tubes Limited, Industrial Area, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1987

136

Black G.I. Pipes

28

Maharaja Engineering  and Investment Private Limited, Industrial Focal Point, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1988

91

LPG Valves and Regulators

29

MOI Engineering  Limited, Industrial Estate, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1969

208

Machinery and Spares of Tob-acco  Machinery

30

Punjab Tractors Limited, (P.K.Traders Division SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1974

3,285

Tractors

31

Punjab Tractors Limited, (Combine Division) SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1981

1,186

Harvestor Combine and Fork Links

32

HMT Limited, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1985

91

Tractors

33

Telephone Cables Limited ,SAS  Nagar (Mohali)

1988

410

Telephone Cables

34

Punjab Power Packs Limited, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1983

65

Nickel Cadmium Cell/ Batteries

35

Godrej GE Appliances Limited, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1996

350

Domestic Refrigerators

36

Ajay Electrical Industries Limited, Industrial Estate, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1974

225

GLS Lamps, Tubes

 37

Punjab Anand Lamps Industries Limited,(Unit No.1) Focal Point, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1983

471

-do-

38

Punjab Anand Lamps Industries Limited (Unit No 2), Phase-IX Focal Point, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

 

1994

39

-do-

Serial No.

Name of the factory

     Year of establishment

Number of workers

Products

39

Punjab Wireless System Limited, Phase-VI,SAS Nagar(Mohali)

1979

1,288

VHF Receiver, Transmitter H.F SSB, Radio and Transmitter

40

JCT Electronics, Phase- VIII SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1979

301

TV Picture Tubes, Cathode ray Tubs and Gas Discharge Tubes Display System

41

Semi Conductor Complex Limited, Phase-VIII, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1982

758

Dispolar-MOS Large Scale, Integrated circuits and M&SS Based ISI Devices

42

Punjab Communications Limited , Phase-VIII, Focal Point, SAS Nagar(Mohali)

1982

894

Multiplex Equipments Chemicals and Digital Multiplex System

43

JCT Electronics Limited Phase VIII, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1988

1603

Colour TV Picture

44

Fujistsu India Telecom Limited, Phase-VIII, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1994

217

Digital Switching System

45

 

 

46

Calcom Vision Limited, Phase-VIII, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

 

Electronics System Punjab Limited, Phase- VII, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

1996

 

 

1983

25

 

 

375

Black and White T.V. Sets

 

Micro Computers Data Acquisition System

47

Punjab Wireless Systems Limited, Phase-VIII, SAS Nagar ( Mohali)

1977

1288

Semi Conductor and Power Capa-citor Above 20 Amp.

48

Punjab Recorders Limited Phase- VIII, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1977

120

Mini Drilling Machines and OEM Recorders

49

Punjab Digital Industrial Systems Limited Phase-II SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1977

44

Digital Line Voltage Meter and Digital Low Frequency Meter

50

Jai Parabolic Springs Limited, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1988

709

Auto Parts- Leaf Spring

51

Swaraj Engines, Phase-IX, Focal Point, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1989

381

Auto Mobile Engines

52

Technical Tools Limited, Channalon, District Rupnagar

1990

60

Auto Parts

53

Advance Components (Engineering) Phase- VIII,SAS Nagar  (Mohali)

1998

12

SMM Modules

54

Dixon Uplilities and Exports Limited, Phase-VI, Industrial Area, SAS Nagar ( (Mohali)

1998

28

Black and White TV Sets

55

Reliable Fastener, Industrial Area, Phase-VIII, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

1995

51

Bolts, Screws, Rivets, Nail Wires, etc.

(Source: Director of Industries and Commerce, Punjab, Chandigarh)

The number of registered working factories and number of workers employed therein, in the District during 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 is given below:

Year

Number of Factories

Number of workers

1983-84

228

12,543

1988-89

307

19,385

1993-94

411

28,323

1994-95

436

31,009

1995-96

482

31,570

1996-97

464

32,819

1997-98

463

32,818

1998-99

465

32,202

1999-2000

482

33,931

                (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1984,1989 and 1994 to 2000)

Power

Source of Power

            Power is vital input for running the industrial wheel of the economy. Renewable and non-renewable source of power are its two constituents. The main renewable sources of power are: hydro power, wood-fuel, biogas, solar, wind, geo thermal and tidal power. Non-renewable sources of energy are coal, oil and gas. Electricity (hydro power and thermal power) is main  source of power in the State.

            The Rupnagar District has the pride of being richest in the field of power generation. The prestigious Bhakra-Nangal Dam is located  near to it. Four Hydel Projects two each on Nangal Hydel Channel and Anandpur Hydel Channel at Kotla and Ganguwal are located in the district. The national distinction holder Thermal Plant viz. Guru Gobind Singh Super Thermal  Plant  is also built in the district.

            In order to supplement the power generation the State Government has formed Punjab Energy Development  Agency (PEDA) in September 1991 as a nodal agency for promotion and development of non-conventional and renewable energy programmes/ projects in the  State. The  main activities of PEDA include mini hydel power generating; solar energy based  power generation projects; power generation from urban/ industrial waste; Integrated Rural Energy Programme (IREP); community institutional/ night soil biogas plants ; national projects on biogas development  programme ; solar photovoltaic water pumping systems; solar photovoltaic street lights/ lanterns; biomass gasification programme; national  programme on improved chulha, etc.

            The progress of renewable energy devices/ systems installed / sold by PEDA in Rupnagar District during the year 1999 –2000 are given below:     

Serial  No.

Devices

Capacity Numbers

1

Sale of  solar cookers

29

2

Installation of family size biogas plants

58

3

Sale of SPV lantern

99

4

Sale of  SPV domestic home lighting systems

41

5

Installation of SPV street lights

-

6

Installation of SPV glow sign boards at Anandpur Sahib

-

7

Improved chulhas

2,329

(Source: Manager, Punjab Energy Development Agency,  Chandigarh)

Power Consumption in the District.- The consumption of electricity in the district has increased from 32,403 million KWH in  1982-83 to 1,196.44 million KWH in 1999-2000. The details regarding the consumption of electricity during 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 is given below:

(Million KWH)

Year

Domestic

Commercial

Industrial

Agricultural

Others

Total

1983-84

33.3

5.7

223.4

65.0

1.6

329.0

1988-89

62.8

10.5

418.1

108.6

2.5

602.5

1993-94*

106.5

17.3

686.5

149.1

3.3

962.7

1994-95*

124.8

21.4

753.6

149.1

4.1

1,053.0

1995-96*

136.4

23.9

807.8

132.5

4.7

1,105.3

1996-97*

194.9

22.0

781.6

132.5

4.5

1,035.5

1997-98*

163.9

29.7

775.1

148.6

5.7

1,123.0

1998-99*

192.18

34.68

668.17

184.71

6.35

1,081.1

1999-2000*

210.41

37.46

736.76

204.62

7.19

1,196.4

                        (Statistical Abstracts of Punjab 1984, 1989 and 1994 to 2000)

* Provisional

Note: This does not include the consumption of Nangal Fertilizer Factory

 

State Aid to Industries

 

            Industrially Rupnagar is one of the developed districts, and occupies an important place among other industrial centers in the State. A few corporations for furthering and aiding industrial growth have been setup. Prior to 1981-82, the industrial units in the State were eligible for grants- in – aid and subsidy on the loans advanced under the Punjab State Aid to Industries Act, 1935. To provide aid more efficiently it has been discontinued and now the incentives to the industrial units set up in the State are given under various industrial policies framed by the State Government from time to time. Under these industrial policies the industrial units set up in the district are entitled to various incentives on the land, building and on taxation. The number of units and the amount distributed under the subsidy / investment subsidy scheme and the number of units exempted from sales tax in the district during the years 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 are given below:

 

Year

Subsidy/ Investment subsidy

Number of units exe-mpted from sales tax

 

Number of units

Amount disbursed (Rs)

 

1983-84

5

24,77,834

..

1988-89

13

51,76,871

..

1993-94

48

80,40,656

26

1994-95

15

21,88,295

26

1995-96

18

74,26,622

27

1996-97

..

..

..

1997-98

11

       1,14,03,100

36

1998-99

1

   2,21,000

30

1999-2000

12

       1,26,42,175

30

(Source: General Manager, District Industries Centre SAS Nagar(Mohali)

            Other measures taken for the promotion of industries in the district are discussed below:

         

 The Punjab Small Industries and Export Corporation Limited.- The Punjab Export Corporation was established in March 1962 and in 1982 the work of the Punjab Small Scale Industries Corporation(established in 1962)was transferred to it and its name was changed to the Punjab Small Scale Industries and Export Corporation Ltd.

            The main functions of the corporation comprises procurement, storage and distribution of all categories of industrial raw material (whether imported or indigenous). The raw material is distributed on the recommendation of Director of Industries, Punjab. The Corporation is running a raw material depot at SAS Nagar (Mohali) for the storage of raw material.

            The Corporation has been acting as a catalyst for promoting industries in the State through the development of industrial infrastructures popularly known as industrial focal points.

            The details of the focal points established and the area covered in Rupnagar District, as on 31 March 2000 is given below:

 

Serial  No.

 Name of focal points

Area (in acres)

1

 Naya Nangal

  50.00

2

Chanallon

128.12

3

SAS Nagar (Mohali)

 

 

i) Industrial Focal Point Phase VII

394.00

 

ii) Industrial Focal Point Phase VIII A&B

639.00

 

iii) Industrial Focal Point Phase X

  61.45

 

iv) Industrial Focal Point Phase IX

  67.71

 

v) Industrial Focal Point Phase V

  19.70

 

The Corporation had carved out 1,750 plots, out of which 1,248 plots have been allotted. Besides, a constructed shed on 19.70 acres of land in Phase V at SAS Nagar (Mohali) has been allotted.

             The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation Limited.-This Corporation has  been established in 1966 with a view to promote new medium  and large-scale industrial units in the State. As per pursuance of this objective, the Corporation undertake techno-economic investigations and prepare the feasibility reports and after that it approaches Government of  India for issue of letter of intend/ industrial licences. As a matter of policy, the projects are implemented in joint sector, so after finalization of technical and financial collaboration, wherever required, it floats company for setting  up of  the project.

The number of companies promoted and supported  by the PSIDC for term loan under direct subscription in the Rupnagar District as on 31 March 2000 was 40 . The capital invested in these units was 294.30 lakhs which gave employment to 17,005 persons.

            Punjab Financial Corporation.- It was established in 1953 under Punjab Financial Corporation  Act, 1951 with a view to provide medium and long-term loans to industrial units located in the State. The Corporation also advances loans for the purchase of generating sets, expansion, diversification and modernization of existing industrial units in the State. In Rupnagar District the branch office of the corporation is located at S.A.S.Nagar (Mohali).

            The amount of loan sanctioned and disbursed by the Corporation in the Rupnagar District during the years 1992-93 to 1999- 2000 is given as under:

 ( Rs in lakhs)

                                                                                                                                                           Year

                Sanctions

        Disbursement

1992-93

568

378

1993-94

497

405

1994-95

487

497

1995-96

895

522

1996-97

   2

461

1997-98

540

218

1998-99

162

320

1999-2000

630

325

(Source: General Manager, Punjab Financial Corporation, Chandigarh)

            In line with the modification in interest rates on refinance by IDBI and SIDBI, the basic lending rate of corporation w.e.f 6 April 1999 are given below:

                                                                                                         (Per cent)

 

Gross Rate

Rebate

Effective Rate

Penal Interest

For SSI Units

 

 

 

 

Loans upto Rs 2 lakhs

13.5

-

13.5

4

Loans above Rs 2 lakhs

16

1

15

3

Loans Under TDMF and ISO 9000 Scheme

i) Up to Rs 2 lakhs

13

-

13

4

ii) Over Rs 2 lakhs

13

-

13

4

iii) Medium Scale Units

18

1

17

3

Note: These rates are exclusive of interest tax             

Role Of Industrial Co operatives. - The industrial cooperatives play an important role in the village and cottage industries in the district. The main aim of the industrial cooperative societies are to uplift the standard of living of their members (these are generally poor artisans) by supplying financial assistance, supply raw material, marketing of final goods, etc.

            The number and membership of the industrial cooperative societies alongwith value of goods produced in the Rupnagar District during 1999-2000 are given below:

Name of the Industry

Number of Industrial Co-operative Societies

Membership

Value of goods produced (Rs in lakhs)

Handloom Weaving

 

64

1,102

735

Khadi and Village Industries

104

1,333

1,413

 

Small Scale Industries 

148

1,861

5,720

Handicrafts

-

-

-

                        (Source: Deputy Registrar, Cooperative Societies, Rupnagar)

 

The  table given below shows the progress made by the industrial cooperative societies in the district during 1993-94 to 1999-2000:

Year

Number of Industrial Cooperative societies

Membership

Share Capital (Rs in lakhs)

Working Capital (Rs in lakhs)

Production  (Rs in lakhs)

Sales

(Rs in lakhs)

1993-94

349

4,563

1,022

5,320

     781

    781

1994-95

353

4,887

2,137

2,416

17,914

17,914

1995-96

354

4,595

2,030

2,305

12,520

12,520

1996-97

357

4,655

2,637

5,654

  4,787

  4,787

1997-98

364

4,206

2,904

6,064

 8,149

  8,149

1998-99

316

4,296

2,961

5,898

 7,868

  7,868

1999-2000

328

4,938

3,071

10,598

 8,298

  8,338

(Source: Deputy Registrar, Cooperative Societies, Rupnagar)

            The amount of loans and subsidies advanced by the Government to the industrial cooperatives  in  the   district during the years 1983-84, 1988-89 and 1993-94 to 1999-2000 is given below:
                                                                                                                              (Rs in lakhs)

Year

         Loans advanced

 

         Subsidies given

 

1983-84

-

-

1988-89

-

0.20

1993-94

2,142

-

1994-95

1,520

-

1995-96

1,230

-

1996-97

2,540

-

1997-98

4,511

-

1998-99

4,598

-

1999-2000

4,598

0.20

                                 (Source: Deputy Registrar, Cooperative Societies, Rupnagar)

           

Khadi and Village Industries.- To develop the  traditional village  industries and  to provide assistance for the development of industries in the rural area, the Punjab Khadi and  Village Industries Board has been established in the State. The  Board is providing loan under two schemes viz. Pattern Scheme and Project Based Scheme. Under the Pattern Scheme it provides loans up to Rs 1 lakh and under Project Based Scheme loan upto Rs 25 lakhs to set up industries in the rural areas. An individual can take loan upto Rs 10 lakhs and loans above Rs 10 lakhs are only given to institutions. Margin money subsidy @ 25 per cent is given on projects upto Rs 10 lakhs  and 10 per cent on remaining cost  of project exceeding Rs 10 lakhs.

            The details of important Khadi and Village Industries functioning in the Rupnagar District during 1999-2000 are given below:

Serial No.

Name of the industry

Number of units

Production (Rs in lakhs)

Sale

(Rs in lakhs)

Employ-ment

Earning (Rs in lakhs)

1

Processing of Cereals and Pulses

228

81.32

91.15

234

23.12

2

Village Oil

32

4.35

4.55

6

0.70

Serial No.

Name of the industry

Number of units

Production (Rs in lakhs)

Sale (Rs in lakhs)

Employ-ment

Earning (Rs in lakhs)

3

Leather

580

168.05

180.65

731

63.87

4

Gur and Khandsari

1,353

420. 60

456.50

2,486

97.43

5

Bee Keeping

80

5.15

5.60

60

2.04

6

Pottery

295

119.30

105.95

663

38.10

7

Fibre

1,581

352.70

365.25

2,646

118.50

8

Carpentry and Blacksmithy

581

471.15

503.35

1,370

108.15

9

Lime

83

53.90

56.00

108

11.35

10

Bamboo and Cane

392

70.40

74.85

586

19.55

11

Marketing

5

3.30

3.70

6

0.94

12

Service

43

-

7.05

29

3.04

13

Textile

46

-

7.15

22

3.85

14

Electronics

25

47.65

51.10

33

5.55

15

Handmade Paper

16

18.95

22.30

47

4.90

16

Match Industry

2

420.60

456.60

2,286

97.43

17

N.E.O Soap

28

6.50

5.40

7

1.00

18

F.P.I

6

-

-

-

-

19

P.V.C

6

-

-

-

-

(Source: Member Secretary, Punjab Khadi and Village Industries Board, Chandigarh)

            Trade Unions.- The details of trade unions registered under the Indian Trade Union Act,  1926, functioning in the field of industries in the Rupnagar District as on 31 March 2000 are given below:

Serial   No

Name of Trade Union

Date of Registration

1

Ajay Electrical Industry Workers Union, SAS Nagar Mohali

16.9.1982

2

Atul Fastners Employees Union, Mohali

6.2.1990

3

D.C.M Engineering Employees Union, Rupnagar

 

3.6.1978

4

Engineering Mazdoor Sangh, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

20.9.1979

5

Electronics System Punjab Employees Union, SAS Nagar,( Mohali)

22.5.1979

6

Gilard Electronic Workers Union, SAS  Nagar (Mohali)

10.8.1989

7

H.M.T Employees Union, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

19.3.1987

8

Ispat Mazdoor Sangh, SAS Nagar,( Mohali )

20.12.1988

9

J.C.T. Electronics Employees  Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

23.10.1989

10

Jai Parabolic Dalit Front Trade Employees Union, SAS Nagar,( Mohali)

19.4.1991

 

11

Kharar Woolen Mills Workers Union, Kharar

22.9.1987

12

K.C.L. Workers Union, Malikpur

14.5.1990

13

Milk Plant Workers Union ,SAS Nagar,

( Mohali)

25.4.1985

14

Morinda Sugar Mills Mazdoor Union, Rupnagar

12.4.1979

15

Morinda Sugar Mills Kirti Union, Rupnagar

17.3.1989

16

Morinda Shoddy Spinners Workers  Union, Morinda

25.4.1985

17

Mersy Tractor Workers  Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

3.11.1981

Sr. No

Name of Trade Union

Date of Registration

18

Mollin Workers Union, SAS Nagar,(Mohali)

30.4.1971

19

M.I.L. Employees Union, SAS Nagar,( Mohali)

4.9.1985

20

Mahavir Vanaspati Front Workers Union, Khanpur

4.4.1991

21

Nangal Fertilizer Mazdoor Kalayan Union, Naya Nangal

10.12.1979

22

Nangal Khad Factory Mazdoor Dal, Naya Nangal

9.4.1979

23

Nangal Fertilizers Workers Union, Naya Nangal

8.6.1959

24

Oil and Chemicals Workers Union, Kharar

22.3.1979

25

Punjab Fertilizer Workers Union, Naya Nangal

22.11.1983

26

Punjab Alkalies & Chemicals Workers Union, Naya Nangal

1.2.1984

27

Punjab Wireless System Employees Union, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

11.8.1981

28

Panipat Woollen & General Mazdoor Sabha, Kharar

11.6.1959

29

Punjab Prepressed Concrete Workers Union, S.A.S Nagar, (Mohali )

22.5.1979

31

Punjab Tractor Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

17.6.1964

32

Punjab Power Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

21.10.1986

33

F.C.L. Employees Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

27.2.1986

34

Punjab Anand Lamp Industry Employees Union, SAS Nagar , (Mohali)

18.11.1988

35

Punjab Display Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

13.6.1979

36

Punjab Digital Industry System workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali )

1981

37

P.K. Industry Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali )

7.5.1979

38

Punjab Anand Workers   Union, SAS Nagar , (Mohali)

22.3.1982

39

Punwac Readymade Garments Employees Union, SAS, Nagar, (Mohali)

14.10.1986

40

Raja Ram Corn Products Workers Union, SAS, Nagar, (Mohali)

5.1.1978

41

Ropar Press Mazdoor Union, Rupnagar

24.7.1989

42

Ropar Plastic Workers  Union , SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

1974

43

Ranbaxy Employees Union, Rupnagar

17.11.1976

44

Raja Ram Corn Products Workers Union, Mundikharar

22.4.1991

45

Sudha Pharmaceuticals Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

17.11.1977

46

Steel Strips Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

16.3.1988

47

Swaraj  Workers Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

10.8.1981

48

Semi Conductors Complex Employees Union, SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

23.3.1985

 

49

Shivalik Heat Exchanger   Workers Union, SAS Nagar,  (Mohali)

7.12.1981

50

Surya Joti Workers Union , Chanalon

7.2.1990

Sr. No

Name of Trade Union

Date of Registration

51

Sobti Plywood Workers Union, Chanalon

7.2.1990

52

The Employees Union, PNFC, Naya Nangal 

9.5.1986

53

Thermal Employees Union, Rupnagar

26.10.1989

54

Textile Mazdoor Ekta Union, Kharar

25.7.1983

55

The Employees Union,

PACL, Nangal Township

13.2.1988

56

United Fertilizers Employees Union, Naya Nagal

24.2.1972

57

Veepan Industry Workers Union ,SAS Nagar, (Mohali)

30.3.1982

58

Varana Wire Works  Union, Chanalon

 

59

Vanaspati Workers Union, Kharar

29.9.1989

60

National Fertilizers Employees Union, Nangal

2.8.1996

61

Punjab National Fertilizer and Chemicals Karamchari Sangh, Nangal

 

24.7.1995

62

Fertilizers Karamchari Sangh, Naya Nangal

17.1.1968

63

Punwire Employees Union, SAS Nagar (Mohali)

16.2.1993

64

F.C.L. Workers Union, Banna Majra (P.O.Kurali)

21.3.1998

65

Sugar Mill Workers Union,  Morinda

5.11.1997

66

Morinda Co- operative Sugar Mill Workers Union, Morinda

16.9.1994

67

Morinda Sehkari Khand Mill  Workers Union, Morinda

23.9.1993

68

Sehkari Khand Mill Workers Federation, Punjab, Morinda

13.6.1995

69

Khand Mill Mulazam Union, Morinda

7.10.1998

 

70

Raja Ram Corn Products Workers Union, Kharar

22.4.1991

71

Hath Khadi Kapra Workers Union, Rupnagar

6.9.1995

72

K.T.M Mill Mazdoor Sabha, Kharar

13.3.1995

73

Kharar Textile Mills Workers Union, Kharar

1979

74

Lal Jhanda Punjab Fibre Mazdoor Union ,Rail Majra

1988

75

J.C.T Fibres Trade Union Congress, V.P.O Chahal

24.2.1992

76

Punjab Fibre Kirti Union,Rail Majra

23.11.1987

77

United Paper Mazdoor Union, Asron

24.3.1986

78

United Pulp and Paper Mills Workers Union, Asron

11.6.1989

79

Zenith Paper Workers Union, Banna Majra

31.3.1984

80

Mohan Paper Moulding Mazdoor Union, Rail Majra

11.5.1989

81

Zenith Mazdoor Ekta

Union, Banna Majra

20.6.1988

 

 

82

Zenith Paper Employees Union, Banna Majra

20.2.1983

83

Projection Leather Punjab Limited Workers Union, Dhainpura

24.12.1992

 

84

S.F.L. Industries Limited Employees Association, Rupnagar

2.9.1994

 

85

Ranbaxy Workers Union, Toonsa

6.9.1988

Sr. No

Name of Trade Union

Date of Registration

86

Ranbaxy Workers Union, SAS Nagar , (Mohali)

9.4.1992

87

Chemical Mazdoor Union, Ranbaxy, Toonsa

26.2.1990

88

Josh Polymers Workers Union, Chanalon

3.4.1992

89

Allison Metro Workers Union, Chanalon

24.4.1995

90

Atul Fasteners Kirti Wire Workers Union, Balongi

25.8.1997

91

Unitex Workers Union, Chanalon

1.4.1992

92

Godrej G.E .Employees Union , SAS Nagar Mohali

7.12.1998

93

P.U.F. Mazdoor Union, Rail Majra

2.12.1988

94

Windsor Employees Union, Kurali

 

95

Amar Industrial Workers Union , SAS Nagar (Mohali)

15.3.1996

96

Punjab United Forging Workers Union, Rail Majra

17.12.1979

97

District Ropar Engineering Workers Union, SAS Nagar Mohali

10.4.1